Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "American architect and architecture"

See other formats








@) ADD 




Hartford Hotel, 

>.'H, 181 
-, 182 

'4, 119, 144, 167, 

Building, 160 
fflce of. 145 

ecture in, 97 

w, 18, 234 

Engravings, 46 

e System, 229 
. The, 176 
. The, 217 
ch Case. The, 

ment of the, 2, 
.oposed, 218 

niou. Decision 

of the Milan 

>1 of the, 50 

aving, 192 
ain for, 227 
.ildings, 277 
ing Strength of, 133 
jscence on, 1H6, 179 
. I Weather. Laying, 1 
Proposed, 236 

'Ound. Submarine, 

uube. Proposed, 'J8D 
e. Coal, 240 
Odin's, 28, 44, 65, 66, 

American Archi- 


-hall Competition, 

ilpts, 12 

y '1'ower for the 

," 157 

nt to the Duke 

In Virginia, 2X0 
ipetition in, 290 

of National As- 
5, 98, 107 
!, 51, 63, 87, 111, 
231, 267, 291 

diligent, 226 
of Certain Coni- 
auses in, 167 
ual Payment 
in, 70, 131 

*osed " Standard 
,. for, 92, 107, 131, 



r o ', 

/ y . ,.A O*. 
I/- 3 ' 

S. .1. I'AKKHILI, & CO. Prijltei'3 

Boston Mass. 


'^.' .3!- 1 m.;jj.i. r 


:;' ,"',",'w';'i.-H ... >j.<f'iuH'ii 

V'V -- B^..A AMJ.Y -I ." 'l';i 

i'rfrf":-H i ,jael,oloooljii;8t/VrfV'.*,cjb.^ ,-<."'*'** '" jnlqoipy ll 

- 3'>TMirrn j 

T7 .A .toldgia^ ,M.i 08 Kj',1: n 

no?ii*H It. 41) jarwIM '.A ..-j.')M9ai/ " 

U\t ,Wi>S. A .1,:* JK ,, 

i : 
fn,;ofl ! 
w," ,'.-: I -^ 



Accident Insurance, 218 
Blowing up of a Hartford Hotel, 85, 

Fall of an Elevator at Providence, R. 

I., 230 

" " Floors in United Bank Build- 
ing, New York, 85 

" " " " the Owings Build- 
ing, Chicago, 85, 
134 137 
Acoustic Properties of the Vienna 

Court Theatre. Bad, 266 
Acropolis. The Athens, 84 
Affiliation of Student Architectural 

Societies. The, 14 
" Age of Brass." Rodin's, 27, 45, 5, 99, 

112, 249, 263, 283 
A. I. A. The New. 253 

" and the Western Association 
of Architects. The, 47, 235, 
" Chicago Chapter, 10 

Philadelphia Chapter, 94 
" Washington Chapter, 94 
Air-ship. 1 he I>e Bausset, 146 
Alaska. The Forests of, 264 
Albany Assembly Chamber Vault. 

The, 37,86, 07, 134, 169 

Capitol: Cost of the, 49 

" " Reported Settlement 

of the, 179 

" " Reporting on the, 49 

Allison, Builder. Death of Walter, 169 
Alternating and Continuous Electric 

Currents, 13 
American Architect Broken Volumes, 


-'* Travelling-schol- 

arship. The, 24, 
206, 241 
" Architecture. A Foreigner's 

Views of, 242, 243 

" Fine Arts Society. Incorpo- 
ration of, 301 

" American Mansions." Pfeift'er's, 227 
Americas. Proposed Exhibition by the 

Three, 265 
Ancient Art. The Lotus in, 66, 115, 

148, 200, 225, 308 

Authemion aud Lotus in Art, 308 
Apartment-house Fire. An, 79 
Apartment-houses in Washington, 294 
Applied Mechanics. International 

Congress of, 163 

Aqueduct. The Washington, 146, 169 
Arch In New York City. Centennial, 


" of Aurelius at Tripoli. The, 1KO 
" I irigin of the, 141 
Archaeological Camping in Arizona, 8, 

15, 32, 43 

Ancient Tombs at Naples, 276 
Arch of Aurelius at Tripoli, 180 
Babylonian Expedition. The, 267 
Camping in Arizona, 8, 15, 32, 43 
Casa Urande. Ruin of, 15, 192 
dirt Dwellings in Morocco, 118 
Egypt. Explorations in, 276 
Hawara Pyramid. Opening the, 82, 


Lotus in Ancient Art. The, 06, 115, 
148, 200, 225 


Phillippe Pot. The Tomb of, 27S 

Ruins at Paleuque, Mexico, 95 

Sepulchre of Ameneinhat III, 185 

Susa. Discoveries at, 22 

Boston City, 145 

Charges against the Supervising, 1, 
37, 109 

of the Milan Cathedral Parade. The, 

Responsibility of an, 61, 143, 170 

Supervising. 1 he New, 145, 233 

Suit for Extra Services, 217 

Convention of Western New York 
Association of, 73 

Frauds on, 159 

Grievances of, 159 

and Heat Contractors, 62 

Internal ional Congress ot, 98, 158 

a Lien? Have, 104 

in Texas. Examination of, 205, 231 

" " Licensing, 251 

New Tariff of Swiss, 110 

On-ario Asociation of, 137, 188, 235 

Responsibility of, 61, 143, 170 

Texas State Association of, 251 

Western Association of, 10, 235, 253 

Designs. Compensation for, 105 

Club of St. Louis, 215 

Extras and Municipalities, 205 

Guaranteeing the Cost of Buildings, 

Protective Associations, 159 

Schedule of Charges, 254 

Adjuncts. Equestrian Monuments as, 

39, 171 

Association. The English, 138 
Associations in Canada, 189 

" Consolidation of, 37, 47, 

Club. Boston, 94, 119, 144, 167, 227, 


Drawing. Books on, 108 
Education at Columbia College, 11, 


Evolution, 141 
Fellowship for Columbia College. 

An, 265 

Guild. Toronto, 35, 81, 137, 189 
Instruction at the Chicago Art Insti- 
tute, 79 

League Exhibition. The, 17, 29 
Library of the N. Y. Y. M. (J. A., 119 
Shades and Shadows, 88, 125, 175 
Societies. The Affiliation of Student, 

Style, 248 

Canadian School of, 35 
Color in Grecian, 29, 71, 94, 159 
Combustible. 11, 54, 59 
Foreigner's Views of American. A, 

242, 243 
in Boston. Cost of Official, 97 

" New York, 80 

" Philadelphia, 233 
Style in, 248 

Arena at Verona. The, 247 

Arizona. Archieolngieal Camping in, 

8, 15, 32, 43 

Arsenic in wall-paper. Test for, 182 
Arsenical Poisoning, 206 
Art Associations in Canada, 29*! 
" Exhibitions in London, 140, 255 

" " New York, 136 

" Institute. The Chicago, 79 
" League, New York. National Free, 

" Lotus in Ancient, 66, 113, 148, 200, 

225, 308 

" ill the Modern State, 239 
" Rodin's Ideas on, 261 
" Romanticism in, 257 
" Tariff on Works of, !>7 
Artaxerxes. The Palace of , 22 
" Artistic Japan," 274 
Asphalt Pavements, 277. 2'J5 
Association of Architects. Proposed 
Ontario Provincial, 

" " Master Builders. Con- 

vention of National, 
85, 98, 107 
Associations. T h e Consolidation of 

Architectural, ."7, 47, 235, 253 
Athens. The Acropolis at, 84 
Athletic Club's Building. Boston, 160 
Augusta, Me., State-house. The. 17s 
Autumn Journeys in Mexico, 282, 305 
Awning-hinges, 5 

Babylonian Expedition. The, 276 
Balloons in Warfare, 146 

Building in, 186 

City Officials D is regard Private 
Rights. How, 186 

Court-house Building. Proposed 
Alterations in the, 186 

Letters from, 186, 236 

Wai ers Art Collection. The, 236 
Banking-room. A Huge, 233 
Hanqnet to trench Prize-uien. A, US 
Barye's Bas relief of Napoleon, 173 
" Lion on the Bastille Column, 


Basque Border-land. In the, 258 
Bastieii-Lepage. Rodin's Statue of, 199 
Bath-house. A German Public, 26 
Baths of Ancient Rome. Hot, 118 
Battles. Mediaeval, 207 
Belgian Palace of Justice. Cost of, 49 
" Theatre. Competition for a, 25 
Bell Hardware, 292 
Bellite Experiments, 168 
Berlin Real Kstate, 98 

'* The Techuische Hoehschule of, 


" Biblicou " Tower Swindle. The, 157 
Black Pigment. A New, 170 
Blake. Resolutions of Respect to the 

late H. M., 119 
Blind-fasts, 3 

Blomfleld, knighted. A. W., 302 
Blowing up of a Hartford Hotel, 85, 

Blue Pigment. A New, 170 

" Printing. A new Device for, 26 
Board of Trade Building. Toronto, 81, 

95, 236 

Boiler Explosion in a Hartford Hotel, 

85, 134 

" Explosions, 85, 134, 191 
" Tubes. Flanged, 182 
Books, 71, 215 
Architectural Club, 94, 119, 144, 167, 

227, 300 

Athletic Association's Building, 160 
City Architect. The Office of. 145 
Cost of Official Architecture in, 97 
Court-house. The New, 18, 234 
Exhibition of Diirer's Engravings, 46 
Letter from, 234 

Metropolitan Sewerage System, 229 
Museum of Fine Arts. The, 176 
Public Library Floors. The, 217 
Spiritual Temple Porch Case. The, 

State-house. Enlargement of the, 2, 

8, 13, 18, 25, 31, 61, 193, 234 
Trade Schools for. Proposed, 218 
B mlder-walls, 144 
Boycotting a Trade Union. Decision 

against a, 50 
Brackets, 207, 291 
Brentano, Architect of the Milan 

Cathedral Facade, 122 
Bressa Prize. Award of the, 50 
Brick Foundations, 60 

" for a Street Paving, 192 
" Walls. A Stain for, 227 
" veneered Buildings, 277 
Brickwork. Crushing Strength of, 133 
Efflorescence on, 156, 179 
in Cold Weather. Laying, 1 
Bridge at Quebec. Proposed, 236 
" St. Louis, 48 
" under the Sound. Submarine, 


Bridges over the Danube. Proposed, 289 
Briquettes in France. Coal, 240 
" Broken Nose." Rodin's, 28, 44, 65, 66, 

99, 113,249,263 

Broken Volumes of American Archi- 
tect, 253 
Bronze Castings, 156 

" Malleable, 312 
Brockton, Mass. City-hall Competition, 

Brooklyn Bridge Receipts, 12 

" N. Y. Lofty Tower for the 

Brunswick. Monument to the Duke 

of, 298 

Bruton Parish Church In Virginia, 280 
Buenos Ayres. A Competition in, 290 
Builders. Convention of National As- 
sociation of Master, 85, 98, 107 
Builders' Hardware, 3, 51, 63, 87, 111, 

123, 147, 183, 196, 219, 231, 267, 291 
in Baltimore, 186 
Committee. The Intelligent, 226 
Contracts. Futility of Certain Com- 
mon Clauses in, 167 
T h e Final Payment 

Clause in, 70, 131 

" The Proposed Standard 

Form" for, 92, 107, 131, 

Laws. French, 26 
Paper, 251, 258 

" Still-wax for, 258 

The American Architect and Building News. Index. 



Safe, 285 

Speculation in Borne, 278 
Burning of Rome. The, 84 

Calais Monument. Rodin's, 198 
Cambridge, Mass. New Buildings 

Campanile. History of the Florence 

Canada. Letters from, 35, 81, 137, 188 

235, 295 

Canadian Art Associations, 296 
" Competitions, 31 
" Engineering Projects, 35 
" Royal Academy. The, 296 
" School of Architecture, 35 
Canal. The Corinth, 202 

" The Nicaragua, 206, 273 
" The Panama, 132, 206 
" The Suez, 276 
Canal-boat Elevator. A, 206 
Candles. A rsenic in Colored, 206 
Capitals of Italy. Among the, 163 
Capitol. Cost of the United States, 49 
Carbon-soda Stove. The, 278 
Carpentry and Joinery. Chapters fron 

the History of, 128 
Carving. Stone, 121, 233 

" Wood, 130 
Casa Grande. Kuin of, 192 
Castings from Bronze, 156 
Cat Stories. Some, 194 
Catalogues. A New Thing in, 192 
Cathedral. New York Episcopal, 121 
181. 239, 241, 2S3, 275,296 
" Peklu, The New, 72 

" Verona. The, 248 

Ceiling of the Albany Assembly-Cham 

her Vault. The, 37, 86, 97, 134, 16'J 
Cellars. Water-tight, 179, 215 
Cements and Mortars, 177 
Centennial Arch in New York City, 

230, 238 

Century of British Art. A, 140 
Charge?. Architect's Schedule of, 254 
" of Swiss Architects, 110 


Art Institute. Exhibitions at the. 7!) 
Fall of Floors in the Owings Build- 
ing, 85. 134, 137 
Fires in. 79 

Letters from, 79, 137, 235, 29.'! 
Umce-buildings in. High, 29:1 
Opera-bou?e. Burning of the, 79 
Standard Club-house. The, 137 
Tacoma Building. The, -'94 
Chimney Construction. Factory, 132 
" Flues. Action of Creosote <>n, 


Chimneys, 214 

Christ Church, Bruton Parish, Va.. 280 
Church burned. An Old Norwegian, 16 
" of Guaiialupe, Mexico. '! he, 60 
" moved by a Tree- root, 40 
Churches. Montreal , 35 
City Architect of Boston. The, 145 
" hall Competition. Brockton, 

Mass.. 301 

Clerk-of-works Question. The, 157, 254 
Cliff-dwellings in Morocco, 118 
"Close Call." A, 60 
Closet-fittings. 267 
Coal Briquettes in France, 240 
Coffee. Artificial, 278 
Cold Weather. Laying Masonry in, 1 
Colleoni, Statues of, 269 
Colonial Work of Virginia and Mary- 
land. Old, 279, 303 
Colony Days in Virginia. Old, 281 
Color in Greek. Architecture. The 

Use of, 29,71, 94, 159 
" in Nature and Art, 142 
Colors. New, 170 

Columbia College. Architectural Edu- 
cation at, 1 1 , 95 

" " Architectural Fel- 

lowship for, 265 

" " New School of Elec- 

t rlcal Engineer- 
ing at, 38 
Columbus Architectural Sketch-Club, 


Combustible Architecture, 11, 54, 59 
Commissions. Illegal, f& 
Compensation. Suit for Extra, 235 
Competition. Idea. An, 266 

" New Condition of, 98 

Brockton, Mass. City Mall, 301 
Canton, O. School-house, 1"5 
Decorating the Hotel de Ville, Paris, 


Enlargement of the State-house, Bos- 
ton, 2, 8, 13, 18, 25, 31, 61, 193, 234 
Laving out St. Petersburg, 302 
Milan Cathedral. Winner of the, 

New York Episcopal Cathedral, 121, 

181. 23!), 241. 253. 275, 296 
Competitions in tfueuos Ayres, 290 

in Canada, 81, 235 
" Foreign and American 

Methods in, 133 
" Humorous Side of, 81 

Swindling, 159 
Belgian Theatre, 25 
Business Block in Montreal, 189 
Grant Monument, 25 
Lowell City-hall, LSI 
Maine State-house. The, 178 
Ontario Parliament-House, 81 
School-house, 47, 105, 145 
Toronto Board of Trade, 81, 95 

Compressed Air System. The Popp, 11 
Concord Granite. Pointing for, 263 
Concrete-filled Walls, 188 

" Work. Cost of, 69 
Cmdottieri. The, 190, 207, 269 
Congress of Applied Mechanics. Inter 

national, 163 
" " Architects. Internationa 

Consolidation of Architectural Associa 

tions. The, 37, 47, 235, 253 
Conspiracy. A Question of, 157 
Construction. Slow-burning, 11, 54, 5 
Continuous Electric Currents. Alter 

nating and, 13 

Contract. Failure to fulfil a Paving, 21 
" Form of Notice to Terminate 

Contract. A Question of, 299 

" The Uniform Building, 92 

107, 131, 155 
Contracts. Futility of Certain Con 
111011 Clauses in Building 
" Final Payment Clause in 

Building, 70, 131 
Contracts. Proposed "Standar 

Form" for Building, 92, 107, 131, 15f 
Convention of National Association o 
Master-Builders, 85, ?8 

" Western New York As 
sociation of A r c h i 
tects, 73 

Cooperative Building in Prussia, 74 
Jopper, 230 

Corinth Canal. The, 202 
~!orot and Others in London. Pictures 

by, 257 

Corrections, 11,83 
Cost of Official Architecture in Boston 

I he, 97 

" Various Public Buildings, 40 
Uourt-house designed by Wren. A Vir 

ginian, 279 

" The New Boston, 18, 234 

" The Toronto, 295 

Court-martial on Major Lydecker. The, 
146, 169, 229 
remation in Paris, 180 
Creosote on Chimney Flues. Action 

of, 276 
Crushing Strength of Brickwork. The, 


Customs-duties in France. 64 
Jypriote Art, 67, 68, 69, 116, 117 

)anger from Alternating and Continu- 
ous Currents, 13 

)avid and Napoleon 1 . The Painter, 230 

)ead. Dessicatirg the, 278 

)eaths on the Forth Bridge, 252 

designs for Public Buildings. The 
European Method of Procuring, 133 

Jessicating the Dead, 278 

Detroit Architectural Sketch-Club. 239 

Jieulafoy's Discoveries at Supa, 22 

Mscoums. List Prices and Trade, 169 

)onatello, 165, 272 

>oor for the Museum of Decorative 
Art. Kodin's, 101, 199, 223, 249 

)oor-hnnger. The Prescott, 168 

)oor-knobs, 219, 231 

)oors, 193 

" Old Monastery, 156 
irainage, 245, 255 

)rains in London. Bad, 192 

)raughtsmeu. The Government Ex- 
amination for, 3 

)rawing. Books on Architectural, 108 
" in Kansas City. School of, 

rawings. Blue-printing Large, 26 

by Rodin, 260 

" New Method of Reproduc- 

ing, 26 
The Ownership of, 168 

)ry-dock at Newport News, Va. The, 
Tying up. Western Lakes, 275 

>uel. An Electrical, 13 
iirer's Engravings. Exhibition of, 46 
nty paid on a Pharaoh. 64 

:arthquake-proof Houses, 170 
arthquakes, 90, 135, 179 
Earthworks. Cost of Miscellaneous, 69 
ducation in Berlin. Technical, 211, 290 
(florescence on Brickwork, 156, 179 
gg-and-dart Moulding. The, 225 
gypt Exploration Fund. The, 276 
gyptian Encaustic Proces. The, 288 
iffel Tower. Painting the, 170 

" Preparing for a Settling 

of the, 95 
" Royalties on Sale of 

Views of the, 182 
" Vertically of th, 182 
lastic Sandstone, 204 

Currents. Dispute as to the Com- 
parative Dangerougness of Alter- 
nating and Continuous, 13 
Heating. Domestic, 251 
Indicator for Lightning rods, 312 
Light. A Travelling, 86 
Lighting, 12 

Railway. A Private, 290 
lectrical Engineering at Columbia Col- 
lege. New School of, 38 
" Treatment of Sewage, 213 

Electricity. Execution by, 289 
" Pel ling Trees by, 95 

" Heating by, 251 

Elevator Accident at Providence, R. I., 


" A Canal-boat, 206 
Emancipation Monument. An, 144 
Encaustic Process. The Old Egyptian, 

Engine Foundations, 48 

7l In the World. The Largest, 2iK> 
Aqueduct. The Washington, 146, 169 


Bridge at Quebec. Proposed, 236 
" The St. Louis, 48 
" under the Sound. Submarine 

Bridges over the Danube. Proposed 

Canal. The Corinth, 202 

" The Nicaragua, 206, 273 
Canal. The Panama, 132, 206 

, " The Suez, 276 
Dry-dock at Newport News. Va., 216 
Elevator. A Canal-boat, 206 
Embankment Proposed at Montreal 


Flume. The San Diego, 287 
Matters in Canada, 35, 137 
Railway. A South American Trans 

Continental, 266 
" The Trans-Asian 205 
Ship-railway in Canada, 189 
Tunnel. The Hudson River, 242 

" The St. Clair, 236 
Tunnelling the North and Eas 

Rivers, New York, 120 
Underground Railway for Paris, 228 
Work. Cost of Executing some 

Classes of, 69 
Kngineeis' Club of Philadelphia, 177 

Society of Western Pennsyl 

vania, 83, 105, 177, 27S 
Kngravings. Exhibition of Diirer's, 46 
[Enlarging the Maine State-house, 178 
Episcopal Cathedral, New York, 121 

181, 239, 241, 253, 275, 2% 
Equestrian Monuments, 39, 171 190 

207, 209, 297 
Estimates for the Paris Exposition 

Buildings, 110 
Eucalyptus-tree Roots, 46 
Evolution. Architectural, 141 
Examination of Architects in Texas 

205, 261 
Excavating Streets in Frosty Weather 

Excursion to the Paris Exposition. A 

Workingmen's, 241 
Execution by Electricity, 289 
Exhaust Steam. Healing by, 24 

at Philadelphia. An Industrial Art 

by the Three Americas. Proposed, 

of the Architectural League. The, 

of Diirer's Engravings, 46 
Floating, 228 
in New York. Art, 136 
Industrial Art, 238 
International, 139 
Explanation. A Personal, 106 
^xposition Buildings. Estimates for 

the Paris, 110 
Power at the Paris 122 
Visits to the, 306 
xtinguisbing Fire by Steam, 242 
Extra Services. Architect's Suit for 


xtras and Municipalities. An Archi- 
tect's, 205 

'actory Chimney Construction. 132 

Mutual Insurance Companies. 

Report of the, 110 

'all of Floors in the Owiugs Building 
Chicago, 85, 134, 137 
" United Bank Build- 
ing, New York, 85 
'amily Pews, 188 

r ans as Sanitary Agents in China, 312 
'ees on Party-walls, 119 
"elllng Trees by Electricity. 98 
fellowship for Columbia College An 
Architectural, 265 
fertilization by Sewage, 266 
"evers. Malarial, 245, 255 
'ine Arti Commission. A New French 


Society, New York. Incorpo- 
ration of the American, 301 
Ire in the Quirinal Palace, Rome, 38 
" on the Hearth Stove. The, 71 

" Shipboard xtinguithed with 

Steam, 242 

'iremen. A Hint for, 229 
^reproof Theatre. A, 79 
~ireproofing Wood, 312 
Report of Factory Mutual Insurance 

Companies on, 110 
in Chicago, 79 
Theatre, 1 
ixtures, 83 

lexible Foundations, GO 
loating Inhibitions, 228 
loors. Hospital and Barrack, 205 
lorence Campanile. History of the, 194 

" Vandalism in, 120 
lume. The San Diego, 287 

Foreign Views of American Architec- 
ture, 242, 243 
Foresti of Alaska. The, 264 

" " Guateraela. The, 263 
Forth Bridge. Deaths on the, 252 
Foundations. Brick, 60 
" Engint, 48 

" Flexible. 60 

Francis I. Monument to, 298 
Frauds on Architects, 159 
Free Art League, New York. National, 

Freezing Process in Building, 240 

" Weather. Laying Masonry In, 1 
Fremlet's Joan of Arc, 242 
French Architects. Woes of, 159 
" Building Laws. 26 
" Paintings Exhibited in London, 


Frost-proof Mortar, 1 
Fungus under Floors. Mould and, 205 
Furnished Houses. Liability of Land- 
lords of, 228 

Galliera. The Dnchesse de, 24 
Galliera's Revenge. The Ducketse de, 48 
Gamier on Sign-boards. Charles, 241 
Garnier's History of Habitations at the 

Paris Exposition. Charles, 241 
Gas-fitter. A Dishonest, 47, 59 
" Piping a House for, 47, 59 
" rates in England, 50 
" stoves Harmless? Are, 158 
Gate. One Way to get a, 274 
Gate-hardware, 292 
Gattamelata Statue of, 271 
German Methods in Competition, 133 
" View of American Architec- 
ture. A, 243 
Giotto's Work on the Campanile, 194 
Glazing with Old Negatives, 182 
Government Examination for Draughts- 
men. The. 83 
Gradlon. King, 40 
Grain. The Flow of, 144 
Granite. Pointing for Concord, 263 
Grant Monument Competition. The, 25 
Greek Architecture. The Use of Color 

in, 29, 71, 94, 159 

Guadalupe, Mexico. The Church of, 60 
Guaranteeing the Cost of Buildings. 

Architects, 98 

Guaranty given by Makers of Heating- 
appliances, 62 

Guatemala. The Forests of, 263 
Gutters, 102 

Gymnasium. A New Bnston, 160 
Gymnasiums. Swiss School, 254 

Habitations at the Paris Exposition. 

A History of. 241 
Half-timbered Work, 128 
Hall, Author. Death of S. C., 181 

" New Staircase in Westminster, 302 
Hammer-beam Roofs, 128 
Hapsburgs. New Tomb for the, 48 
Hardware. Builders', 3, 51, 63, 87, 111, 

123, 147, 183, 195, 219, 231, 267, 291 
' Harlequin Gorgeousness " of Greek 

Architecture. The, 29, 71, 94 
Hartford Hotel. Blowing up of a, 85 
Harvard College Buildings, 234 
Hathorne, Architect. Death of George, 

Hawara Pyramid. Opening of the, 82, 


Sawkwood. Sir John, 190 
law Pond's Comings and Goings, 288 
leat-contractors aiid Architects, 62 
Heating Buildings by Exhaust Steam, 


" Domestic Electric, 251 
' and Ventilating the new 
Court-house at Boston, Is, 
leight of Buildings. Restricting the, 

lemenway. Camp, 8, 15, 32 
Hemlock and Rats, 242, 263 
rlip-rafter. To Cut a, 106 
Historic Inundations, 312 
History of Art," 92 

' " Habitations at the Paris 

Exposition. A, 241 
Homes. Prof. Norton on Old, 233 
Hooks, 268, 291 
Horse. Donatello's Model of a, 272 

In Sculpture. The, 39, 171, 190, 

207, 269, 297 
Horses of Italian Statues. The, 272, 

Hose-holes in Fireproof Shutters, 86 

" ports In Party-walls, 36 
Hospital and Barrack Floors, 205 

" at Montreal. Royal Victoria, 


lot Baths of Ancient Rome. 118 
Hot Water in China, 312 
Hotels in Washington, 295 
louse in New York. A Narrow, 132 
1 udson River Tunnel. The, 242 
iugo. Rodin's Bust of, 113 
[timorous Side of Competitions, HI 
Hygiene. Prize for a Text-book on, 218 

ce-castle. Montreal, 35 
dea-competition. An, 266 
llegal Commissions, 82 
llinois State Association of Architects, 

Iliterates. The Number of, 31 
Hustons. Theatrical, 26">, 290 
mportation of Labor, 121 

JAN. -JUNE, 1889.] The American Architect and Building News. Index. 

Incorporation of the American Fine 

Arts Society, 301 
India-rubber Pavement, 252 
Indian Government offers a Prize for a 

Text-book on Hyginne. The. 218 
Indicator for Lightning-rods. Electric, 

Industrial Art Exhibition at Philadel- 

delphia. An, 254 

International Congress of Applied Me- 
ch an i cs, 

" " " Architects 

at Paris. 
An, 89, 158 

" Exhibitions, 139 

" Skilled Laborers, 121 

Inundations. Historic. 312 
Ionic Capital. The, 66. 115 
Iowa Soldiers' Monument. The, 251 
Iron and Steel. Nature and Uses of, 

" Columns In a Railroad Station. 

Patched, 205 

" smelting. Silica In, 288 
" vs. Steel, 289 
Italian Capitals, 163 

" Cities Verona, 203. 247 
" School-buildings, 264 
" Statues. The Horses of, 272, 

"Japan." " Artistic," 274 

Jon of Arc. Fremiet'i Statue of, 242 

Joinery. Chapters from the History of 

Carpentry and, 128 
Journeys. Mexican Autumn, 282, 306 

Kansas City. School of Drawing, 193 

Labor. Importation of, 121 

Troubles, 50, 121 
Lakes Drying-up. Western, 275 
Landlord vs. Tenant, 239 
Landlords of Furnished Houses. Lia- 
bility of, 228 
Langlais, Architect. The late Felix, 


Lead. An Empirical Test for, 287 
League Exhibition. The Architectural , 

League, New York. National Free Art, 


Leaks in roofs, 103 
Leaning Tower of Pisa as a Lottery 

Prize. The. 242 
Accident Insurance Policy. Failure 

to recover on an, 218 
Boycotting Trade Union. Decision 

against a, 50 
Compensation for Designs, 105 

" Suit for Extra, 217, 235 

Conspiracy. A Question of, 157 
Contract. A Question of, 217 299 

" Form of Notice to ter- 
minate, 105 

Contracts. Futility of Certain Coni- 
" mon Clauses in Build- 

ing, 167 

" The Final Payment 

Clause in Building, 70, 

" The Proposed " Standard 

Form " for Building, 92, 
107, 131. 155 
Extras and Municipalities, 205 
Fees on Party-walls, 119 
French Building-laws, 26 
Heating-apparatus. A Question about 

an Unsatisfactory Guaranteed, 62 
Illegal Commissions, 82 
Liability of Landlords, 228 
Lien? Have Architects a, 104 
Lien Law In Rhode Island. 1'he New, 

73, 101 

" " Lumbermen's, 45. 101, 131 
Liens. Time for Filing Mechanics, 

104, 105, 131 
" Notice " to an Architect was not 

Binding. A Case where, 109 
Owner's Kight to give Orders. An,311 
Ownership of Drawings. The, 16< 
Payment for Unexecuted Plans, 155, 

Porch Case. The Spiritual Temple, 


Recovery for Scamped Work, 47 
Responsibility of an Architect. Suit 

to settle the, 61, 143, 170 
"Satisfactory to Owner." Meaning 

of, 311 
Suit for Damage by Overhead Wires, 

" " Extra Services. Architect's, 

217, 235 
Leopardi, 269 

Letters from Baltimore, 186, 236 
' " " Boston, 234 
" " Canada, 35, 81, 188, '.'35, 29!i 
" " Chicago, 79, 137, 235, 293 

" " London, 138, 1411. 1*7 

" New York, 80, 136, 238, 296 
" " Paris, 139 
" " Philadelphia, 231 

" Washington, 34, 294 
Liability of Landlords of Furnished 

Houses, 228 
Libby Prison, 80, 235 
Library Floors. Spanish Tile Vault for 

the Boston Public. 217 
" of the New York Y. M. C. A. 
Architectural, 119 



ve Architects a, 104 

Lien Law in Rhode Island. The New, 
73, 101 

" " Lumbermen's Demand for a 

New, 45, 101, 131 
Liens. Time for Filing Mechanics, 104, 

105, 131 

I.iernur Sewerage System. The, 5C 
Lighting by Electricity, 12 
Lightning-rods. Electric Indicator for, 


List Prices and Trade Discounts, 169 
Locks, 51, 63, 87, 111, 123, 147, 183, 195 
Locomotives. Soda, 252 

Architectural Association. The, 138 

"Century of British Art" at the 
Grosvtnor Gallery, 1411 

Drains in. Bad, 192 

Examinations. R. I. B. A., 188 

Exhibitions. Art, 140. 255 

French Paintings exhibited in, 257 

Letters from, 138, 140, 187 

Metropolitan Board of Works Scan- 
dals. The, 187 

Monument. The, 139 

Prize-men of the K. I. B. A., 138 

Spanish Exhibition. The, 50 

St. Mary-le-Strand, 188 

Water-colors at the National Gallery, 

Water-supply of, 55 

Westminster Abbey, 188 
Lot. An Unusable, 14 
Lottery Prize. The Leaning Tower of 

Pisa as a, 242 
Lotus in Ancient Art. The, 66, 115, 148, 

200, 225, 308 

Lowell City hall Competition, 181 
Lumbermen's Demand for a New Lien 

Law. The, 45, 101, 131 

Machinery. Theatrical, 290 

Maine Capitol. Enlargement of the, 178 

Malaria, 244, 255 

Malatestas. The, 190, 209 

Malleable Bronze, 312 

Manor-houses, 129 

" in Virginia. Old, 281 

Marble Statuary. Preserving, 230 
Marquand to the Metropolitan Museum. 

Pictures given by Mr., 78 
Maryland. Old Colonial Work of Vir- 
ginia and. 279, 303 
Masonry. Cost of, 70 

in Cold Weather. Laying, 1 
Massachusetts State Board of Health. 

The, 229 

" State-house Extension, 

2, 8, 13. 18, 25, 31, 61, 
193. 234 
Mechanics. International Congress of 

Applied, 163 
Mediasval Battles, 207 
Metropolitan Board of Works Scandals. 

The, 187 
" Museum of Art. The, 77, 

108, 12T 
" Sewerage System. The, 

Mexico. Autumn Journeys in, 282, 


Michael Angelo. Rodin on, 65 
Milan Cathedral Facade. The Archi- 
tect of the, 122 
Mllls's Unpaid Services to the State of 

Massachusetts. Mr. H. F., 229 
Missouri State Association of Archi- 
tects, 94 

Model Town. A, 168 
Montreal Churches, 35 

" Ice-Castle. The, 35 

" Proposed Embankment at, 137 

" Royal Victoria Hospital at, 

189, 236 
Monument. An Emancipation, 144 

London, l.j., 
, (ui to the Dukeot Brunswick, 


Jit; ' " Francis I, 299 
! if.I , " Otho I, 298 
Monuments. Designing Public. 133 

Equestrian, 39, 171, 190, 

207, 269, 297 
Morocco. Cliff Dwellings In, 118 
Mortar. Frost-proof, 1 
" Sugar in, 174 
Mortars and Cements. 177 
Mottos, 131 

Mould and Fungus under Floors, 2nr> 
Municipalities and Extras, 205 
Museum of Decorative Art. Rodin's 
Door for the, 101, 199, 
223, 249 

" " Fine Arts, Boston, 176 

Music-hall for New York. Proposed, 


Mutual Insurance Companies. Rti(K>rt 
of the Factory, 110 

Mails. A Keg of, 211 
Naples. Ancient Tombs at, 276 
Napoleon I. The Painter David and, 230 
Narrow House in New York. A. i: 1 .'.! 

" Lots. Ways of Using, 14 
National Exhibits at the Paris Exposi- 
tion, 158 
1 Free Art League. New York, 


" Gallery. Water colors at the, 

Negative,. Glazing with Old, 182 

Nero's Burning of Rome, 84 
New Law Department. Our, 49, 58 
American Fine Arts Society. Incor- 

poration of the, 301 
Architectural League Exhibition, 17, 


Architecture in, 80 
Art Exhibitions in. 136 
Brooklyn Bridge Receipts, 12 
Centennial Arch in Washington Sq., 

230, 238 

Columbia College. An Architectural 
Fellowship for, 

" Architectural Ed- 

ucational, 11,95 

" School of Electri- 

cal Engineering 

at, 38 

Episcopal Cathedral Competition. 

The, 121, 181, 239, 241, 253, 275, 296 
Fall of Floors in the United Bank 

Building, 85 

Letters from. 80, 136, 238, 296 
Library of the Y. M. C. A. Archi- 

tectural, 119 
Metropolitan Museum of Art. The, 

77, 108, 127 

Music-ball. Proposed, 145 
Narrow House. A, 132 
National Free Art League, 301 
Pavements, 277 
Retirement of Mr. d'Oench, Chief In- 

spector of Buildings, 169 
Sketch Club, 227 
Sunday Opening at the Metropolitan 

Museum. No, 127 
Tiffany Exhibit for the Paris Exposi- 

tion. The, 238 
Tunnelling the North and East Rivers, 

Willard Architectural Collection, 81, 


Niagara. The Recession of, 264 
Nicaragua Canal. The, 206, 273 
Nortou on Old Homes. Prof., 233 
Norway. Burning of an Old Church 

in. 16 

Notice to an Architect was 
Binding. A Case where, 109 



Allison. Walter, Builder, 169 

Hall. S. C., Author, 181 

Hathorne. George, Architect, 38 

Philbrick. Edward S., Engineer, 85 
Office-buildings. High, 293 

" in Washington, 34 

Official Architecture in Boston. The 

Cost of, 97 
OM Colonial Work of Virginia and 

Maryland. i7!>, 303 
Old Masters. Mr. Marquand's, 78 
Ontario Association of Architects, 137, 

188, 235 
" Parliament-house Competition. 

The, 81 
Opera-house. Burning of the Chicago, 


Orders. An Owner's Right to give, 311 
Organ at l.ibuu, Russia. Church, 119 
Otho I. Monument to, 298 
Overhead Wires. Property Owners and, 

Owner." Meaning of " Satisfactory to, 


Owner's Kight to give Orders. An, 311 
Ownership of Drawings. The, 168 

Painting the EUfel Tower, 170 

Paintings. Aboriginal Rock, 216 

Paints. New, 74 

Palace of Justice, Brussels. Cost of, 49 

Palmetto. The Lotus and the, 200 

Panama Canal. The, 132, 206 

Paper for Building, 251, 258 

" " " Still-wax for, 258 
Papyrus and the Lotus. The, 148 
Barye's Lion on the Bastille Column, 


Cremation in, 180 
Decorating the Hotel de Ville, 218 
Eeole des Beaux-Arts. The, 136 
Eiffel Tower. The, 95, 170, 182 
Exposition. The, 95, 98, 110, 122, 139, 

158, 170, 241. 306 
" History of Habitations 

at the, 241 
Power at the. 122 
Tiffany's Exhibit for 

the, 238 
Buildings. Estimates 

for the, 110 

International Congress of Applied 

" " K> " Archi- 

98, 158 

Letters from, 139 

Louvre. Susa Antiquities in the, '.'2 
Museum of Decorative Art. Rodin's 

Door for the, 101, 199 
Plilllippo Pot in the Louvre. The 

Tomb of, 278 
Popp Compressed-air System. The, 


f'ri r tie llrcnnnaisscence tJf8 Archi- 
In-tft Americains. The, 84, 140 


Sewerage Work in. New, 266 
Underground Railway for, 228 
Parliament Buildings in Toronto 236 
Party-walls. Fees on, 119 
Patched Iron Columns in a Railroad 

Station, 205 

Pavement. India-rubber, 262 
Pavements. City, 192 252, 277 295 
Paving-contractor in Toronto fails to 

fulfil his Contract. A, 217 
in Toronto and Montreal 295 
" Street, 252, 277, 295 
Payment Clause in Building Contracts 

The Final, 70, 131 

Peer. Baron von Schmidt made a 86 
Pekin. The new Cathedral in 72 ' 
Persian Art. Ancient, 23 
Personal Explanation. A, 106 
Petchikapou Waterfall. The 47 
Peterborough Cathedral, 188 
Pws. Family, 188 

Pfeitt'er's " American Mansion t " 227 ' 
Pharaohs. The Tombs of the, 82, 185 

Architecture in, 233 

Banking-room. A Fine, 233 

Industrial Art Exhibition, 254 

Letter from, 233 

Trade Schools in, 1C9 

T-square Club. The, 155 
Philbrick, Engineer. Death of E. S. 


Phillippe Pot. The Tomb of 278 
"Pictured Rock" in West Virginia. 

1 ho, 216 
Pictures at the Metropolitan Museum, 

Piping a House for Gas, 47, 59 

Pisa as a Lottery Prize. The Leaniue 
Tower of, 242 

Pisauo's Work on the Florence Cam- 
panile, 194 

Pit Props, 96 

Plans. Payment for Unexecuted 155 

Plaster-of-Paris. Hardening, 215 

" Manufacture of, 182 

Pneumatic Guns, 218 

Pointing for Concord Granite, 263 

Poisoning. Arsenical, 206 

Polychromy and Grecian Architecture 
29, 71, 94, 159 

Pompeian House at St. Augustine. A 

Pond. A Sinking, 28S 

Popp Compressed-air System in Paris, 

Porches and Porticos. 143 
Portland, Conn., Sandstone 96 
Portraits. Old Egyptian, 288 
Powder-house, Wil'liamsburg, Va. The 

Postal Tube for the Channel. A 95 
Power at the Paris Exposition, 122 
Prescott Door-hanger. The, 168 
Prices and Trade Discounts. List. 169 
Prix <lt Reconnaissance ties Arc/iitectes 

Amtrimins. The, 84, 140 
Prize. Award of the Bressa. 50 

for a Text- book on Hygiene, 218 
men. A Banquet to French, 98 
winners. The R. 1. B. A., 138 
Profit-sharing, 38 
" Prq/lt-tharmg between Employer* and 

Employes." 310 
Property-owners and Overhead Wires, 

Protest against Massachusetts State- 
house Extension Competition 2 8 13 
18, 25, 31, 61. 193, 234 ' 

Providence, R. I. Elevator Accident 
at, 230 

Public Buildings and Monuments. De- 
signing, i..;; 

Puddle Trenches and Puddle. Cost of 

Pueblo Antiquities, 15, 33, 43 

Puget Inlet Timber Belt, 281 

Pulp. The Age of, 192 

Pyramid. Opening of the Hawara, 82, 

Quebec. A Glimpse of, 56 

Proposed Bridge at, 236 
Queretaro, Mexico, 305 
(jnlrlnal Palace, Rome. Fire in the, 38 


Hallway. A Private Electric, 290 
" A South American T 

Continental, 266 
The Trans-Asian, 205 
Rat and a Water-n;eter. A, 242 
Rats and Hemlock, 242, 263 
Real Estate in Berlin, 95 
Rebuilding of Modern Rome. The, 278 
Reproducing Drawings. New Method 

of, 26 
Responsibility of Architects. The, 61 

143, 170 

" Art in the Modern State," 239 

" A rtistic Japan," 271 

"History of Art," 92 

" Profit-sharing betireen 

and Employes?' 310 
" Rude." " Francois," 70 

Right to give Orders. An Owner's, 311 
Hock-face Work, 233 

" painting in West Virginia, 216 
Rodin, Sculptor. Anguste. 27, 41, llfl. 

99, 112. 198, 223, 249, 2(JO, 2S3 
Rodin'B "Age of Brass," 27, 45, 65, 99, 
112, 249, 263, 283 


The American Architect and Building News. Index. 


Rodin's "Broken Nose," 27, 45, 65, 99. 

112, 249, 262 

Basts, 28, 113, 1!>9, 200, 250 
Calais Monument, 198, 250 
Door for the Museum of 
Decorative Art, 101, 199, 
223, 249 
Drawings, 260 
Ideas on Art, 201 
" "St. John Preaching," 99, 113, 

1!49, 263 

Statue of Bastion-Lepage, 199 
Romanticism in Art, 257 

Burning of. Nero's, 84 
Hot Baths of Ancient, 118 
Quirinal Palace. Fire in the, 38 
Rebuilding of Modern. The, 278 
Koottng-slate. The Output of, 156 

" slates. Tests of, 289 
Knots. Leaks in, 103 
Roots. Church moved by Eucalyptus- 
tree, 49 

Rosette. The Lotus and the, 148 
Rotch Scholarship. The, 218 
Royal Academy. The Canadian, 296 

" Institute B. A. Prize-winners, 138 
" Rude. Francois," 70 
Ruins at Palenque, Mexico, 95 
Kusslan Competition One Hundred 

Years ago. A, 302 
Ruskin on Origin of the Arch, 141 

School-houses. An Expert in, 47 

" Model, 253 

Scripps League Expedition. The, 241 
Sculpture. The Horse in, 39, 171, 190, 

207, 269, 297 
Second-hand Doors. Expensive Use of 


Secret Writing on Type-writers, 276 
Sepulchre of Amenemhat III. The, 185 
Settlement caused by Oil and Salt Wells. 

Safe Building, 285 

St. Albans Abbey Restorations, 188 

St. Augustine, Fla. A Pompeian House 

at, 170 

St. Clair Tunnel. The, 236 
" St. John Preaching." Rodin's, 09 113 

249, 263 
St. Louis. Architects' Club of, 215 

Architectural League, 36,94 
" Bridge. The, 48 
San Diego, Gal., Flume. The, 287 
Sandstone. Elastic, 201 

Portland, Conn., 90 
Arsenical Poisoning, 20ti 
Cellars. Water-tight, 179, 215 
Cremation in Paris, 180 
Desiccating the Dead, 278 
Drainage, 192, 244, 255 
Drains in London. Bad. 192 
Fans and Hot- water in China, 312 
Hygiene. Prize for a Text book on 


Malaria, 244, 255 
Massachusetts State Board of Health. 

The, 229 

Mould and Fungus under 1'loors, 205 
Sewage Disposal by the Gravitation- 
siphon System, 72 
Electrical Treatment of, 213 
Sewerage. Liernur Pneumatic System 

of, 50 

The Metropoli- 

tan, 229 

" Work in Paris. New, 266 
Well-water. Animal Life in, 276 
San Sebastian, Spain, 259 
Sansovino, 166 

San Zeno, Verona. Church of, 247 
" Satisfactory to Owner." Meaning of, 

Scaligers. The Tombs of the, 203, 297, 


Scenery, Theatrical, 265 
Schedule of Charges. Architects', 254 
Schmidt made a Peer. Baron von. 86 
Scholarship. The American Architect 

Travelling, 24, 206 241 
The Rotch, 218 
School of Architecture. A Canadian 

Buildings. Swiss and Italian, 


" Gymnasiums. Swiss, 254 
School-house Competition. Canton O 

Terrestrial, 50 
" of the Albany Capitol. Re- 

ported, 179 

Seville Cathedral, 2*7 
Sewage Disposal by the Gravitation- 

siphon System, 72 
Electrical Treatment of, 213 
in Fertilization. Use of, 26ti 
Sewerage. Liernur Pneumatic System 

of. The. 50 

System. Metropolitan, 229 
Work in Paris. New, 266 
Shades and Shadows. Architectural, 

88, 125, 175, 221 
Ship-railway in Canada, 189 
Shutter Fasts and Locks, 3 
Shutters. The Use of Iron, 86 
Sign-boards. Charles Gamier on, 241 
Silica in Iron-smelting, 288 
Silicon-bronze Wire. A Long, 220 
Silk. An Artificial, 260 
Sixteen-story Buildings, 293 
Sketch-Club. Detroit Architectural, 239 

" " of New York, 227 

Sketches. Spanish. 258 
Sketching Tours, 14 
Skylight Fittings, 6 
Slate. The Output of Roofing, 156 
Slates. Tests of Roofing, 289 
Slow-burning Construction, 11, 54, 59 
Smelting. The Use of Silica in, 288 
Smoke. The Waste in, 204 
Soapstone and its Uses, 287 
Society, New York. Incorporation of 

the American Fine Arts, 301 
Soda Locomotives, 252 
Soldiers' Monument. The Iowa, 251 
Sound. A Submarine Bridge under 

the. 311 
Spanish Cedar, ISO 

" Exhibition at London. DO 
" Sketches, 258 

Tile Vault for the Boston 

Public Library Floors, 217 
Specification-writing, 150 
Speculation in Koine. Building, 278 
Spruance. In Memoriam, J. H., 119 
Stain for Brick Walls, 227 
Staircase in Westminster Hall. Dis- 

cussion over a, 302 

State house at Boston. Competition for 
the Enlargement of the, 
2, 8, 13, 18, 25, 31, 61, 193, 

The Story of a, 178 
Statistics. Interesting, 179 

Student in New York. Facilities for Underwriter*' Wire, 157 

the, 136 
Submarine Bridge under the Sound. 


Suez Canal. The, 276 
Sugar in Mortar, 174 
Suit for Extra Compensation, 235 
Sunday Opening at the Metropolitan 

Museum. No, 127 
Sun-dials, 239 

Superintending Work at a Distance, 59 
Supervising Architect. Charges against 

the, 1.37, 109 
Dinner to the 

New, 215 
Report of the, 

" The New, 145, 


Suppressing Information, 253 
Susa. Dieulafoy's Discoveries at, 22 
Swiss Architects Charges of, 110 
' School-buildings, 253 
" " gymnasiums, 254 

Syracuse Sketch-Club, 300 

Unexecuted Plans. Payment for, 155, 

A, 177 


W. Va. 
for a, 115 


Statuary. Preserving Marble, 230 
Statue. Frnmiet's Joan of Arc, 242 
Statues. Equestrian, 39, 171, 190, 207, 

269, 297 

Steam as a Fire-extinguisher, 212 
Engine. A large Naval, 2! 
Heating by Exhaust, 24 
Steamships. An Appliance for Increas- 
ing the .speed of, 26 
Steam-turbine. A, 158 
Steel Bridges over the Danube. Pro- 
posed, 289 
Girders, 96 

Nature and Uses of Iron and, 285 
Use of Structural, 289 
vs. Iron, 289 

Still-wax for Building Paper, 258 
Stone-carving, 1, 21, 233 

Testing Building, 75 
Stove. The Carbon-soda, 278 

Fire on the Hearth, 71 
Stoves in France. Condemnation of 

Movable, 158 
Strasburg Cathedral, 173 
Street-paving, 192, 252, 277, 295 

signs. Charles Gamier on, 241 
Student Architectural Societies. The 

Affiliation of, 14 

Tacoma Building, Chicago. The, 294 
Talenti's Work on the Florence Campa- 
nile, 194 
Tariff of Swiss Architects. New, 110 

" on Works of Art. The, 97 
Teak-wood. 84 

Technical Education in Berlin, 211, 290 
Technische Hochschulo of Berlin. The, 


Telephone Wire. A Long, 220 
Texas. Examination of Architects in, 

205, 251 
Theatre. Competition for a Belgian, 25 

Fires, 1 
" not an Acoustic Success. 

Vienna Court, 266 
Theatrical Machinery, 290 

" Scenery and Effects, 241. 265 
Three Americas. Proposed Exhibition 

by the, 265 

Tiffany Exhibit for the Paris Exposi- 
tion. The, 2.i8 
Tile Vault for the Boston Public 

Library Floors. Spanish, 217 
Timber-belt. Puget Inlet, 281 
Time Measurement, 248 
Toluca, Mexico, 282 
Tomb for the Hapsburgs. New, 48 
Tombs at Naples. Ancient, 276 

in Virginia. Old, 280 
Architectural Guild, 35, 81, 137 189 
Board of Trade Building, 236 

" " " Competition, 81, 9B, 


Court-house. The, 295 
Growth of, 295 
New Buildings in, 236 
Parliament Buildings in, 236 
Tours. Sketching, 14 
Tower for the Biblicon," Brooklyn 

N. Y. Lofty, 157 
Trade Schools for Boston. Proposed, 218 

" in Philadelphia, 170 
Trade Surveys, 12, 24, 36. 48, 60, 72, 84 
96, 108, 120, 132, 144, 156, 180, 192, 204, 
216, 228, 240, 252, 264. 276, 288, 300, 312 
Trans-Asian Railway. The, 205 
Trans-continental Railroad. A South 

American, 266 
Transom-fittings, 6 
Travelling-scholarship. The American 

Architect, 24, 206, 241 
' Electric-light. A. 86 
Tricks. Theatre, 265, 290 
T-square Club. The, 155 
Tunnel. The Hudson River, 242 

The St. Clair, 236 
Tunnelling the North and East Rivers, 

New York, 120 
Type-writers. Secret Writing on, 276 

Vandalism in Florence, 120 

Vault for the Boston Public Library 

Floors. Spanish Tile, 217 
" of the Albany Assembly Cham- 
ber. The, 37, 86, 97, 134, 169 
Veneer Buildings. Brick, 277 
Venetian Church Monuments, 208 
Ventilating and Heating the New Court- 
house at Boston, 18 
Verestchagin Paintings. The, 79 
Vermin in Dwelling-houses, 266 
Verochio, 269 
Verona, 204, 247 
Vienna Court-Theatre not an Acoustic 

Success. The, 266 
Vinci. Leonardo da, 12 
Virginia and Maryland. Old Colonial 

Work of, 279, 303 
" Old Tombs in 280 
Visconti. The, 207 

Underground Railway for Paris, 228 
Wires, 236 

Wall paper. Test for Arsenic in, 182 
Wall-papers, 188 
Walls. Concrete-filled, 188 
Walters Art Collections. The, 236 
Apartment-houses in, 294 
Aqueduct. The, 146, 169, 229 
Capitol. Cost of the, 49 
Hotrls in, 295 
Letters from, 34, 294 
Office-buildings in, 34 
Waste in Smoke. The, 264 
Water-colors at the National Gallery. 


fall. The Petchikapou, 47 
meter. A Rat and a, 242 
supply. London's, 55 
tight Cellars, 179, 215 
wheel. Curious, 120 
Waves. Theatrical, 265 
Well-drilling. Primitive, 36 

'' in California. A Big Bored, 198 
" Iowa. A Big, 24 
Water. Animal Life in, 276 
Wells. Terrestrial Settlement caused 

by Oil and Salt, 50 

Western Association of Architects. 10 
Westminster Abbey. Additional Burial- 
space for, 188 
Hall. A New Staircase 

in, 302 

Wheelbarrow. Inventor of the, 12 ' 
Whistler and the Royal Society of 

British Artists, 204 
Whitewash. A German, 95 
Willard Architectural Collection. The 

81, 107 

William. Memorial to the Emperor, 133 
William and Mary College, 303 
Williamsburg, Va., 279 
Wilmerding, Pa. A Model Town, 168 
Wire. Underwriter's, 157 
Woes of Architects. The, 159 
Women Ironworkers, 96 
Wood-carving, 130 
Wood. Fireproofiug, 312 
Woods on Metal. Effect of Different, 

Workingmen's Excursion to the Paris 

Exposition. A, 241 

Wren. A Virginian Court-house De- 
signed by, 279 

Write for the Paper. How to. 71 
Wythe House, Williamsburg, Va., 303 

Young Men's Christian Association, 
New York. Architectural Library of 
the, 119 

Zalinski's Pneumatic Gun, 218 
Zuni Antiquities, 15, 33, 43 


Hier Flats, Syracuse, N. Y. J. M 
Elliott, Architect, 688 


Algonquin Club-house, Boston, Mass. 
MoKira, Mead & White, Architects 
684 (Gel.) 

Alterations to Building of the New 
York Club. R. H. Robertson & A. J. 
Manning, Architects, 701 

Arion Club-house, New York, N. Y 
De Lemos & Cordes, Architects, 686 

Boston Athletic Association Building 
Boston, Mass. J. H. Sturgis, Archi- 
tect, 693 

Lodge Building for Knights of Pythias 
Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. G! 
T. Pearson, Architect, 705 

Baths, etc., Boston Athletic Associa- 
tion Building. J. H. Sturgis, Archi- 
tect, 693 

Designs for Fireplaces, 694 

Details of Slow-burning Construction 
Florence Flats, Minneapolis, Minn! 
James C. Plant, Architect, 680 


[The figures refer to the number of the journal, and not to the page.] 

Doorway to House of John Peabody 
Boston, Mass. Peabody & Stearns, 
Architects, 689 (Gel.) 
Entrance to City-hall, Albany, N. Y. 

H. H. Richardson, Archt., 688 (Gel.) 
Entrance to Commercial Bank Build- 
ing, Albany, N. Y. K. 
W. Gibson, Architect. 
697 (Gel.) 

" House of C. L. Tiffany, 
New York, N. Y. Mc- 
Kim, Mead & White, Ar- 
chitects, 682 (Gel.) 
" Y. M. C. A. Building, Al- 
bany, N. Y. Fuller & 
Wheeler, Architects, 691 

Fireplace designed by J. W. Bliss, 699 
Garden Gate for Curwen stoddart 
Benezet, Pa. Frank Miles Day, Ar- 
chitect, 695 
High Altar. Church of Guadalupe, 

Mexico, 682 

King Memorial Decoration, St. Paul's 
Church, Augusta, Ga. Designed by 
F. S. l.amb, 700 

Mantel in Dining-room, Poland Springs 
House Poland Springs, Mo. Stevens 
& Cobb, Architects, 680 

New Gateway for Harvard College, i 
Cambridge, Mass. McKim, Mead & 
White, Architects, 697 

Pulpit, Choir Stalls and Bishop's Chair, 
Trinity Church, Lenox, Mass. W. 
C. Brocklesby, Architect, 681 

Window in Dining-room, Poland Springs 
House, Poland Springs, Me. Stevens 
<& Cobb, Architects, 6SO 


Alterations In House for N. W. Taylor, 
Cleveland, O. Clarence O. Arey, Ar- 
chitect, 703 

Bramshill, Hampshire, England, 704 * 

Brereton Hall, Cheshire, England, 704* 

Cottage at Watch Hill, K. f. Howard 

Hoppin, Architect, 687 
" No. 4, Watch Hill, R. I. How- 
ard Hoppin, Architect, 689 

Country House. C. W. Stoughton, Ar- 
chitect, 695, 700 

Crewe Hall, Cheshire, England, 704* 

Design for a Country House. C. 
Scbii'fer, Architect, 683 

Gate-lodge for G. A. Mckerson, Ded- 
liam, Mass. Longfellow, Aldeu & 
Uarlow, Architects, 695 

* lasued only in the Imperial Edition. 

House ami Stable, Haverford College 
Station, Pa. W. Eyre, Jr., Architect 

House at Rochester, N. T. Thomas 
Nolan, Architect, 684 


J. W. Allen, York, Pa. B. F. Willis, Ar- 
chitect, 705 

Mrs. Alice Bacon, Louisville Ky. C. 
J. Clarke, Architect, 689 

Mr. Baker, Devon, Pa. Geo. T. Pear- 
son, Architect, 095 

E. J. Barney, Dayton, O. S. S. 
Beman, Architect. 701 

C. E. Bowen, Kochetter, N. Y. 
Thomas Nolan, Architect, 691 

Frank Campbell, York, Pa. J. A. 
Dempwolf, Architect, 682 

J. Frank Collom, Minneapolis, Minn. 
G. W. & F. I). Orff, Architects, 699 

Enrique Concha y Toro, Santiago. 
Chili. S. A., 681 

J. M. Davis, Rochester, N. Y. Otto 
Block, Architect, 699 

A. J. Drexel, Jr., Lansdown, Pa. 
Wilson Kyre, Jr., Architect, 698 

Mrs. Eldriilge, Newport, R. I. Dud- 
ley Newton, Architect, 687 (Gel.) 

JAN. - JUNE, 1889.] The American Architect and Building News. Index. 



Frederick Frelinghuysen, Lenox, 

Mass. Kotch & Tilden, Architects, 

699 (Gel.) 
G. G. Haven, Lenox, Mass. J. D. 

Johnston, Architect, 705 (Gel.) 
K. S. Isbam, Manchester, Vt. F. W. 

Stiekiiey, Architect, 704 
George M. Jones, Greensbnrgh, Pa. 

J. A. DempwolfjArchitect, 704 
M. Ogden Jones, Wood's Holl, Mass. 

Wheelwright & Haven, Architects, 

J. l)e F. Junkin, West Philadelphia, 

Pa. Albert W. Dilks, Archt., 698 
Mrs. Jeremiah Milbank, Greenwich. 

Conn. Lamb & Rich, Architects, 

098 (Ge/.) 
Mrs. Isabelle Nash, Bridgeport, Conn. 

C. T. Beardsley, Jr., Archt., 681 

C. J. Page, Boston, Mass. H. L. 

Warren-, Architect, 6% 
Dr. W. B. Parker, Boston, Mass. 

Hartwell & Richardson, Architects, 

690 (Gel.) 
W. C. Proctor, Cincinnati, O. H. 

Neill Wilson, Architect, 697 
R. C. Pruyn, Albany, N. Y. R. W. 

Gibson, Architect, 685 (Oel.) 
Grange Sard, Albany, N. Y. H. H. 

Richardson, Architect, 701 (Gel.) 
M. S. Severance, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Curlett, Eisen & Cuthbertson, Ar- 
chitects, 686 
J. F. Sinnott, Rosemont, Pa. Hazle- 

hurst & Huckel, Architects, 704 
B. E. Taylor, Newton, Mass. Hand 

& Taylor, Architects, 696 
Alexander Ure, Toronto, Can. Knox 

& Elliot, Architects, 689 
James E. Waugh, Charlton Heights, 

D. C. T. F. Schneider, Archt., 6x1 
V. F. Whitmore, Rochester, N. Y. 

Otto Block, Architect, 699 

B. F. Willis, York, Pa. B. F. Willis, 
Architect, 688 

Houses of Mrs. J. J. French and Mrs. 

C. E. Stratton, Boston, Mass. Allen 
& Kenway. Architects, 681 (Gel.) 

Moreton Hall, Cheshire. England. 704 
Old House at Grey's Ferry, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. Sketched by Frank A. 
Hays, 702 

Proposed House f or K. F. Crocker, 
Fitchburg, Mass. 
Guy Kirkham, 
Architect, 688 

" " " C. D. Hosley, 

Springfield, Mass. 
Guy Kirkham, 
Architect, 688 


All Saints' Church, Pasadena, Cal. E. 
A. Coxhead, Ar- 
chitect, 692 

" " " Pontiac, It. I. How- 

ard Hoppin, Ar- 
chitect, 6X1 
Baptist Church, Maiden, .Mass. Shep- 

ley, Kutan & Coolldge, Archts., 701 
Brua Memorial Chapel, Pennsylvania 
College, Gettysburg, Pa. J. A. 
Dempwolf , Architect, 680 
Cathedral, Mentz, Germany, 683 (Gel.) 

" Verona, Italy, 700 
Christ Church, Williamsbnrg, Va., 703 


Church at Ann Arbor, Mich. W. G. 
Malcomson, Architect, fi87 


San Antonio, Padua, Italy, 702 (Gel.) 
" Miehele, Pavia, Italy, 083 

Miguel, Jerez de la Frontera, 

Spain, 692 

Xeno, Verona, Italy, 700 
St. Giles, Luray, Va. Geo. T. Pear- 
son, Architect, 86 
Martin, Laon, France, 694 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo and School of 
St. Mark, Venice, Italy, 702 


Calvary Baptist Church, Devenport, 

lo. Wm. Cowe, Architect, 681 
Christ Church, New York, N. Y. R. 

H. Robertson, Architect, 695 
Church, Clergy-house and Schools for 

Trinity Corporation, New York, N. 

Y. H. M. Congdon, Architect, 705 
Church, Clergy-house and Schools for 

Trinity Corporation, New York, N. 

Y. K. M. Hunt, Architect, 700 
Church, Clergy-house and Schools for 

Trinity Corporation, New York, N. 

Y. F. C. Withers, Architect, 702 
Church, Clergy-house and Schools for 

Trinity Corporation, New York, N. 

Pulpit. Choir Stalls and Bishop's Chair, 
Trinity Church, Lenox, Mass. W. C. 
Brocklesby, Architect, 681 
Sketcn for a Country Church, Chapel 
and Parsonage, Montclair, N. 
J. R. H. Robertson, Archi- 
tect, 693 

of the Church of the Blessed 
Sacrament, Providence, R. I. 
Heins & La Farge, Architects, 

St. Peter's Episcopal Church, Albany, 
N. Y. R. M. Upjohn, Architect, 
700 (Gel.) 


Bryn Mawr School-house, Baltimore, 
Md. H. K. Marfhall, Architect, 692 

Competitive Design for a School-house, 
Yonkers, N. Y. Farnsworth, Hamil- 
ton & Mersereau, Architects, 692 

Science Hall. Randolph Macon College, 
Ashland, Va. W. M. Poindexter, 
Architect, 702 

State Military Academy, Albany, N. Y., 

680 (Gel.) 

" Normal Art School, Boston, Mass. 
Hartwell & Richardson, Archi- 
tects, 688 

Technische Hochschule, Berlin, Ger- 
many, 697 

Upper Canada College, Toronto, Can. 
George F. Durand, Architect, 682 


Arena, Verona, Italy, 6% 
Bramshill, Hampshire, England, 704 
Brereton Hall, Cheshire, England, 704* 
Calais Monument. Figures for the, 

Auguste Kodin, Sculptor, 696 (Gel.) 
Cathedral, Mentz. Germany, 683 (Gel.) 

" Verona, Italy, 700 

San Antonio. Padua, Italy, 702 (Gel.) 
" Miehele, Pavia, Italy, 683 
" Miguel, Jerez de la Frontera, 

Spain, 692 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo and School of 

St. Mark, Venice, Italy, 702 
St. Martin, Laon, France, 694 
Crewe Hall, Cheshire, England, 704 * 
Fountain, Jativa, Spain, 691 
High Altar, Church of Guadalupe, 

Mexico, 682 

Hotel de Ville, Compiegne, France, 683 
" " " Lyons, France, 683 
" " " Rheims, France, 683 
" des Brasseurs, Brussels, Belgium, 

683 (Gel.) 

House of Enrique Concha y Toro, San- 
tiago, Chili, S. A., 681 
Interior of St. Mark's, Venice, Italy, 
after an Etching by Otto Bacher, 690 
Juliet's Tomb, Verona, Italy, 700 
Model of Gattamelata's Horse, Padua, 

Italy, 702 

Monument to Duke of Brunswick, 
Geneva, Switzerland, 
" " Malaspina, Verona, Italy, 

" " Niccoio Orsini, Venice, 

Italy, 697 

Moretou Hall, Cheshire, England, 704 * 
Old Hotel de Ville, Lyons. France, 683 
Place of Arms, Santiago, Chili, S. A 


Scaligers. Tombs of the, 696 
St Zeuo, Verona, Italy, 700 


Duke Antoine of Lorraine, Nationa 
Museum, Nancy, France, 694 

Colleoni, Venice, Italy, 702 

Gattameiata, Padua, Italy, 702 (Gel.) 

Louis XII, Chateau de Blois, France 

Street Views in Quebec, Can. Sketchet 

by Robert Brown, Jr., 684 
Tecbnische Hochschule, Berlin, Ger 

many, 697 
Upper Canada College, Toronto, Can 

George F. Durand, Architect, 682 
Verona, Italy. Views in, 6%, 700 

(.' '. \ I IM 

Y. W. Halsey Wood, Archt., 698 
(iraue Church Cathedral and Guild- 
H. M. Cong- 


Hall, Topeka, Kansas. 

don, Architect, 69C 
High Altar, Church of 

Mexico, 682 
Interior of St. Mark's, Venice, Italy. 

After an Etching by Otto Bacher, 690 
King Memorial Decoration, St. Paul's 
Designed by 

Church, Augusta, Ga. 
F. S. Lainb, 700 

Mission Chapel for Emmanuel Church, 
Boston, Mass. Kotch & Til- 
den, Architects, 695 
Church, Santa Barbara, Cal. 

J. G. Howard, Archt., 090 
Proposed Twelfth Baptist Church, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Eugene C. Fisher, Archi- 
tect, 691 

Algonquin Club-house, Boston, Mass 

McKim, Mead . White, Archts., 684 
Arion Clubhouse, New York, N. Y 

De Lemos & Cordes, Architects, 686 
Atlantic Building, Washington, D. C 

James G. Hill, Architect, 694 
Billiard-room, Boston Athletic Associa 

tion Building, Boston, Mass, J. H 

Sturgis Architect, 893 
Cathedral, Mentz, Germauy, 683 
Christ Church, Williamsburg, Va., 703 
Church of Sau Antonio, Padua, Italy 

Doorway to House of John Peabody 

Boston, Mass. Peabody & Steam 

Architects, 689 


City-hall, Albany, N. Y. H. [I. Kiel 

ardson, Architect, 688 
Commercial Bank Building, Albany 

N. Y. B. W. Gibson, Archt., 6H7 
House of C. L. Tiffany, New York. > 

Y. McKim, Mead & White, Arch 

tects, 682 
Y. M. C. A. Building, Albany, N. Y 

Fuller & Wheeler, Architects, 091 
Figures for the Calais Monumen 
Auguste Itodin, Sculptor, 696 

Issued only in tli Impf rial Edition, 

Gymnasium, Boston Athletic Associa- 
tion Building, Boston, Masj. J. H. 

Sturgis, Architect, 6<J3 
Hotel des Brasseurs, Brussels, Belgium, 


Mrs. Eldridge, Newport, R. I. Dud- 
ley Newton, Architect, 687 

Frederic Frelinghuysen, Lenox, Mass. 
Rotch & Tilden, Architects, 699 

Mrs. Jeremiah Milbank, Greenwich, 
Conn. ljunb & Rich, Archta., 698 

Dr. W. B. Parker, Boston, Mass. 
Hartwell & Richardson. Archts., 690 

R. C. Pruyu. Albany, N. Y. K. W. 
Gibson, Architect, 685 

Grange Sard, Albany, N. Y. H. H. 

Richardson, Architect, 701 
Houses of Mrs. J. J. French and Mrs. 

C. E. Stratton, Boston, Mass. Allen 

& Kenway, Architects, 681 
N. Y. C. R. It. Employes' Reading-room, 

New York, N. Y. R. H. Robertson, 

Architect, 695 

ailroad Station, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Rogers & MacFarlane, Architects, 692 

t. pbter's Episcopal Church, Albany, 

N. Y. K. M. Upjohn, Architect, 700 

,ate Military Academy, Albany, N. 

Y., 6X0 

tatue of Gattameiata, Padua, Italy, 


pper part of Extension to Adams 

House, Boston, Mass. W. Whitney 

Lewis, Architect, 704 


amily Hotel, Minneapolis, Minn. H. 
W. Jones, Architect, 705 
uray Inn, Luray, Va. Geo. T. Pear- 
son, Architect. 690 

roposed Hotel, Kingsville, Out., Can. 
Mason & Rice, Architects. 691 
The Talleyrand," Bar Harbor, Me. 
De Grasse Fox, Architect, 686 
pper part of Extension to Adams 
House, Boston, Mass. W. Whitney 
Lewis, Architect, 704 (Gel.) 


Jilliard-room, Boston Athletic Associa- 
tion Building, Boston, Mass. J. H. 
Sturgis, Architect, 693 (Gel.) 

lymnasium, Boston Athletic Associa- 
tion Building, Boston, Mass. J. H. 
Sturgis, Architect, 693 (Oel.) 
iterior of St. Mark's, Venice, Italy. 
After an Etching by Otto liacher, 690 


rcher Building. Kochester, N. Y. C. 
S. Ellis, Architect, 688 
tlantic Building, Washington, D. C. 
James (i. Hill, Architect, 694 (Gel.) 
Auchmnty Building, Boston, Mass. 

Wiuslow & Wetherell, Archts., fi99 
branch Bank of America, Philadelphia. 

Pa. Charles W. Bolton, Archt., 703 
iuilding for F. L. Ames, Boston, Mass. 
Shepley, Rutan & Cool- 
idge, Architects, 686 
" " Bell Telephone Co, St. 
I.ouis, Mo. Shepley, 
Rutau &Coolidge, Archi- 
tects, 682 

" " Maj. F. H. Phipps & Mrs. 
It. R. Wallace. St. Louis, 
Mo. A. F. Kosenheim, 
Architect, 689 

ompetitive Design lor the World 
Building, New York, N. Y. R. H. 
Robertson, Architect, 685 
Mohawk Block, Buffalo, N. Y. E. A. 

Kent, Architect, 692 
National Bank of Washington, Wash- 
ington, D. C. James G. Hill, Archi- 
tect, 6X8 


Architectural Shades and Shadows, 687 

Armory, Worcester, Mass. Fuller & 

Delano, Architect!, 697 
Building at Berkeley, R. I., for the 

Berkeley Co. Stone, Carpenter & 

Wilson, Architects, 701 
Design for a Plaster Ceiling by C. J, 

Brooke, 686 
Details of Slow-burning Construction 

Florence Flats, Minneapolis, Minn, 

James C. Plant, Architect, 680 
Donatello's St. John the Baptist, 6X8 
Fountain, Jativa, Spain, 691 
Hotel des Brasseurs, Brussels, Belgium 

683 (Gel.) 

Juliet's Tomb, Verona, Italy, 700 
Sculptures by Auguste Rodin, 682, 688 

689, 6%, 703 
Sketches at Williamsburg, Va., by A 

B. Bibb, 703 
" in California by J. Q. How 

ard. 690 
Slow-burning Construction. Drawing. 

of, 684 
Street Views in Quebec, Can. Sketch* 

by Robert Brown, Jr., 684 


Bust of Mme. Morla. Auguste Itodin 

Sculptor, 703 

Busts by Auguste Rodin, 689, 703 
Figures for the Calais Monument 

Auguste Rodin, Sculptor, 696 (Gel.) 
Model of Gattamelata's Horse, Padua 

Italy, 702 

Monument to Duke of Brunswick 
Geneva, Switzerland 

Monument to Malaspina, Verona, Italy? 

" Niccoio Orsini, Venice, 

Italy, 697 

Scaligers. Tombs of the, 6% 
Duke Antoine of Lorraine, National 

Museum, Nancy, France, 694 
Colleoni, Venice, Italy, 702 
Gattameiata, Padua, Italy. 702 (Gel.) 
Louis XII, Chateau de Blois, France, 

Statues of St. John the Baptist, 688 


Competitive Design for City-hall, 
Lowell, Mass. Wait & Cutter, Archi- 
tects, 703 

Hotel de Ville, Compiegne, France, 683 
" " " Lyons, France, 683 
" " " Rheims, France, 683 

Memorial Library, Acton, Mass. Hart- 
well & Richardson, Architects, 705 

Memorial 1 ibrary, Lexington, Ky. 
Willis Polk, Architect, 689 

Miners' Hospital, Hazleton, Pa. Benj. 
Linfoot, Architect, 703 

Old Hotel de Ville, Lyons, France, 683 

Place of Arms, Santiago, Chili, S. A., 

Probate Office, East Cambridge, Mass. 
Wait & Cutter, Architects, 687 

Proposed Municipal Buildings, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Willis Polk, Architect, 


N. Y. C. R. R. Employes' Readlug-rocm, 

New York, N. Y. " R. H. Robertson, 

Architect, 695 (Gel.) 
Railroad Station, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Rogers & MacFarlane, Architects, 692 

Station on the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. 

A. H. Bieler, Architect, 6X3 


Stable for W. F. Proctor, Lorhada, 
New York, N. Y. W. Rosa 
Proctor, Architect, 681 
and Billiard-room, Pelham, N. 
Y. Walgrove & Israels, Ar- 
chitects, 6X9 


"entilating Tower, Presbyterian Hos- 
pital, New York, N. Y. J. C. Cady & 
Co., Architects, 6X9 


1'ublished only in the Imperial Edition.] 
_11 Saints', Oakham, 695 
Jathedral, Canterbury, t>X2 
St. Andrew, Billingborough, fiXG 
Augustine, Fledon, 695 
James, I.outh, 691 
Mary, llminster, 695 
" Malvern, 695 
" Swineshead, 695 
" Magdalene, Chewton-Mendlx, 


" " Newark, 682 

Nicholas, Newcastle-on-Tyne-, 699 
Peter, harrold, 686 
SS. Mary and Nicholas, Spalding, 695 
" Peter and Paul, Easton Maudit, 6x6 


Published c til if in the Imperial Edition.] 
Jhamber of Marie de' Medici, Blois, 695 
Chapel of St. Hubert, Amboise, 682 
Court-yard, Chateau de Blois, 699 
Uiniug-hall, Chenonceaux, 704 
juard-room, Chambord, 691 
Pulpit in Church at Fontainebleau. 699 
Tomb of Cardinal d'Amboise, 68fi 
Tourney Field, Chambord, 6al 


These figures refer lo the page of text, 
not to the plates.] 

Belfry, 18, 43 

Boston Athletic Association Building. 

Details, 160. 161, 162 
Calvary. Plougastel, Brittany, 41 
Capitals, 44, 45, 54, 69, 75, 140, 103, 164, 

165, 166, 226, 255, 273, 285 
Cathedral. Quimper, Brittany, 40 
Centennial Arch. Washington Square, 

New York, N. Y., 238 
Choir of St. Peter's, Leipsic, 8 
Church, Folgoet, Brittany, 203 

u Snrgeres, France, 41 
Doorway of Convent at Palrua, 172 
Elephant de la Bastille, in 
Elmwood, Cambridge, Mass., 77 
Equestrian Designs, 171, 190, 191, 207, 


Annibale Bentivoglio, 208 

Duke of Brunswick, 299 

Clovis. King, 41 

Colleoni, 269, 270, 272 

Pietro Farnese, 209 

Francis 1, 297 

Gattameiata. 270 

Gradlon. King, 40 

Lesdiguieres. Marshal, 89 

Koberto Malatesta, 209 

Otho I, 298 

Leonardo <1a Prato, 210 

Rene II. Duke, 172 

Pierre de Rohan, 173 

Rudolph of Hapsburg, 41 

St. George, 171 

St. Martin, 41, 42 


The American Architect and Building News. Index. 



* Cortesio Sarego. 207 

Paolo Savelli, 210 

Bernabo Visconti. 209 
Flight of King Gradlon. The, 40 
Fountain. Mexican, 305 
Gable, 135 

Horse-Court, Seringhain, India, 39 
Horses of the Colleoni and other 

Statues. 270 

House in Zalt Bommel, 17, 46 
Josefplatz, Vienna, 174 
Kuocker, 22 

Lotus-forms. 66, 67, 68, 69, 115, 116, 117, 
148, 149, 200, 201, 202, 225, 226, 309, 310 

Main Entrance, Strasbourg Cathedral, 

Maximilian's Monument, Mexico, 306 

Medal, 269 
j Mexican Sketches, 282 

Mickiewicz, Cracow, 172 
The Palatinate Protestants, 243 
I Pope's Loggia, Siena, Italy, 118 

Porch, St. Maria Maggiore, Bergamo, 

Portal, Chateau de Gallon. 171 

" Wissingso Church, Sweden ,174 
Pump, Merseburg, Germany, 247 
Quebec Sketches, 56, 57, 68 
Rmnan Cavalier by Verrochlo, 270 
Science Hall , Randolph Macon College, 

Ashland, Va. W. M. Poindexter, 

Architect, 271 
Sculptures by Auguste Hodln, 27, 65, 99, 

112, 198, 199, 223, 224, 249, 260, 262, 283 
Spanish Sketches, 258, 259, 260 
Stable of E. J. Wardell, Cambridge, 

Mass. Rand & Taylor, Architects, 29 

Staircase, Palace of Justice, Vienna, 


" Rouen, France, 257 
Tomb. An Italian, 128 

" of Governor Nott, Williams- 
burg, Va.. 279 
" Verona, Italy, 101 
Tower, Cathedral, Nimes, 141 
Towers. German, 150.. 213 
Vera Cruz, Mexico, 32,1ji *, 
Victory Monument, Berlinj^ll 
Williamsburg, Va., Sketches, 279, 280, 


[The figures refer to the number of the journal, and not to the page.} 

Aoton, Mass. Memorial Hall. Hart- 
well & Richardson, Architects, 705 

Entrance to City-hall. H. H. Rich- 
ardson, Architect, 688 (Gel.) 
Entrance to Commercial Bank-Build- 
ing. R. W. Gibson, Architect, 697 
Entrance to V. M. C. A. Building. 
Fuller & Wheeler, Archts. GUI (Get.) 
House of R. C. 1'ruyn. R. W. Gibson, 

Architect, 6S5 (Gel.) 
House of Grange Sard. H. H. Rich- 
ardson, Architect, 701 (Oel.) 
State Military Academy, 68ft (Gel.) 
St. Peter's Episcopal Church. K. M. 

Upjohn, Architect, 700 (Gel.) 
Ann Arbor, Mich. Church. W. G. 

Malcomsou, Architect, 6S7 
Augusta, Ga. King Memorial Decora- 
tion, St. Paul's Church. Designed by 
F. S. Lamb. 700 

Baltimore, lid. Bryn Mawr School- 
house H. R. Marshall, Archt., 692 
Bar Harbor, Me. "The Talleyrand." 

De Grasse Fox, Architect, 686 
Battle Creek, Mich. Railroad Station. 
Rogers & HacFarlane, Architects, 692 

Benezet, Pa. Garden-gate for Curwen 
Stoddart. F. Miles Day, Archt., 695 
Berkeley, R. I. Building for the Berke- 
ley Co. Stone, Carpeuter & Willson, 
Architects, Till 
Berlin, Germany. Technische llochs- 

chule, 697 

Blois, France. Statue of Louis XII, 694 
Algonquin Club-house, lie Kim, 

Mead & White, Archts., 6S4 (Gel.) 
Auchmuty Building. Winslov 

Wetherell, Architects, 699 

Billiard-roum, Boston Athletic Asso- 
ciation Building. J. H. Sturgis, 
Architect. (193 ((.'<>/.) 

Boston Athletic Association Building. 
J. H. Sturgis, Architect, 693 

Building for F. L. Ames. Sheplt-y, 
Rutan & Coolidge, Architects, 6*6 

Doorway to House of John Peabody. 
Peabody & Steams, Architects, G89 

Gymnasium, Boston Athletic Asso- 
ciation Building. J. II. Sturgi-, 
Architect, 1.93 (Gel.) 

House of C. .1. Page. H. L. Warren, 
Architect, 690 

House of Dr. W. B. Parker. Hartwell 
& Richardson, Architects, wa(Oel.) 

Houses of lira. .1. .1. French and Mrs. 
C. K. Stratton. Allen & Kenway, 
Architects, 681 (Gel.) 

Mission Chapel for Emmanuel Church. 
Rotch & Tilden, Architects, 6115 

Proposed Twelfth Baptist Church. 
Eugene C. Fisher, Architect, 691 

State Normal Art-School. Hartwell 
& Richardson, Architects. G8K 

Upper part of Extension to Adams 
House. W. Whitney Lewis, Archi- 
tect, 704 (Gel.) 
Bridgeport, Coiin. House of Mrs. 

Isabelle Nash. C. T. Beardsley, Jr., 

Architect, 681 
Brussels, Belgium. Hotel des Bras- 

seurs, 683 (Gel.) 
Buffalo, N. VT. Mohawk Block. E. A. 

Kent, Architect, 692 
Calais, France. Figures for the Calais 

Monument. Auguste Rodin, Sculp- 
tor, 696 (Gel.) 
Cambridge, Mass. New Gateway for 

Harvard College. McKim, Mead & 

White, Architects, 607 
Charltou Heights, D. C. House o, 

James E. Waugh. T. F. Schneider! 

Architect, 681 
Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia Pa 

Knights of Pythias Lodge. G. T. 

Pearson, Architect, 705 

Cincinnati, O. House of W. C. Procter. 

H. Neill Wilson, Architect, 697 
Cleveland, O. Alterations In House for 
N. \V. Taylor. Clarence O. Arey, 
Architect, 703 

Complegne, France. Hotel de Ville, 683 

Davenport, la. Competitive Design for 

Calvary Baptist Church. Wm. Cowe, 

Architect, 681 

Dayton, O. House of K. J. Barney. 

S. S. Beman, Architect, 701 
Dedhanl, Mass. Gate-lodge for G. A. 
Nickerson. Longfellow, Alden & Har- 
low, Architects, 095 
Devon, Pa. House of Mr. Baker. Geo. 

T. Pearson, Architect, 694 
East Cambridge, Mass. Probate-Office. 

Wait & Cutter, Architects, 087 
Fitchburg, Mass. Proposed House for 
K. F. Crocker. Guy Kirkham, Archi- 
tect, 688 
Geneva, Switzerland. Monument to 

Duke of Brunswick, 704 
Greensburg, Pa. House of George M. 

Jones. J. A. Dempwolf, Archt., 704 
Greenwich, Conn. House of Mrs. Jere- 
miah MilDank. Lamb & Rich, Archi- 
tects, 0118 (Gel.) 
Guadalupe, Mexico. High Altar In 

Church, 682 

Gettysburg, Pa. Brua Memorial Chapel, 
Pennsylvania College. J. A. Demp- 
wolf, Architect, 080 

Haverford College Station, Pa. House 
and Stable. W. Eyre, Jr., Architect, 
Hazleton, Pa. Miner's Hospital. Benj. 

Linfoot, Architect, 703 
Jativa, Spain. Fountain, GUI 
Jerez de Ja Frontera, Spain. Church of 

San Miguel, 692 
Kingsville, Out., Can. Proposed Hotel. 

Mason & Rice, Architects, G91 
Lansdown, Pa. House of A. J. Drexel, 
Jr. Wilson Eyre, Jr., Architect, 698 
Laon, France. Church of St. Martin, 694 
Lenox, Mass. House of Frederic Fre- 
linghuysen. Rotch & 
Tildeu, Architects, 69!i 
" House of G. G. Haven. 
J. D. Johnston, Archi- 
tect, 705 (Gel.) 

" Pulpit, Choir-stalls and 

Bishop's Chair, Trinity 

Churcll. W. C. Brock- 

lesby. Architect, 681 

Lexington, Ky. Memorial Library. 

Willis Polk, Architect, 689 
Lorhada, New York, N. Y. Stable for 
W. F. Proctor. W. Ross Proctor, 
Architect, 681 

Los Angeles, Cal. House of M. S. 
Severance. Curlett. Eisen & Cuth- 
bertson, Architects, 6X5 
Louisville, Ky. House of Mrs. Alice 

Bacon, 689 

Lowell, Mass. Competitive Design for 
City-hall. Wait & Cutter, Archts., 703 
Luray, Va. Church of St. Giles. Geo. 
T. Pearson, Architect. 686 
" " Luray Inn. Geo. T. Pear- 
son, Architect, 690 
Lyons, France. Hotel de Ville. 683 

" Old Hotel de Ville. 683 
Maiden, Mass. Baptist Church. Shep- 

ley, Riitau & Coolidge, Archts., 701 
Manchester. Vt. House of E. S. Isham. 

F. W. Stickney, Architect, 704 
Meutz, Germany. The Cathedral, 6X3 


Minneapolis, Minn. Details of Slow- 
burning Con- 
struction, Klor- 
e n ce Flats. 
James C. Plant, 
Architect, 680 
" Family Hotel. H. 
W. Jones, Ar- 
chitect, 705 

Minneapolis, Minn. House of J. 

Frank Collom. G. W. & F. D. Orff, 

Architects, 699 
Montclair, N. J. Sketch for a Country 

Church, Chapel and Parsonage. R. 

H. Robertson, Architect, 693 
Nancy, France. Statue of Duke An 

toine of Lorraine, National Museum, 


NEW YORK, N. Y. : - 

Alterations to Building of the New 
York Club. H. H. Robertson and A. 
J. Manning, Architects, 701 
Arion Club - house. De l.emos & 

Cordes, Architects, 686 (Gel.) 
Competitive Design for Christ Church. 

R. H. Robertson, Architect, 695 
Competitive Design for Church, 
Clergy-house and Schools. H. M. 
Cougdon, Architect, 705 
Competitive Design for Church, 
Clergy-house and Schools for Trin- 
ity Corporation. R. M. Hunt, Ar- 
chitect, 700 

Competitive Design for Church, 
Clergy-house and Schools for Trin- 
ity Corporation. H. C. Withers, 
Architect, 702 

Competitive Design for Church, 
Clergy-house and Schools for Trin- 
ity Corporation. W. Halsey Wood, 
Architect, 698 

Competitive Design for the World 
Building. R. H. Robertson, Archi- 
tect, 685 

New York C. R. R. Employe's 
Reading-room. R. H. Robertson, 
Architect, 695 (Gel.) 
Entrance to House of C. L. Tiffany. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects, 
682 (Gel.) 

Ventilating Tower, Presbyterian Hos- 
pital. J.C. Cady Co., Archts., 689 
Newport, R. I. House of Mrs. Eldridge. 
Dudley Newton, Architect, 687 (Gel.) 
Newton, Mass. House of B. E. Taylor. 

Rand & Taylor, Architects, 696 
Padua, Italy. Church of San Antonio, 

702 (Gel.) 
" " Model of Gattamelata's 

Horse, 702 
" Statue of Gattamelata, 

702 (Gel.) 
Pasadena, Cal. All Saints' Church. 

E. A. Coxhead, Architect, 692 
I'avia, Italy. Church of San Michele, 


Pelhatn, N. Y. Stable and Billiard- 
room. Walgrove & Israels, Archi- 
tects, 689 

Philadelphia, Pa. Branch Bank of 
America. Chas. 
W. Bolton, Ar- 
chitect, 703 

" Old House at 
Grey's Ferry. 
Sketched by 
Frauk A. Hays, 

Poland Springs, Me. Window and 
Mantel in Dining-room of Poland 
Springs House. Stevens &Cobb, Ar- 
chitects, 6811 
Pontiac, H. 1. All Saints' Church. 

Howard Hoppin, Architect, 681 
Providence, R. I. Sketch of the Church 
of the Blessed Sacrament. Heius & 
La Farge, Architects, 694 
Quebec, Can. Street Views. Sketched 

by Robert Brown, Jr., 681 
Rheims, France. Hotel de Ville, 683 

Archer Building. C. S. Ellis, Archi- 
tect, 688 

House. Thomas Nolan, Archt., 684 
House of C. E. Boweu. Thomas 
Nolan, Architect, 691 

House of J. M. Davis. Otto Block, 

Architect, 699 
House of V. F. Whitmore. Otto 

Block, Architect, 699 
Rosemont, Pa. House ot J. F. Sinnott. 
Hazlehurst & Huckel. Architects, 704 
Santa Barbara, Cal. Minion Church, 

Drawn by J. G. Howard, 690 
Santiago, Chili, Sa. House of Enrique 
Concha y Toro, 
" " The Place of Arms, 


Springfield, Mass. Proposed House for 
C. D. Hosley. Guy Kirkham, Archi- 
tect, 688 

St. Louis, Mo. Building for Bell Tele- 
phone Co. Shepley, 
Rutan & Coolidge, 
Architects, 682 

' Building for Maj. F. H. 

Phipps and Mrs. R. R. 
Wallace. A. F. Rosen- 
helm, Architect, 689 
Syracuse, N. Y. Hler Flats. J. M. 

Elliott, Architect, 688 
Topeka. Kansas. Grace Church Cathe-- 
dral and Guild-hall. H. M. Congdon, 
Architect, 696 

Toronto, Can. House of Alexander 
Ure. Knox & 
Elliot, Archts., 689 
Upper Canada Col- 
lege. George F. 
Durum!, Arcbt.,682 
Interior of St. Mark's, after an Ktcli 

ing by Otto Bacher, 690 
Monument to Niccolo Orsiul, 697 
School of St. Mark and Church of 

SS. Giovanni e Paolo, 702 
Statue of Colleoni, 702 
Arena. The, 6% 
Cathedral. The 700 
Juliet's Tomb, 700 
Monument to Malaspina, 697 
Porta Borsari, 696 
Porta dei Leoni, 696 
St. Zeno, 700 

Tombs of the Scaligers, 698, 704 
Atlantic Building. James G. Hill, 

Architect, 694 (Gel.) 
National Bank of Washington. James 

G. Hill, Architect, 688 
Proposed Municipal Buildings. Wil- 
lis Polk, Architect, 687 
Watch Hill, R. 1. Cottage. Howard 
Hoppin, Archi- 
tect, 6.7 

" " " Cottage No. 4. 
Howard Hoppiu, 
Architect, 689 

West Philadelphia, Pa. House of J. 
De F. Junkin. Albert W. Dilks, 
Architect, 698 
Williamsburg, Va. Christ Church, 703 

" Sketches by A. B. 

Bibb, 703 

Wood's Holl, Mass. House of M.Ogdeu 
Jones. Wheelwright & Haven, Ar- 
chitects, 6*0 
Worcester, Mass. Armory. Fuller & 

Delano, Architects, 697 
Yi inkers. N. Y. Competitive Design for 
a School-house. Farnsworth, Hamil- 
ton & Mersereau, Architects, 692 
York, Pa. House of I. W. Allen. B. 

F. Willis, Architect, 708 
" " House of Frank Campbell. 
J. A. Dempwolf, Archi- 
tect, 682 

" " House of B. F. Willis. B. 
F. Willis, Architect, 688 



Copyright, 1889, by TICKNOK & COMPANY, Boston, Mags. 

No 680, 

JANUARY 5, 1889. 

Entered at the Post-office at Boston as second-class matter. 


Carrying on Mason- work in Cold Weather. Theatre iires at 
Oswego, N. Y., and Chicago, 111. The Supervising Archi- 
tect and the New York Tribune s Charges. Some Details of 
the alleged Improprieties committed by Mr. Freret. The 
Moral to be deduced from this Accusation. Massachusetts 
State-House Competition 



State Military Academy, Albany, N. Y. House of Mr. M. 
Ogden Jones, Woods Holl, Mass. Dining-room Window, 
Poland Springs Hotel. Dining-room Fireplace, Poland 
Springs Hotel. Brua Memorial Chapel, Pennsylvania 
College, Gettysburg, Pa. Details of Slow-burning Con- 



The Architectural Course at Columbia College. Slow-burning 

Construction. A Correction 



HE question of carrying on mason-work in freezing 
weather has excited a good deal of attention among archi- 
tects, since the publication of an official report to the 
British Government by a representative in Copenhagen, from 
which it appeared that brick walls are laid in that city in 
winter with perfect success, the only precaution taken being to 
use freshly-slaked lime in the mortar, so that it may be warm 
when put on. It is hardly necessary to say that many, if not 
most, architects doubt seriously the propriety of using under 
any circumstances mortar made with Jime half-slaked, and 
doubt still more whether the inevitable freezing would be any 
more advantageous to this sort of mortar than to the ordinary 
kind. Quite recently interesting contributions to the discussion 
have been made by architects and engineers in Norway. One 
of these, Herr Torp, a Government Engineer, had several ex- 
perimental walls built in 1879, part with materials prepared in 
the ordinary manner, and part with mortar made with freshly- 
slaked lime. The work was done in winter, the thermometer 
varying from six to twelve-and-one-half degrees below zero. 
We must note, by the way, that the Deutsche Bauzeitung, in 
which we find this interesting account, does not say whether 
the thermometer used is Fahrenheit or Reaumur or Centigrade, 
but although there seems to be a fashion in Germany just now 
of using Reaumur's scale, we may perhaps assume that these 
are Fahrenheit temperatures. The walls were left for five 
years exposed to the weather, and were then taken down. 
Although the best materials had been used, both in the hot and 
cold mortar, and the bricks had been laid with great care, the 
walls proved worthless. There was no cohesion between the 
bricks, and the mortar in all cases was mere powder. On 
the other hand, Herr Due, an architect of Christiania, who had 
built experimental walls, both with lime and cement, in very 
severe frosts, found in the following summer that the frozen 
walls were quite equal in quality to thosfc laid with similar 
materials in warm weather. A third expert, Herr Werwing, 
of Stockholm, reports that in 1881, five experimental piers 
were built in the city material-yard, with brick in lime mortar. 
The bricks were thoroughly dried, and the lime was not only 
freshly slaked, but the sand was piled on iron plates, heated 
learly to redness, and in this condition was mixed with the 
imo. The first pier was built when the thermometer showed 
:our below zero, the second at ten below, the third at fourteen 
ilow, and the fourth and fifth at eighteen below. Each pier, 
hen completed, was covered with a small roof, to keep the 
.in off the top. At present these piers are in tolerably good 
mditioii, but the joints of those built at a temperature of ten 
ilejrrees or more below zero were disintegrated to a consider- 
able depth by the frost soon after their completion. In the 
winter of 1886-7 a technical society in Stockholm had several 
experimental piers and walls built in cold weather, but the re- 

sult was so unfavorable that it was decided that the experiment 
had not been carried out with sufficient care, and the piers are 
to be .rebuilt. The Deutsche Bauzeitung hopes, as will all 
architects and engineers, that careful and extensive tests may 
be made, to decide conclusively under what circumstances 
mason-work, in lime or cement mortar, can be safely carried on 
in severely cold weather, and we earnestly commend the sub- 
ject to the attention of students at our schools of scientific 
architecture. So far, the only points upon which the experi- 
menters seem to be agreed, are that the bricks must be dry, 
and that the work must be done with great care. These, how- 
ever, coyer only a small portion of the subject. In fact, 
" great care " is not to be expected of bricklayers at work in a 
piercing February wind, and what architects and builders want to 
know is how walls can be safely built, with either lime or cement, 
with ordinary care during the cold season. To our mind, the 
idea of warming the mortar by using freshly-slaked lime, or by 
toasting the sand on hot plates, has something ridiculous about 
it. The mass of mortar is so small in proportion to that of 
the bricks, that if the latter were employed at the temperature 
of the atmosphere in a cold day, the mortar would freeze be- 
tween them almost instantaneously even if it were at boiling- 
point when applied. Any one can satisfy himself of this by 
pouring hot water on a brick pavement on a cold day, and 
mortar freezes much more readily than clear water. Of 
course, the mortar under some circumstances, may not be in- 
jured by freezing, but this immunity from injury should not be 
wrongly attributed to the effect of using hot lime in prevent- 
ing it from freezing. If we might make a suggestion, it would 
be that some one should experiment in a field hitherto almost 
untried, bv warming the bricks, instead of the mortar. We 
had, years ago, occasion to lay brickwork in cement in winter, 
and the bricks were kept hot by piling them over one of the 
low, flat furnaces used for heating pebbles for making coal-tar 
concrete. They retained the warmth for a long time, probably 
long enough for the cement in the inner portions of the wall, at 
least, to set before freezing, and the work seems to have been 
perfectly sound ; but whether this was a better plan than heat- 
ing the mortar alone, or how the bricks can be best warmed, or 
whether the cement under such circumstances would be better 
with salt or lime in it, are points which trial alone can^decide. 

TTTO have two theatres burned in one night, without any loss 
'i of life, is a piece of good fortune which is not likely to 
occur again very soon. In Oswego, N. Y., the other night, 
during the performance of one of Mrs. Langtry's plays at the 
Academy of Music in that city, clouds of smoke were seen to 
pour up from the hot-air register in the middle-aisle, and the 
crackling of fire was heard beneath. Naturally, the audience 
and the actors made a rush for the doors, which was partially 
checked by what the newspapers call some " cool-headed men." 
who jumped upon the stage and shouted that there was " no 
danger." Fortunately, the people in the audience trusted the 
evidence of their own senses, rather than the representations 
of the "cool-headed men," and in two minutes the theatre was 
cleared, just as flames began to come through the floor. The 
fire, it seems, caught from an overheated furnace in the base- 
ment, which, by 'a judicious effort of planning which we would 
like to commend to the attention of the next grand jury, was 
placed under the middle-aisle, near the main entrance, just 
where it would have cut off the escape of a large part of the 
audience, if they had listened to the blandishments of the " cool- 
headed men," and delayed their rush for safety. In Chicago, 
on the same night, just after the close of a performance at the 
Chicago Opera House, one of the calcium-lights -used for the 
stage effects fell to the floor, setting fire to the carpet, and in a 
short time the building was completely burned out. If the 
accident had happened half an hour earlier, it is impossible to 
say how many lives might have been lost, but only one or two 
persons were left in the building, who easily escaped. 


E generally prefer to wait for more definite information 
before taking up the " charges " which are so liberally 
hurled at Democratic office-holders by Republican news- 

papers, and vice versd, and the New York Tribune, we regret 
to say, is not the journal to which we refer with the most im- 

The American Architect and Building News. [Vou XXV. No. 680. 

plicit confidence for information on topics bearing upon politics ; 
but one of its recent " developments," or " mare's nests," or 
whatever else our readers may choose to call it, has so much 
importance to the public and the profession, whether there 
is any truth in it or not, that we will try to extract a moral 
from it, without attempting to investigate its probability. Ac- 
cording to the Washington correspondent of the Tribune, who 
has just turned his austere Republican eye upon the office of 
the Democratic supervising architect, a state of affairs has been, 
or rather, is likely to be found there, which must excite the 
gravest concern in all lovers of virtue. Among other things, 
it appears that Colonel Freret, the present supervising archi- 
tect, has so monstrous a love for Democratic draughtsmen that, 
after the recent order of the President, placing his office under 
Civil Service rules, he " summoned his henchmen " and con- 
cocted with them an extraordinary scheme for resisting the 
operation of the order. As soon as draughtsmen were needed 
for the office, although, under the new rules, it was necessary 
to select the candidates by competitive examination, the con- 
spirators, to whom, for some unexplained reason, the Civil 
Service Commissioners appear to have entrusted the prepara- 
tion of the examination papers, drew up a set of questions 
" that would turn any would-be applicant gray." Advertise- 
ments for candidates were inserted in the newspapers, accom- 
panied with a statement of requirements which was " enough to 
knock the best architectural draughtsman in the country dizzy," 
with the purpose of preventing candidates from presenting 
themselves or passing the examination, so that, in default of 
material from this source, Colonel Freret would be permitted 
to appoint his assistants himself. Whether this plan, in the 
description of which it will be observed that the Tribune corre- 
spondent keeps up in perfection the style of composition be- 
queathed by the late Mr. Greeley to his successors, worked 
well or not we are unable to ascertain, but it appears that, if 
any candidates presented themselves, none were accepted at the 
examinations, and only a small amount of imagination is re- 
quired to infer all the rest from this circumstance. 

OOON afterwards, however, another fell plot was conceived 
k\ in the bosom of the supervising architect, whose " insatiable 
desire for self-glorification and enrichment " is soon, it 
appears, to be fed by means which have been revealed to the 
Tribun^ correspondent, although kept secret from all other 
persons. The principal point of this scheme, and, it need 
hardly be said, the one which causes the keenest anguish to 
good Republicans, is to consist in an effort to have contracts 
entered into for all public buildings for which an appropriation 
has been made before the fourth of March, when the present 
administration goes out of office. As the execution of this 
heinous purpose requires the cooperation of the principal as- 
sistants in the office, they have been seduced by " plums " in 
the shape of missions to buy sites for the new buildings, and 
will, we suppose, come back prepared for any iniquity, although, 
as it is usual to obtain sites for public buildings before proceed- 
ing to their erection, and as these gentlemen have been for 
years entrusted with that duty, we do not at once perceive how 
Satan should be able to utilize the present opportunity any better 
than the previous ones. However, we suppose that Colonel 
Freret, who evidently maintains intimate relations with the 
powers of evil, will look out for that, and on their return the 
conspirators will find the plot ready. Omitting the least important 
of the horrid details which the Tribune correspondent gives, the 
scheme contemplates nothing less than the employment of the 
office-draughtsmen after hours in making the drawings required 
for contracting for the new buildings. As there seems to be 
some objection to doing this directly, the plan is said to be for 
the supervising architect to employ outside architects to furnish 
drawings for given buildings, which, by the way, is, we think, 
often done, with the understanding that they, in their turn, 
will engage the office-draughtsmen to do for them, as private 
individuals, out of hours the work which official routine does 
not allow them to do for the public authority. By this indirect 
means the persons familiar with the proposed buildings will be 
enabled to push the drawings far more rapidly than would be 
the case in the ordinary course, and at the same time, according 
to the Tribune correspondent, there will be " general demorali- 
zation of the office, and the establishment of a precedent dan- 
gerous and impracticable," besides " utter confusion and the 
worthless work that must ensue in consequence of its being 
done in less than one-fifth the time required for good work," 

followed by the award, " on these drawings bristling with mis- 
takes," of contracts which " cannot be annulled without great 
cost to the Government," while, " if the buildings are begun, 
half the work will have to be torn down as worthless." This 
" startling conspiracy," which, to the ordinary mind, looks 
exactly like an attempt of a faithful and energetic architect to 
free himself from the intolerable fetters of official deliberation 
and routine and try, for once, to get public work done with the 
same promptness that would be shown in private transactions, 
is called by the Tribune correspondent a " premeditated and de- 
termined attempt to violate the law," devised by Colonel 
Freret to " enrich himself." Abundant proof is asserted to be 
in the possession of the same correspondent " to send several 
of the officials of the supervising architect's office to State 
Prison," and " at least twenty " of these gentlemen are repre- 
sented as " liable to indictment and punishment by fine and im- 
prisonment, or both," while Congress is called upon to inter- 
fere at once, and, in fact, the Senate, as the guardian of 
Republican interests, has already ordered an investigation into 
charges which, so far as we can see, are based simply on specu- 
lations as to what Colonel Freret's motives could have been in 
making his examination papers so hard, and sending certain of 
his clerks to certain places, and on predictions as to what he is 
likely to do hereafter. 

TITHE moral which decent architects, as well as decent people 
i. generally, will draw from all this is that, under present 
conditions, appointment to a post of professional responsi- 
bility under the United States Government is a disgrace and 
degradation to be avoided at all hazards. So long as Tribune 
and World correspondents and their like are allowed, under the 
excuse of political zeal, to lay hold of the simplest acts of an 
official, garnish them with false constructions and interpolations 
invented on the spot, and exhibit their victim, day after day, as 
a fit subject for the criminal courts, just so long will the public 
be served mainly by persons with no reputation to lose. We 
have always believed the supervising architect's office to have 
been originally a device for exercising an extensive political 
influence under cover x>f doing work which, as has been amply 
demonstrated, would be much better and more cheaplv done by 
employing local architects. The excellent character of the 
heads of the office has done much to deprive it of its usefulness 
as a political machine, and the scandals which disgraced it 
during the early days of its existence would be impossible under 
the well-trained professional men who have of late years con- 
ducted it, but, with its disposition and opportunity to exert 
political influence, its only reason for existence disappears. 
The uniform testimony of those who should know best, the in- 
cumbents of the office, is that it is a slow and cumbrous device 
for producing poor work at an enormous expense, and that it 
exposes the Government to fraud on the part of contractors by 
allowing the architect no discretion in dealing with them, while 
the endless defamation poured upon those who hold what the 
Tribune correspondent calls its " fat berths " by those who 
would like to get into them themselves brings Government em- 
ployment into contempt among self-respecting members of the 

JI7HERE is a homely adage about the bird that fouls its own 
X nest which has a close application to this matter of com- 
petitions conducted under improper conditions, and. if 
architects as a body, who, if we understand an article in this 
month's issue of the Century, are looked on by the public as a 
cross between the vampire and the turkey buzzard, are not in- 
terested in the cleanliness of their own nest, they have themselves 
to blame if the public continue to proffer them offal for their 
subsistence. The protest against the manner of conducting 
the competition . for the enlargement of the Massachusetts 
State-House is put in such a form as to have application to 
any similar invitation, and the greater the number of pro- 
testants from all parts of the country the more respectful 
consideration it will receive, the more valuable precedent will 
it establish, and the greater step forward toward the desired 
better condition of things will have been taken. We will remind 
the younger men who may be disposed to regard such affairs 
as their " chance," that when they are a few years older they 
will look upon the matter from a different standpoint, and will 
then regret that they did not make an effort to help abolish 
the evil. 

JANUARY 5, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 

Fig. 235. Spring Wire Blind-fast. 



TT7HE appliances for se- 
X curing outside blinds, 
though in some cases 
combined directly or indi- 
rectly with the blind 
hinges, are more often 
distinct fixtures, acting 
independently of the 
blind attachments. The 
usage in regard to shutter 
fasts and locks varies in 
different portions of the 
country. In the West 
there seems to be a 

willingness to accept considerable complication in the de- 
vices, whereas the standard Eastern goods are mostly 
very simple ; though, of course, this distinction is not a rigid 
one, by any means. The West, however, is rapidly developing 
new ideas and fresh combinations, in hardware no less than in 
nearly every other department of mechanical industry, and 
special patent forms seem to be more naturally expected there 
than elsewhere. This does not imply that the Eastern cities 
are united in the usage of particular forms, for places as near 
to each other as New York, Providence and Boston employ 
different forms, as will be seen later on. 

Figure 235 will serve to illustrate one of the most common 
forms of shutter or blind fast, consisting of a tempered steel 
rod, or wire, one end of which is cut with a thread arid screws 
into the under side of the blind, while the other end is held by 
a staple. The rod is bent so that the loop is kept away from 
the blind, and the elasticity of the metal enables it to spring 

Fig. 236. Folsom's Blind-fast. J. H. Hiller. 

into the malleable-iron catch on the sill, or on the outside of 
the wall. The well-known " Stedd " blind fastener is prac- 
tically the same as this, except that the rod is bent in a com- 
plete twist to gain the elasticity, and a common screw takes 
the place of the threaded end. The same form is made, with 
slight variations, by several of the leading manufacturers. 

Figure 236 shows the only form of wire blind-fast which 
allows one to close the blind without leaning out of the window, 
or in any way lifting the shutter to release it from the back 
catch. It consists of a steel wire, bent as shown by the figure, 
but carried as far back towards the hinge as the hanging-style 

of the blind will per- 
mit. To release the 
blind, the fastener is 
simply pulled inward. 
Any form of back 
catch may be used. 
For the sill-catch a 
wide staple is used, 
which is set on an 
angle to the blind, so 

Fig. 237. Boston Pattern Blind-fast. Stanley Works. 

as to force the spring 
back and permit it to 
catch behind the staple. This fastener has but very recently 
been put on the market. 

The blind-fast shown by Figure 238 works entirely by gravity. 
It consists of a bent lever, working in a mortise cut through 
the bottom rail of the blind, pivoted so that one arm protrudes 
above the top of the rail, while the other catches over an ordi- 
nary hook on the sill or against the wall. Lugs on the end of 
the horizontal lever arm catch on a thin plate screwed to the 
under side (,f the rail and prevent the fast from dropping too 

1 Continued f roan page 276, No. G77. 


low or being lifted too high. This fast is made of coppered 
malleable-iron, and seems like a very satisfactory article. 

Figure 237 is an older style of blind-fast, on essentially the 
same principle as Figure 236 ; using, however, a flat bar 
instead of the spring wire. This form requires a little more 

work in adjustment. It 

is designated peculiarly 
as the " Boston " pat- 
tern blind-fast. The so- 
called " New York " 
pattern is illustrated by 
Figure 239. The action 
of this fast will be better 
appreciated when it is 
. remembered that in 
New York, the blinds 
are usually hung flush 
with the outer casing, 
and the sill is rebated 
so that the bottom of 
the blind strikes against 
the upper rebate. The 
latch is hinged on the 
inner plate, the weight 
of the long arm keeping the inner hook thrown up. The sill- 
staple is driven perpendicularly, while the back catch is screwed 
horizontally into the wall. The Stanley Works also has what 
is designated as the " Providence " style of blind-fast. This is 



Fig. 238. Gravity Blind-fast. 

Fig. 240. Standard Screw 
Blind-fast. Stanley 

Fig. 239. New York Pattern Blind-fast. Stanley Works. 

exactly the same as the " New York " pattern, except that the 
inner hook catches over instead of under the sill-staple, and is 
shaped like the back catch of Figure 235, inverted. 

Figure 240 shows a form of blind-fast which is screwed 
bodily through the blind, catching on sill and wall staples in 
the same manner as the preceding styles. A flat spring 
inside of the case keeps the inner hook constantly pressed up 
and against the sill- 
staple. A variation 
of this same pattern 
is made which acts by 
gravity, the catch 
working in an oblique 
slot in such a manner 
that the weight of the 
outer catch forces 
the inner catch always 

Fig. 241. Security Blind-fast. Stanley Works. 

against the sill-staple. 

Figures 241 and 242 illustrate two forms of fasts which are 
screwed to the under side of the blind. The former acts 

Fig. 243. Turn-buckle 
A. G. Newman. 

Fig. 242. Lock Blind-fast. Stanley Works. 

entirely by gravity. The lobes, A A, are connected through 
the case, and are counterbalanced so as to always drop to the 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 680. 

position shown. When the blind is closed, the lobe strikes 
against the sill-pin and is forced up as shown by the dotted 
lines, dropping so as to catch inside of the pin. Figure 242 
has a concealed spring, to force the action of the lever. 

The foregoing styles of blind-fasts are intended to be used 
on wooden buildings, but with some modifications in the sizes 
might also serve for brick buildings. In New York, it is 
customary to use some form of turn-buckle, Figure 243, which 
is driven 'into the joints of the brickwork, the cross-piece being 
free to turn, but hanging naturally in a vertical position by 
reason of the greater weight of the longer arm. Turn-buckles 
of a slightly different shape are sometimes used, also, for 
wooden buildings. 

All of the foregoing are, in a certain sense, automatic ; that 
is to say, the blind, if "flung open or shut will stay in position, 
requiring no special adjustment. Figure 244 is a form of drop- 

Fig. 244. Drop-and-Prn-fast. Stanley Works. 

and-pin fast, much used in some cases, consisting simply of a 
plate secured to the blind by a screw-eye, perforated with a 
hole to fit over the pin driven into the sill. For holding the 
blind open, a back catch is made as shown by the figure, which 
locks with a plain, flat spring, screwed to the under side of the 
blind. The figure also shows the form of back catch used for 
brick buildings. 

Firrures 245 and 240 show two very simple forms of blind- 
catch serving only to keep the blind closed, and generally 

Fig. 245. Seymour's Blind-catch. 
f. & F. Corbin. 

Fiir. 246. Blind-catch. 

Shepard Hardware 


Fig. 247. Seymour's 
Blind catch and lock. 
P. & F. Corbin. 

used with some form of turn-buckle to hold the blind open. 
Figure 24.5 works with the aid of a small spring, as 
shown ; Figure 246 works entirely by gravity. There are 
several varieties of each of these forms 
in the market. The catch shown by 
Figure 247 acts in the same manner 
as Figure 245, but has, in addition, a 
locking-lever, operated by a key, which 
secures the catch so that the blind can- 
not be opened. 

There are a number of forms of blind- 
hinges, which have been previously de- 
scribed in the chapter on hinges, that 
iu a measure serve as blind-fasteners, 
keeping the blind either open or shut. 
They are all perfectly simple in their 
operations, and it is difficult to discrim- 
inate between them. The common 

Fig. 248. 

By R am, he st e e r wa B rt nd & f ault with them all is in the difficulty 

of opening and closing the blind. With 
most of the forms of patent self-locking blind - hinge, the 
blind must be raised from its seat in order to be swung 
around. With the blind-fasts previously described in this 
chapter, it is necessary to lean far out of the window to 
release the catch from underneath. Figure 248 shows a device 
intended to overcome the difficulties of both styles. It consists 

simply of a lever attached to the blind, and hooking into a 
plate screwed onto the jamb of the window. It is only 
necessary to lift the end of the lever in order to swing the 



Fig. 249. Tenon Blind-fastener. Tenon Fastener Co. 

blind shut. The advantages are that in closing, no lifting of 
the blind is necessary ; there is no danger of throwing it off the 
hinges, and no chance of pinching the fingers or bumping the 

There arc several other devices intended to hold the blind, 
either shut or open. Figure 210 illustrates the "Tenon" 
blind-fastener, which con- 
sists of a bent, flat bar, 
attached to the outside 
of the blind and catching 
in slots cut in a plate 
which is secured to the 
sill, so that the blind can 
be held either open or 
shut, or in either of two 
intermediate positions. 
The bar is lifted by 
means of a lever on the 
inside of the blind. This 
fixture does away with 
the ordinary bottom 
hinge, substituting therefor a pivot working in the locking sill- 
plate. A blind-fastener of this description is especially suita- 

Fig. 250. 

xcelsior Blind-adjuster 

Russell & 

Fig. 251. Washburn's Blind-adjuster. B. 0. Washburn. 

ble for bay-windows, or any place where the blinds cannot open 
clear back. Being placed on the outside of the blind exposes 

it to the weather to an undesirable 
degree, though it is made of Bower- 
Barffed ifon to prevent it from 

Figure 250 is a very simple form 
of bar blind-adjuster, the bar being 
attached to the blind, and held in 
position by the action of the thumb- 
screw on the jamb ; Figure 25 1 
shows a variation of the same 
principle, consisting of a bar which 
fits into the sockets at several points 
on the sill, enabling the blind to be 
held in several different positions. 
The action of the adjuster will 
readily be understood by the figure. 
Zimmerman's Blind-fast is on 
practically the same principle as 

The difficulty with the two fore- 
going patterns is, that they do not 
hold the blind perfectly rigid, and 
the rods are likely to get in the way, 
specially as the rods and sockets 
take up considerable space on the 

Fig. 2K2. Mallorv's Shutter-* 
Frank B. Mallory. 

sill. There is but little practical advantage in having a fixture 
which permits of the blind being open at various degrees, for, 

JANUARY 5, J889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 

aa a rule, most people prefer to have their blinds either entirely 
open or entirely shut. 

The desire to open and operate blinds without opening the 
window has led to the invention of several devices which are 

worked by rods pass- 
ing entirely through 
the frame of the 
house and attached to 
the blind. It is not 
altogether easy to 
understand why such 
devices are used so 
little, but it must be 
admitted, that all of 
those now in the mar- 
ket are more or less 
clumsy. Still, the 
.idea is an excellent 
one, and if there were 
greater demand for 
such appliances, un- 
doubtedly better ones 
would be put before the public. The shutter-worker of this 
description that is the most natural in its adjustment is illus- 
trated by Figure 252. This consists simply of a rod, at the 

Fig. 253. Brown's Shutter-worker. Ireland Mfg. Co. 

Brockton Shutter-worker. 
Tyler Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 254. Automatic Shutter-worker. Dudley Shutter- Worker Co. 

end of which is a thread working against a cog-wheel forming 
a part of the bottom hinge of the blind. On account of the 

slowness of pitch of the thread, 
it is very difficult to move the 
blind from the outside, but the lev- 
erage is sufficiently strong to 
enable one to easily open the 
blind from within by turning 
the crank. 

A very similar appliance to 
this is the Brown shutter-worker, 
Figure 253, in which the thread 
on the spindle works into teeth 
on the bottom of a plate forming 
a part of the lower shutter hinge. 
The Automatic Shutter-worker, Figure 254, combines the 
good points of several other devices, and is somewhat more 
complicated than either of the preceding. Two cog-wheels 
gear into each other. The shaft of one wheel is carried 
through the wall and can be operated by a crank or handle in- 
side the house. The shaft of the other wheel turns a crank, 
or bent lever, the end of which works in a slide attached to the 
face of the blind. The cog-wheels are encased in an iron box, 
which is shown partly removed in the figure, in order to illus- 
trate the workings. Aside from the number of parts, which is 
no very great objection, this shutter-worker has a great deal to 
recommend it. It is strong and compact, and can act on the 
shutter with such force that, it is asserted, a child can work 
the blind with it in a high wind. It has the advantage of per- 
mitting the blind to be removed without disturbing the fixtures. 
One of the simplest acting shutter-workers, is illustrated by 
Figure 255. This is very ingenious in its idea, consisting of a 
straight rod set on an angle, with a bent lever on the end 
working in a curved slot or catch secured to the outer face of 
the blind. This shutter-worker will lock the blind as securely 

as any door can be locked, the handle of the rod being dropped 
down onto the pin as shown by the lock. 

The company which manufactures the Brockton shutter- 
worker has bought up the patents of the Prescott shut- 
ter-worker, which was somewhat on the same principle. 
There are a few other shapes in the market ; but practically a 
very few, which embody ideas essentially different from those 


Awning-hinges might more properly be considered with 
common blind-hinges, but they are included in this connec- 
tion, as they are in a measure blind-adjusters, permitting the 
blind to be opened part way. The writer has been able to 
find only two forms in the market. The simplest is shown 

Fig. 256. Tucker Awning Blind-hinge. Hamblin & Russell Mfg. Co. 

by Figure 25G. This consists of a double-acting hinge for 
the upper portion of the blind, a lower hinge being screwed to 
the jamb and fastened to the blind only by a turn-button. 
The other form of awning-fixture is more commonly used 

fig. '2M. Byam's Blind-slat Adjuster. Byam, 
Stewart & Baker. 

Fig. 257. Automatic Blind-awning 
Fixtures. F. O. North & Co. 

Fig. 259. Shutter-bar. 

about Boston, Figure 257. The upper hinge is so made as to 
work in either direction, while the lower hinge consists of a 
cup fitting over a pin screwed to the jamb. A small catch, A, 
keeps the blind from pushing out when the hinges are to be 
used in the ordinary manner, but is readily lifted when the 
blinds are to be pushed out from the bottom. The fixtures are 

Fig. 260. Shutter-bar. Fig. 261. Morris's Self-locking Shutter-bar. Ire- 

land Mfg. Co. j 

sold with side-bars to hold the bottom of the blind away from 
the building, and with a centre cross-bar which permits the 
blinds to be opened part way in the ordinary manner, and 
secured. The description and the figure might seem to imply 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 680. 

a somewhat complicated arrangement, though the fixtures work 
very simply, and seldom fail to give satisfaction. 

Figure 258 shows a form of slat-adjuster intended to be 
operated by a key from the inside of the house without opening 
the window. The slats are connected with an eccentric which 
is turned by the key, so that the slats can be either raised or 
lowered as desired. 


There is little to be said as regards fasts or locks for inside 
shutters. The shutters themselves are usually provided with 
knobs of some description, with porcelain or metal heads 
secured in position by a screw. The shutters are also provided 
with some form of latch or bar, of which Figure 259 is a very 
simple type. Figure 260 shows a more elaborate form, for 
inside work. There are, of course, many variations of these 
forms. A few of the hardware manufacturers have been 
making self-locking shutter-bars, in which the cross-bar is 
secured by some form of auxilliary lever or cam. Figure 261 
illustrates one variety. There is, however, but little demand 
for such appliances. 

For sliding shutters a bar like that shown by Figure 260 
may be employed. There are also several varieties of mortise 
hooks, Figure 262, which work with a spring, and are rather 
preferable for most cases. 

The retail prices of the foregoing blind and shutter fixtures 
are as follows : 








Stanley's wire blind-fast 

Folsom's shutter-fastener 

Boston pattern blind-fast 

New York pattern blind-fast 

Standard screw blind-fast 

Security blind-fast 

Lock blind-f ast 

Turn-buckles or drop-buttons for brick 

Turn-buckles or drop-buttons for wood 

Drop-and-piu fast 

Seymour's blind-catch 

Shepard blind-fast 

Seymour's blind catch and lock 

Rochester blind-hinge 

Tenon blind-fastener 

Excelsior blind-adjuster, galvanized 

Washburn's blind-adjuster, 1 galvanized, 10-inch bar 

Mallory's shutter-worker, with hinges and handle 

Brown's shutter-worker, japanned 

Automatic shutter-worker, with hinges and handle 

Brockton shutter-worker 

Tucker awning blind hinges 1 

Automatic blind awning fixtures 1 

Byam's blind slat-adjuster 

Shutter-bars bronzed-iron, 2-inch, per dozen 

Shutter-bars, bronze, 2-inch, per dozen 

Morris's self-looking shutter-bar, bronzed-iron, 2-inch, per dozen. 

Morris's self-locking shutter-bar, bronze, 2-inch, per dozen 

Sliding shutter-hook, bronze, each 


$ .07 




1 For wooden house. 


Transoms are hung by common butts at the top or bottom, 
or are pivoted in the centre horizontally. The ordinary hinges 
used for transoms are such as might be used for any purpose. 
These have been previously discussed. Sash centres or pivots 
are commonly mortised into the frame and into the sash. 
Figure 263 is the ordinary form. Figure 264 is another 
variety in which both pivots are exactly alike. This is 

secured in place by first fastening the round part of the pivot 
at entire end of the sash, and securing one socket-piece to the 
sash-frame. The other socket is then fitted to the opposite 
pivot, and the sash placed in position and turned at right 

Fig. 262. Sliding Shutter-hook. Fig. 263. Sash-centres or Transom-hinges. 

P. & F. Corbin. 

angles, thus uncovering the second socket, so that it can be 
screwed to the jamb. This form is claimed to be tighter and 
consequently more secure against draughts than the ordinary 

Instead of either of the foregoing, it is sometimes desirable 

Fig. 265. Surface Sash- 
centre. P. & F. Corbm. 

Fig. 264. Sash-pivot. A.G.Newman. 

to use pivots which do not turn on the line of the centre of the 
sash. Figure 265 illustrates a form which can be used in such 



Fig. 266. Surface Sash-centre. J. F. Fig. 267. Transom-pivot. Hopkins & 

Wollensak. Dickinson Mfg. Co. 

a case, both pivot and socket being planted on the faces of the 
sash and the frame. Figure 266 and Figure 267 are other 
varieties sometimes met with. The different uses for which 

Fig. 269. Cupboard and Transom Catch. Ire- 
land Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 268. Transom-catch. A. G. Fig. 270. Transom-catch. J. B. Shannon & 
Newman. Sons. 

these various forms are applicable will readily be appreciated ; 
the first being for a case in which the jambs and the sash are 
flush ; the second, one in which the transom sets out from the 
jamb ; and the third, one in which the jamb is too deep, or the 

>0. 650. |[MEI^IG5IN IfaGHITEGT r ND BUILDING HEWS, J^K 5. 155.9 


0. 650. 



, JflK 5. 1(359 



S, JflX 5. 1559 


>4 ////^ ../////' '//"'///'Hid W;v 

SH^S ;/ ,sfe 

Vh^lwri^ht X H^v^n , Ardifr 

|[iviEi\iG5iN HI^GHITEGT MND BUILDING HEWS, Jax 5. 1559 Ho. 650. 

5, 1889.] 

TJie American Architect ana, Building News. 

transom set too far in to permit of the hinges being applied to 
the face of the jamb. 

Transoms are usually provided with some form of spring 
catch to hold them closed. Figure 268 is a direct catch, the 

Fig. 271. Transom-lift. J. F. 

Fig. 272. American Transom-lift. 
American Mfg. Co. 

latch being secured to the transom. This is for use when the 
jamb and the sash are flush. Figure 2G9 is a transom-catch 
worked on a little different principle from the foregoing. The 
same form is also used for cupboards. This, as well as the 
first, is fastened onto the face of the transom. Figure 270 shows a 
transom-catch intended to be mortised into the edge of the tran- 
som, either at the top or the bottom. 

In the best work it is customary to provide some appliance 
for lifting the transom and holding it in position. With the 

Fig. 273. Steller Tran- Fig. 274. Overall's Transom- Fig. 275. Excelsior Tran- 
som-lifter. Russell & lifter. P. & F. Corbm. som-lifter. Russell & 
Erwin. Erwin. 

ordinary catches previously described, a chain is attached at 
one side of the transom, permitting it to be opened down from 
the top a certain distance only ; but it is much more convenient 
to have some appliance that will permft the transom to be 
opened in either direction, and will hold it securely. The, 
most popular, and one of the best known is the Wollensak 

transom-lifter, Figure 271. This consists of a straight rod with 
a hinged arm attached to it, the arm being secured to the edge 
of the transom, while the rod works up and down in a series of 
rings, being held at any given height by turning a button at 
the bottom binding on the rod. These are made for transoms 
either pivoted at the centre and swinging down, or pivoted and 
swinging up, or hinged at either top or bottom. Figure 272 
shows another form, made by the American Manufacturing 
Company. The rod in this case is replaced by a flat bar, the 
attachment otherwise being essentially the same as in the 
previous example. The bar is notched at the bottom on the 
inner edge, and a catch on the lower guide-ring locks the bar 
at any height. Figure 273 is another form 
manufactured by Russell & Erwin. In this 
case the bar is held in position by turning 
the button at the bottom. This transom 
is provided with a supplementary set of 
guides at the top, so that in shoving up the 
bar there will be no opportunity "for the 
weight of the transom to deflect it sidewise. 
Figure 274 shows a form of transom-lifter 
manufactured by P. & 
F. Corbin, consisting 
of a straight rod, with 
a long, flexible steel 
attachment at the top. 
The rod is secured at 
any height by a turn- 
button in the same 
manner as in the first 
example, while the 
flexibility of the upper 
portion of the rod per- 
mits the transom to 
turn at any angle. 
There is yet another 
form, Figure 275. This 
consists of a single 


rod attached directly 
to the transom, and 
secured on the jamb Fig . 
only by a single turn- 
button, near the bot- 

bottoin. This turn-button is placed at an angle in such a 
manner as to allow considerable side-play on the rod, and so 
permit of the deflection necessary for opening the transom. 



Skylight-lift and 
J. F Wollensak. 


277. Skylight-lift. 
S. L. Hill. 









Sash-centres, japanned, per dozen pairs 

Sash-centres, brass, per pair 

Sash-pivots, If-inch brass or bronze, per set 

Sash-pivots, bronzed-iron, per set 

Surface sash-centres, P. & F. Corbin, brass, per set 

Surface sash-centres, Wollensak, bronze No. 4, per set 

Surface sash-centres, Wollensak, bronzed-iron, per set 

Surface sash-centres, Hopkins & Dickinson, bronze, per set 

Transom-catch, per dozen 

Transom and cupboard catch, bronze, per dozen 

Transom and cupboard catch, bronzed-iron, per dozen 

Transom-catch, bronze, per dozen 

Wollensak's transom-lifter, bronzed 

Wollensak's transom-lifter, nickel-plated 

American transom-lifter, coppered 

American transom-lifter, nickel-plated 

Steller's transom-lifter, bronzed-iron 

Steller's transom-lifter, bronze 

Overell's transom-lifter, bronzed 

Excelsior transom-lifter, bronzed 

Wollensak's skylight-lifter, No. 12, each 

Hill's skylight-lifter, each 

$ .62 






















Prices for transom-lifters are lor a medium 4-foot rod and for a single fixture. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 680. 

Closely allied to the transom-lifters are those which are used 
for skylights. Figure 276 shows a form manufactured by 
Wolleusak. This consists of a double bar attached to a socket 
working on a slotted bar. The socket has attached to it a 
spring-catch which slips into the slots on the bar. The rope 
passes through the socket up over a pulley, and down through 
an eye in the end of the spring-catch. By pulling the bar out 
away from the socket, the spring-catch is released and the 
socket, and with it the skylight may be lifted or lowered, the 
spring-catch shutting back when the horizontal strain on the 
rope ?s relaxed. This is made in two sizes, with a length of 
eighteen inches each. Figure '277 shows another form of sky- 
light-lifter in which a ratchet on the side of the upper frame- 
work fits into slots on the edge of the lifting-rod, the ratchet 
being worked by a separate cord. The ratchet is fitted with a 
spring to keep it in position. 

The preceding table gives the retail prices of the goods de- 
scribed in this chapter, 

[ To be continued.! 

[Contributors are requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of cost.'} 

[Gelatine Print, issued only with the Imperial Edition.] 









BOSTON, MASS., December 18, 1888. 

TlIE Commonwealth of Massachusetts lias, by its Commissioners, 
advertised for designs for the State-House extension, said 
designs to be furnished in open competition. The conditions 
of the competition, as announced, have evidently been framed with- 
out due regard to the best custom in the conduct of such matters, 
the sole end and aim of which should be to secure to the State the 
best service by making sure that " the best men shall take part ; that 
they shall be "encouraged to do their best; that the best they offer 
shall be selected; and that the author of the successful design shall 
be employed as architect, provided the building is built and he is 

The conditions announced are faulty 

First. In that they are not drawn up in accordance with the best 
custom, and no assurance is given that an expert adviser will be 
employed to aid the Commission in their choice. 

Second. That no assurance is given that the successful competi- 
tor will be employed, but, on the contrary, it is distinctly stated that 
all premiated competitors are to relinquish all ownership in their 
plans to the State, without any further claim to compensation or em- 

Third. Even if the first prize in the competition were as it should 
be, the execution of the building, the actual prizes offered would 
still be entirely insufficient compensation to the authors of the draw- 
ings placed second and third. 

For the above reasons, we, the undersigned architects, citizens of the 
State of Massachusetts [and elsewhere], protest against this form of* 

competition, which, in our opinion, is not for the best interests of the 
State or of our profession, and we therefore decline to enter it : 



Cabot. Everett & Mead. 
Wheelwright It Haven. 
Joseph K. Richards. 
John A. Fox. 
Geo. M. Young. 
E. A. P. Newcomb. 
Longfellow, Aldeu & Har- 


Edwin J. Lewis. 
Andrews & Jaques. 
H. Langford Warren. 
Walker & Best. 
Win. Kotch Ware. 
Hartwell & Richardson. 
Cummings & Sears. 
T. M. Clark. 
Allen & Kenway. 
Rand & Taylor. 
Thos. O'Grady, Jr. 
Slurpis & Cabot. 
Shepley, Kuttui & Cool- 


Rotcli & Tilden. 
Snell & Gregerson. 
Shaw & Hunnuwell. 
Win. G. Preston. 
L. Weissbeiii. 
Franz E. Zerrahn. 
Carl Fehmer. 
Arthur Little. 
Penbody & Stearns. 
Winslow & Wetherell. 


W. H. McGinty. 
W. M. Bacon. 
W. P. Richards. 
Daniel Appleton. 
H. M. Stephenson. 
W. R. Emerson. 
Wm. Whitney Lewis. 
J. Merrill Brown. 
Chamberlin & Whidden. 
Win. D. Austin. 
F. W. Chandler. 


E. A. Ellsworth. 
H. Walther. 

'Jas. A. Olough. 
Geo. P. B. Alderman. 
Cain & Kilburn. 
Henry H. Gridley. 
W. E. Fitch, C. E. 
D. H. & A. B. Tower. 
T. W. Maun. 


Chas. T. Emerson. 


Wheeler & Northend. 
Call & Varney. 
H. W. Rogers. 


F. W. Stickney. 
Merrill & Cutler. 


Gardner, Pyne & Gard- 

Richmond & Seabury. 
Jason Perkins. 
F. S. Newman. 
J. M. Currier. 


Stephen C. Earl. 
E. Boyden & Son. 
Fuller & Delano. 
A. P. Cutting. 
J. B. Woodworth. 


T. B. Ghequier. 
K. F. J. Johnson. 


Alderman & Lee. 


C. T. Beardsley, Jr. 


W. B. Bigelow. 
Fowler & Hough. 


Smith & Pritchett. 


I. H. Green, Jr. 


Choir of St. Peter's, Leipsic, from Architektonische Rundschau. 

TTfHE writer has elsewhere given an account of the work of the 
J I Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition in Arizona, 
under the direction of Mr. Frank Hamilton Gushing : its pur- 
poses, its composition, and the results reached in the first fifteen 
months of its operations. 1 Some details about the country, pictures 
of life in camp, and the methods of exploration pursued rambling 
though they be will probably help the many who are interested 
in the important prehistoric story of our continent to gain a clearer 
conception of the character of the researches. 

First, then, a glance at the country: The scene of operations has 
chiefly been in the neighborhood of the flourishing young towns of 
Phoenix and Tempe, in the valley of the Rio Salado, now usually 
called the Salt River by the American inhabitants. T prefer, how- 
ever, to keep to the more euphonious Spanish name. To the north- 
ward and eastward the mountains rise grandly in compact ranges, 
the main peaks having about the same relative height, as seen from 
the plain, as Mount Washington when viewed from the Saco Valley 
at Conway, in New Hampshire. Out of this mountain-wall the 
Salado breaks from a wild canon, whose neighborhood was the 
scene of some fierce and momentous struggles between the gallant 
troops of General Crook and the wild Apaches fifteen years ago or 
more, at the time when that splendid soldier gave the country its 
first relief from their incursion? ; a peace which would probably have 

remained unbroken to this day had it not been for the wicked 


111 The Old New World," An illustrated letter from Camp Hemenway, Ari- 
zona, in the Boston Herald of April 15, 1888. Reprinted in pamphlet form by 
the Salem J'ress. 

JANUARY 5, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


mismanagement of the Indian Department, under the control of 
corrupt rings. 

Not far from its exit into the plain the Salado is joined by the Kio 
Verde near a huge ruddy rock, that looks like a Cyclopean fortress, 
called Mount McDowell. The military post, Fort McDowell, is near 
its base. A few miles below Phoenix the Salado joins the Gila, the 
former being really the main stream above their confluence, although 
the latter gives its name to the river in its further course down into 
the grand Colorado. From the southeastward around to the north- 
wesf the mountains rise in detached groups, with the land sloping 
away evenly and gradually from their feet in a way that may, 
perhaps, be best illustrated by imagining a great carpet with heaps of 
sharp stones placed here and there beneath it, and their ragged tops 
appearing above the sagging surface they have torn through. 

It is a" semi-tropical region, the latitude being that of Southern 
California, and the altitude in the neighborhood of a thousand feet. 
The winters are delightful in temperature ; a fiercer summer heat is 
hardly to be found in North America : dry and oven-like, at times rising 
to something like 130 degrees, but, on account of its dry ness, it is not 
so oppressiv^ as a temperature of 90 degrees in the humid air of the 
Eastern States. The vegetation is the monotonous growth of the 
desert sage-brush, greasewood, forests of stunted mesquite, and 
clumps of ironwood and palo verde near the mountains, cottonwoods 
along the river, and many varieties of fantastic-looking cactus almost 
everywhere on the. plains. But where the land has been brought 
unde'r irrigation a new and luxuriant growth appears : fertile fields 
of grain and pasturage, vineyards, orchards of peaches and apricots, 
and already, in spots, date-palms, fan-palms, orange-trees, oleanders, 
and cypress are imparting a new aspect to the landscape. 

It is in the early afternoon of January 1 1 when I step from the train 
of the Maricopa & Phoenix Railroad a branch from the Southern 
Pacific onto the platform of the new brick station at Tempe, at 
present the only regular stopping-place on the line between Maricopa 
Junction, about twenty miles away, and Phoenix, the terminus, nine 
miles farther on. I am greeted by Mr. Fred. Hodge, the stalwart 
young private secretary of Mr. Cushing. We proceed to Camp 
Hemenway in a buckboard drawn by two stout mules. The weather 
seems to be a strange commingling of early summer and late autumn. 
The sky is serenely blue, the air is quiet, and the sun shines with a 
warm, southern friendliness. But the ground is brown and the trees 
are bare, though some sparse yellow leaves still cling to the alamos, 
or cottonwoods, here and there. 

The town has enjoyed a " boom " from the building of the rail- 
way, and its evidences are seen in many new buildings ; the railway 
has made the great timber-supply of California and Oregon available, 
and, frame-construction being a novelty here, its attainability 
has given it a proportionate desirability in the eyes of the inhabi- 
tants. Wooden buildings are, however, totally unsuited to this hot 
and dry climate, and the folly of substituting them for the thick- 
walled and comfortable adobe structures, so despised as " mud- 
houses" by the average settler, must soon be made manifest by ex- 
perience. It is possible to make an adobe building architecturally 
attractive, though, as commonly constructed by the American or the 
somewhat Americanized Mexican, they are about as ugly as they 
can possibly be made, with their bare walls contrasting with the 
bony whiteness of painted door and window-frames, and the incon- 
venient sliding sashes set even with the wall-surface, thus giving no 
shadows or depth to the openings. Houses with such windows have 
a vulgar impertinence of expression. The conservative traits of 
ordinary humanity are shown in hardly anything more than in their 
methods of construction, and the presumedly wide-awake and pro- 
gressive American will cling to the customs of his predecessors with 
all the tenacity of the most primitive raccs^ though he has no other 
ground than that his fathers did so before him, and, therefore, it 
must be good, reasoning no more about it until experience in a 
changed environment slowly teaches him more convenient ways. The 
unintelligent savage builds like his fathers because his fathers were 
taught to build like the gods, and, therefore, those ways are sacred, 
and must not be changed. The northern origin of the American 
population that is filling up this region is shown by its adoption of 
details of construction totally unsuited to the climate, who reason, of 
course, that that is the way things are done in a " white man's 
country," and, therefore, must necessarily be superior to the ways 
in which Mexicans do things. So they go on stifling and sweltering 
all through the long, hot summer days in their boxy little houses, 
survivals of the habits brought from regions where timber is plenty 
and the climate fickle. 

Considering these things, I have thought I should like to settle 
down in a place like this long enough to set an example of how it is 
possible to live comfortably with pleasant surroundings by adapting 
the ordinary materials to modern means and taste. For instance : 
a one-story, wide-spreading house of thick adobe walls, with large, 
high, airy rooms, and casement-windows opening to the floor, giving 
the full benefit of the air-space ; above the flat roof, supported on posts 
or thick adobe piers, with a space of eight to ten feet between, a 
second roof of corrugated tile, such as is used so extensively in Spain 
and Spanish America, sloping gently, and with wide eaves. This 
would answer the purpose of a double-roof, the shaded air-space 
keeping the rooms below cool, and would also give a second story, 
open to the air. In the summer this open story would be used for 
sleeping purposes, divided by screens in the Japanese fashion to give 
privacy, if need be, and with mosquitoes, flies, and other insects kept 

out by wire-netting surrounding the whole. People in this region 
find it impossible to sleep in their houses in the summer now : they 
take to the open air with their mattresses, either on the roofs or on 
the ground outside. By this means, however, they would have all 
the advantages of open air combined with shelter, for drenchin<* 
rains come up in the night-time not infrequently. Care would be 
taken, in such a house, to leave no interstices for the concealment of 
tarantulas, scorpions, centipedes, and other things of the kind. An 
agreeable exterior would be given by coating the walls with cement, 
colored with some pleasant-hued paint or wash so common in 
Mexico and other Spanish countries. A beautiful feature could be 
introduced in the shape of a large central hall, running up to the 
second roof, with a handsome staircase to a gallery communicating 
with the open space on either side. Instead of the hand-made adobe, 
a much cheaper and better material might be obtained by making 
the blocks in an ordinary brick-machine, like common bricks, thus 
saving the very considerable expense of burning them, while the 
pressure used in making them would give them a compactness, assur- 
ing a lasting quality far greater than that of the common adobe. I 
have seen an unburnt, machine made brick that has been kept for 
years without crumbling, as hard as when first turned out. I wonder 
something of the sort has not been adopted in countries like this, 
where the dry, frostless climate renders burning the brick for ordi- 
nary uses really superfluous. Like many other most useful and 
simple things, the idea has probably never occurred to makers. 

Several rocky hills rise abruptly around the town, the main 
portion of which lies at the base of one of them. Here, as elsewhere 
throughout the West, the French term " Inttle " is applied to such 
isolated hills, although here one might expvct to find the Spanish 
"cerrn" fully domesticated. It is in all probability a lingual acquisition 
from the French trappers and voyiir/eurs, handed along from the time 
when the French were in possession of the Mississippi Valley, and 
incorporated into the vernacular of the plains by the Missourians, 
who are the pioneers in all the trans-Missouri migratory movements. 
The Missourians have the reputation of being a nomadic, semi- 
vagrant people, and might be called the gypsies of the Western 
World. Possibly this trait may be due to an absorption of considerable 
of the French half-breed blood by much of the Missouri population, 
inoculating it with the same roving impulse that characterizes the 
French-Canadians. The word butte appears to be one of the few 
things in the vernacular of the plains which has become that of 
the entire far West taken from the French, Spanish being the 
the most fruitful foreign source, due chiefly to the influence of the 
Texan vaquero, of which "cow-boy" is a literal translation. The 
reception of the word through immediate racial contact is proved 
by its pronunciation throughout the West, bule as near the French 
u as Anglo-Saxon lips could be expected to approach. Had it been 
a literary acquisition, the pronunciation of but would have been 
given the word, for we invariably strive to phoneticize a tendency 
which, with our unspeakable orthography and ill-formulated phonetic 
rules, has thoroughly distorted our English tongue. Thus the plains- 
man talks of the States of Culorayilo and Necayda ; but, heariw the 
name of the celebrated Ute chief spoken as it is in the Spanish 
dialect of the Mexican peasantry, he calls him Colorow, which is 
really nearer to the proper pronunciation of the State. 

The rapidity and luxuriance of vegetable growth in a region like 
this encourages the use of ornamental plants, shrubs and trees; the 
streets are well shaded, and dwellings are usually surrounded ly 
pleasant gardens. The formally located roads are all straight and 
rectangular in their intersections, running due north and south, cast 
and west, as throughout the West, following the "section-lines," the 
surveys of the National Land Department cutting the country up 
into sections of a mile square. So the roads are a mile apart, and, 
in going between any places not lying in the direction of the cardinal 
points, one has to travel along two sides of a triangle, necessitating 
much superfluous travel and consequent expenditure of time. This 
does not speak well for the American " practicality " of which we 
are accustomed to boast, especially when we are so used to regard 
time and money as equivalents. This difficulty might have been 
avoided, and the distance saved, by providing for a second system of 
roads traversing the sections from corner to corner, making the 
quarter-sections triangular in shape. All portions of the country 
would thus be within convenient reach of each other. 

Where the land has not been taken up and brought under cultiva- 
tion, of course the roads are free to run across country at random, 
and in an open country like this it is easily done, for the making of 
a road involves no more than to drive along the same path until 
tracks are made ; but as soon as the land is occupied the roads 
must confine themselves to section-lines, so that in a journey between 
two places that lie, say, twenty miles apart from northeast to south- 
east one would have to travel nearly thirty miles. This, to be sure, 
is not so serious as it would be were it not for the railways, the great 
modern highways, which, when a country becomes so well settled as 
to necessitate the rectangular system of roads, are certain to cover 
it with their network, and, as they are subject only to the limitations 
of the most convenient grades, they take the straightest possible 
course between two points. It would probably be hardly practicable 
at this late day to adopt such a system of roads in our country, but, 
as there is a tendency to lay out new towns in a way to provide 
amply for future growth, it ought to be possible to plan them so as 
to give streets between the corners of the squares as well. It seems 
strange that our rushing Western communities, where people are so 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 680^ 

intent upon making the most of their time, should not from the start 
have avoided one of the greatest wastes of time and exertion to 
which the planning of their towns subjects them. 

Our road takes us first to the eastward. Facing us are the Super- 
stition Mountains, their name another mistranslation from the 
Spanish : Sierra de la Encantacion is the original designation, sug- 
gestive of sacrificial caves and weird rites held there by the Indians, 
as they undoubtedly were. It is, however, a matter for congratula- 
tion that the English name is not of the average commonplaceness, 
but also, like the Spanish, has a mystic significance. The Supersti- 
tions have a broad, cliff-like frontage, rising abruptly from the plain, 
with high banks of steeply sloping detritus at their feet. Their tops 
are mesa-like, though broken, and on their faces are plainly traced 
the strata-lines that indicate their geological history. Their forms 
are suggestive of some grand primitive architecture ; castle-like 
towers and pinnacles stand out from the ruddy mass in the bright 
sunlight of the afternoon ; in the clear atmosphere the mountains 
seem close at hand, but they are a day's journey distant by wagon ! 
A prominent landmark to the northward of the Superstitions, rising 
just over the gap of the Salada canon, is the great mountain mass of 
the Cuatro Pieos, the Four Peaks four clustered summits, beau- 
tiful in the Alpine purity of their winter snow-mantle that seems 
flung over them like some graceful drapery. A similar garb is worn 
bv the Sunflower Peaks, still farther northward, and by others of the 
mountain wall that extends in compact ranges across the northern 
horizon, ending in the lofty Bradshaws off beyond Phoenix in the 
northwest. Beyond and above the Superstitions, to the eastward, 
rise the Pinal Mountains, and, then, to the southeastward, the de- 
tached masses of the high Santa Catalinas, near Tucson, with the 
Tortolitas and the Picachos intervening, and the Zacaton near at 
hand; southwesterly, just across the Gila, is the abrupt wall of the 
Estrellas frowning in the shadow, and close at hand are the humbler 
Maricopas. These mountains are nearly all full of mineral treasures 
awaiting some lucky prospector to reveal them ; several rich mines 
are being worked, and in the Pinal Mountains is the famous Silver 
King mine, one of the great silver-producers of the wor.d. 

Now and then we pass, by the road, traces of ancient ruins, in the 
shape of low mounds of earth that the ordinary observer takes for 
natural irregularities of the surface. Tempe is partly built on the 
site of one of the ancient cities, and the Mexican quarter, locally 
known as " Sonora,'" in token of the neighboring Mexican State 
whence nearly all the inhabitants immigrated, covers long rows of 
these mounds. Beyond, we pass a house of one of the well-to-do 
American residents, built on the summit of a large mound formed by 
the crumbled walls of a ruined temple, which have been nicely graded 
and terraced, and planted with shrubs and fruit-trees. At first 
thought it seems a pity that the sites should be so occupied, but there 
are in the open more than can at present be explored, and, in reality, 
the ruins thus covered are reserved for the future explorer whom 
science may send ; effectively guarded against the burrowings of 
relic-hunters those pests of the archaeologist, who simply destroy, 
confuse and disturb for the sake of what are to them but mere 
" curiosities." 

The irrigating canals, or acequiaf, are marked features of the 
landscape. They give the soil its fertility and are again converting 
these valleys into luxuriant gardens. The night-frosts of January 
are just strong enough to check the growth of most things, but the 
fields of barley and wheat are mantled witli the tender verdure of the 
infant blades, and the darker alfalfa covers expansive pastures with 
its velvety garb. The land spreads away in floor-like evenness to the 
feet of the mountains on all sides, towards which it rises in a gradual 
incline, the direction of which would be almost imperceptible did not 
the purling water in the ditches tell the tale. Where the canals or 
ditches have been established a few years, long lines of trees mark 
their course and give beauty to the landscape. These trees are 
mostly cottonwoods, which, under the stimulus of plenty of water, 
attain a height of fifty feet or so in a comparatively short time. 
They are usually planted along the water-ways, their shade and their 
shelter from the dry winds preventing evaporation. Where not 
planted, they spring up themselves in the course of a few years from 
seeds scattered by the wind, or borne by the water to the banks. 
The settlers are beginning to plant other varieties than the cotton- 
wood, which will make better timber ; among them the catalpa, which 
grows as rapidly and makes a handsome tree, particularly beautiful 
in flowering time. 

The main canals cut across country regardless of section-lines, 
following the course that enables them to irrigate the most land, but 
the supply-ditches, for the most part, keep along the margins of the 
fields, and the lines of trees that mark their course relieve the 
monotony of the level expanses, making hollow squares of the farms. 

Our mules, though stolid enough in aspect, show that experience 
has not been an unheeded teacher. Tough are their hides, but their 
feet are small and delicate, and they have a horror of mud as of the 
evil-one. At a harmless-looking wet place on the road, they shy in 
alarm. Well they may. for this peculiar soil, stable as it is under 
ordinary conditions, is converted into something like quicksand when 
water flows upon it for the first time. In such a place a mule-team will 
suddenly sink almost to the ears, and the animals will be likely to 
smother unless speedily rescued, floundering about without a foothold, 
and with every movement sinking deeper and deeper. After such a 
mud-bath, a mule is a sight to behold, with skin and harness 
thoroughly plastered. A new ditch, into which the water has flowed 

for the first time, seems to present but a slight obstacle to travel, but 
it is something to be dreaded by the traveller, and hardly any amount 
of persuasion can induce a mule to venture across it. A well-travelled 
road, however, gets compacted so that water has no effect on it, or 
after water has flowed over a piece of ground for two or three succes- 
sive times, something in the soil seems to be so affected as to give it 
stability. A mule has keen discernment and seems able to tell such 
a place from freshly-flowed land, for it will fearlessly enter upon a 
part of the regular road where water stands, perhaps from the over- 
flow of a broken ditch, or will, unhesitatingly, cross an acequia or a 
stream at a regular ford. The liabilities to these mishaps, in a 
country where new land is being extensively brought under cultiva- 
tion, gives an element of adventure to drives around the valley. 

A half-mile to the eastward, two miles southward, another mile 
eastward, and then we turn southward again, following an irregular 
road across country after passing the great Tempe Canal. As we 
proceed, the country has become more open, for the trees have not 
yet had time to grow up on the newly-cleared land. The irregular 
road is, for the most part, through the original wilderness growth of 
the desert which is not destined to remain so for many weeks more. 
A drive of nearly ten miles from town brings us through a low 
mesquite wood, and we emerge with the white tents of Camp Hemen- 
way before us half a mile to the westward. The place has a pleasant 
look in the midst of a cleared plain, the military-appearing cluster 
gleaming in the light of the setting sun against the dark background 
of the Maricopa and Estrella Mountains. 

Our drive ends in the space enclosed by the various tents like a 
parade-ground ; the ladies, Mrs. Gushing and her sister, Miss Magill, 
advance to welcome their guest and receive the daily mail, and a 
handsome Mexican youth steps forward to take care of the team. 
Mr. Gushing is still out at the excavations, but in a few minutes he 
comes galloping into camp on his beautiful horse, " Douglass," and 
his eyes shine with happiness at meeting his old friend. 

It is dark when the violent clattering of a cow-bell summons us to 
the kitchen tent to supper. All our little community, with the excep- 
tion of the laborers, who wait for the " second call," are gathered 
around the board, and the presence of the ladies imparts an ameliorat- 
ing influence rare in camp-life. There are the two anthropological 
members of the staff, Dr. Herman F. C. ten Kate and Dr. Jacob L. 
Wortman. Dr. ten Kate I have known and esteemed for nearly two 
years, and in Dr. Wortman I am delighted to find a man whose 
quiet, unassuming ways do not obscure the recognition of the re- 
markable scientific attainments of which I have heard from mutual 
friends in Washington. Dr. Wortman is the comparative anatomist 
for the Army Medical Museum, at Washington, and has been 
temporarily detailed to look after the preservation of the valuable 
ancient skeletons excavated here. Doctor Washington Matthews, 
also surgeon in the Army, and at present Curator of the Museum, 
himself a distinguished ethnologist, was ordered to this place by the 
Secretary of War, last summer, owing to the critical condition of 
Mr. Cushing's health. Dr. Matthews, who is an old friend of Mr. 
Cushing's, having been surgeon at Fort Wingate when Mr. Gushing 
was making his important investigations at Zufii near by, was so im- 
pressed with the scientific value of the ancient skeletons unearthed 
here, that his representations induced Dr. J. S. Billings, the Director 
of the Museum, to enter into an arrangement whereby the Museum 
should secure duplicate series of the skeletons in consideration of 
attending to their preservation and classification. The result was 
the detail of Dr. Wortman for this purpose, a young man already 
known as the foremost comparative anatomist in the country, and 
one of the ablest of osteologists and palaeontologists. 


(To be continued.) 


117 HE regular annual meeting of the Chicago Chapter A. I. A., was 
J I ^ held at Kinsleys, Thursday evening, December 13, 1888. After 
dinner the reports of various officers and committees were re- 
ceived. The officers elected for the ensuing year were, President, 
W. L. B. Jenney ; Vice-President, W. W. Clay ; Treasurer, S. S. 
Beman ; Secretary, W. A. Otis. 


Committee on the Metric System. Normand S. Fatten, Chairman, 
Chicago, 111.; G. W. Kramer, Akron, Ohio; E. T. Mix, Milwaukee, 

Committee on Uniform Contracts and Specifications. S. A. Treat, 
Chairman, Chicago, 111. ; J. F. Alexander, La Fayette, Ind. ; W. R. 
Forbush, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Committee on Consolidation of Architectural Societies of America. 
D. Adler, Chairman, Chicago, 111. ; George B. Ferry, Milwaukee, 
Wis. ; W. W. Carlin, Buffalo, N. Y. ; A. Van Brunt, Kansas City, 
Mo. ; John W. Root, Chicago, 111. 

JANUARY 5, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


Committee on a Code of Ethics for Professional Practice. L. H' 
Sullivan, Chicago, 111. 

Committee on Bill governing Office oj Supervising Architect, U. S. 
Treasury Department. D. Adler, Chairman. Chicago, 111.; D. H. 
Burnham, Chicago, III. ; J. F. Alexander, La Fayette, Ind. 

Committee on Statuatory Revision. D. Alder, Chairman, Chicago, 
111. ; George B. Ferry, Milwaukee, Wis. ; J. F. Alexander, La 
Fayette, Ind. 

Committee to Organize State Associations. J. F. Alexander, 
Chairman, La Fayette, Ind. ; S. A. Preston, Los Angeles, Cal. ; A. 
P. Cutting, Worcester, Mass. ; A. C. Dallas, Salt Lake City, Utah ; 
E. W. Wells, Wheeling, W. Va. ; T. H. Morgan, Atlanta, Ga. 

Committee on Statistic* of Competitions. C. E. Illsley, Chairman, 
St. Louis, Mo. ; J. W. Yost, Columbus, Ohio ; A. Van Brunt, Kansas 
City, Mo.; S. M. Randolph, Chicago, 111.; J. H. Pierce, Elmira, N. 

Committee to Collect Legal Decisions Relating to Building In- 
terests. Charles C. Hellmers, St. Louis, Mo. 


BOSTON, MASS., December 29, 1888. 

Dear Sirs, In your reply to Mr. Kimball in the American Archi- 
tect of December 29, 1888, you convey the impression in regard to 
the comparative " progressiveness " etc., of the trustees or managers 
of different schools of architecture which is not quite justified, so far 
as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the principal rival of 
the Columbia College School, is concerned. During my seven years' 
experience in the Institute of Technology, whatever mav have been 
the faults of the Architectural Department, they were certainly not 
due to any lack of intelligent interest, and desire to promote the 
welfare of the Department, on the part of the officers of the Cor- 
poration. In the efforts of the Corporation to accomplish the 
utmost possible good with the limited funds at their command, 
the Architectural Department was never forgotten or neglected, and 
it is hardly fair to compare their prudenfand far-seeing management 
of the whole school of which the Department formed a part, with the 
enthusiastic zeal of the wealthy private gentleman at whose expense 
the Columbia Architectural School was founded and maintained, and 
who could be called upon with confidence for almost unlimited con- 
tributions for the good of his admirable scheme. 

Very truly yours, T. M. CLARK. 

[ALTHOUGH our statement was positive, and not comparative, it is possible 
we may have been unlucky enough to be understood iu the latter sense by 
others than Mr. Clark. EDS. AMERICAN ARCHITECT.] 


MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., December 17, 1888. 

Dear Sim, I am prompted to send you sketches of a cheap con- 
struction which I have used, by the letter you published from Mr. 
Atkinson in one of your October issues. No. 1 is from an apart- 
ment-house of my own, where I felt at liberty to experiment, and in 
some respects I consider it a success. The outside walls have, 
common brick outside, bonded through the wall every six courses ; 
the backing is of hollow bricks, 4" x 6" x 12", of which I should not 
care to build piers, but which I have tested with actual weights, and 
consider them strong enough for ordinary four-story brick walls. 
This wall receives the plaster without lath or furrings, and is dry. 
The extra expense of this wall is met by the saving in furrings and 

The partitions are all made of 2" x 4" studding, run into " sheath- 
ing-lath " on two sides, as shown by No. 3, with a groove in each 
edge,, These are set flat-ways and spiked toe-nailed every two 
feet on each side, so that .the spikes are only 1' 0" apart. As there 
are no tongues or splines, it is very necessary to thoroughly secure 
these studs against the danger of springing by each other and crack- 
ing the plaster. These partitions have sills and plates of similar 
2 x 4's on edge, so it will be seen that the grooves between each 
upright are connected with a similar groove top and bottom. Thus 
it is hoped to get enough circulation to prevent dry-rot. For open- 
ings, 2" x 3" studs are set, as shown in No. 4, which serve as a 
ground for plaster and a firm nailing for door-frames and finish. 

Where partitions run with the joists, the joists are trebled below, 
making a solid barrier against fire. 

These partitions I have made 12' 0" high, without cross-bracing, 
and, after plastering, they prove stiff enough for general use. I 
have never used them for carrying the weight above. 

The ceilings are covered with 1" x 4" sheathing-lath, as shown on 
No. 1, and, where possible, the laths are put on before the partitions 
below are set. On top of this are 3" of mortar : one part lime, two 
parts sand, three parts coarse saw-dust. This, when set and dry, 
makes a light, porous substance, weighing about 50 pounds to the 
cubic foot. It should be worked stiff, and allowed some time to dry 
and set before the ceiling below is plastered ; otherwise yellow stains 

will appear. I had hoped that the deafening properties of the 3" of 
mortar would be good, even though only a single floor should be put 
above, but it is found to be worthless for that purpose. It has 
been suggested that a double-floor, with two layers of cheap felt 
between, would remove the sounding-board effect of the single floor, 
and, with the mortar, make a floor proof against the passage of 
ordinary sounds. 

These partitions and ceilings are plastered as indicated, and all 
angles are cut through to the lath a thing it is very hard to get the 
average plasterer to do. Then any change in the relative positions 
of the two backs does not produce ugly cracks across the face of the 

In using sheathing-lath so freely, it was feared that the greatest 
trouble would occur from the twisting and shrinking of the lumber, 
and cracking the plaster, but now, after heat has been in the building 
over two months, I am satisfied there are fewer cracks than would 
have appeared if ordinary lath had been used. The mortar adheres 
firmly to the surface, and the face of the plaster is less liable to 

I now propose to build a floor as shown in No. 2, which, I think, 
will be a successful deafener, and it dispenses with the 3" of mortar, 
which in some cases would be an objection. The bottoms of all 
joists are run to sheathing-lath, the sides grooved for air-spaces, 
and above mineral-wool is used between wide joists. 

While these methods of construction are not as cheap as the ordi- 
nary stud-and-lath, they are cheap compared with any of the 
ordinary methods of " fireproofing," or making slow-burning con- 
struction, and even than the simple use of wire-lath over studs and 
joists. I give below approximately the cost of the different modes 
of construction here. 

With us there is much less danger from "dry-rot" than is usual, 
as nearly all of our lumber is cut from logs which have been in the 
water from six to eighteen months, and are soaked dry; that is, the 
water has driven out the sap. 


Cost of 100 square feet ordinary 
partition plastered 2 sides 

50 feet, 2x4 studs set 31.10 

22 yards lath and plaster. 



Cost of 100 square feet of parti- 
tion as shown in No. 1, plas- 
tered 2 sides 

200 feet, 2x4 run and set 

22 yards plaster 


Cost of 100 square feet studs and 
wire-lath plastered 2 sides, 

50 square feet studs, 2x4 

22 yards plaster and wire-lath. 



Cost of 100 square feet 3" Hollow 
tile, plastered 2 sides 

100 square feet tile set 12.00 

22 yards plaster 3.30 



Cost of 100 square feet of ordi- 
nary floors without lining or 
finished floor 2 xlO set 1 :4" 
on centres 

125 feet, 2 x 10 set $2.75 

1 1 yards lath and plaster 2.20 


Cost of 100 square feet as shown 
in No. 1,2x10, set I'O" on 

1 70 feet, 2 x in set 3.74 

100 feet, 1x4 sheathing-lath. . . 2.20 

11 yards plaster 1.65 

1 1 yards 3" mortar 1.32 

Cost of wire-lath construction 

170 feet, 2 x 10 set 3.74 

11 yards plaster and wire lath. . 4.95 

Cost of No. 2 construction 

635 feet, 2x8 and 2x 6 set 15.24 

11 yards plaster 1.65 

17 89 
Cost of tile arches 

100 square feet tile 20.00 

11 yards plaster 1.65 


In giving the cost of tile, arches ami positions, no account is made 
of the iron frame, which is usually equal, if not greater, than the 
cost of the filling. 

The building from which Nos. 1, 3, and 4 are taken is occupied 
by twenty-eight families, and the insurance rate is 90 cents on $100, 
insured for Jive years. Yours truly, 


[IN describing this method ol building, Mr. Plant sets an example which 
we would like to have followed by other architects who have experimented 
successfully or unsuccessfully with variations upon the ordinary methods 
of construction. Ens. AMKRICAN ARCHITECT.] 


NEW YOBK, N. Y., December 26, 1888. 


Dear Sirs, In your column of death notices of architects pub- 
lished December 22, 1888, you have attributed to Arthur Crooks the 
architectship of St. Thomas's Church in the Fifth Avenue, New York. 
This is incorrect, Mr. Crooks was in the employ of R. & R. M. 
Upjohn as draughtsman at the time St. Thomas's Church was built. 
The design and scheme of the building had been worked out to an 
eighth-inch scale for Dr. Morgan five years before Mr. Crooks came to 
this country, and the design and scheme of the building was made by 
my father. He was the architect of the building. According to our 
books Mr. Crooks entered our employ three days after he landed from 
England, the last of July in 1863, he then said he was not quite 
twenty-one years old, he remained in our emplov for upwards of 
eight years continuously. In Mr. Crooks we always found an able 
and willing assistant. In England, he had been architect to a Mr. 
Sutton an architect of Nottingham, England. By publishing the 
above you will be correcting an error undoubtedly unintentionally 
made. Yours respectfully, R. M. UPJOHN. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 680. 

THE INVENTOR OF THE WHEELBARROW. There are probably very 
few people who know the name of the inventor of the wheelbarrow. 
The sculptor, painter, architect, engineer in fact many-sided genius 
and universal scholar, Leonardo da Vinci, of Italy the man who 
painted the original picture of "The Last Supper" is the inventor of 
the wheelbarrow. His fertile brain conceived the idea about the time 
Columbus discovered America. It is hardly possible to think of a man 
who was touched with the highest order of the divine art of painting 
bringing himself down to the diametrically opposite study of a simple 
mechanical invention, but such is the case, says history. Chicago 

the Trustees of the New York and Brooklyn Bridge shows that the re- 
ceipts for tolls during the year ending November 80, 1888, were 917,- 
961.56, divided as follows: Promenade, $16,069.63; carriageways, 
$67,231.59; railroad, 833,760.34. The tolls exceed those of the pre- 
vious year by $757.35 for the promenade, 1,488.33 for carriageways, 
$64,991.65 for the railroad, and $67,237.33 in the total. The number of 
railroad passengers was 30,331,283, compared with 27,940,313 the pre- 
ceding year; of foot passengers, 2,785,533, against 2,604,313 in 1887. 
This shows a total of 33,116,816 passengers, and a total increase of 
2,512,090 over 1887. The largest monthly number of foot passengers 
was in April 292,778 and of railroad passengers in October 
2,859,697 in which month also the total traffic was largest 
3,116,198. The average monthly receipts have been 76,496.79, an in- 
crease of 5,603.11 over last year. The total receipts for the year wer.e 
11,012,254, of which 917,961.50 was for tolls, 84,880.58 for rents, 
7,146.17 for materials sold, and $2,266.51 for interest. The expendi- 
tures for the year have been 831,497.22, leaving the balance on hand 
December 1, 1888, $238,710.10. Among the extraordinary expenditures 
were 40,033.28 for the new cable plant, $32,055.13 for additional real 
estate, 92,097.25 for Washington Street extension, 23,400 for six 
Pullman cars, 11,000 for two locomotives, $15,370 for lawsuits 
(o,750 being for patent suits), and 17,01)0 for repairs and extensions. 
The pay-rolls amounted to 433,044.73, besides $39,199.20 in salaries. 
Of the total receipts from rentals $11,052.02 was for the 429 telegraph 
and telephone wires and the single Commercial cable. AW York 
Evening Post. 

A GKI.IXTIC EtBCTRtC-LtOHTlwo SYSTEM. The newest item of in- 
terest in electrical development is the condensations printed in the 
electrical journals for the current week of the articles in the English 
electrical press, descriptive of the plan for the new Deptford Station of 
the London Klectrical Supply Corporation. The Electrical Engineer 
says: Projects for central station electric lighting on a large scale in 
England are following one another with great rapidity, in London and 
in provincial towns a well. This recent activity is doubtless due in 
large measure to the improved situation of the capitalists who under- 
take such enterprises, consequent upon the modification by Parliament, 
of the onerous restrictions of earlier legislation touching their privileges, 
and still more perhaps to the widespread and successful introduction of 
the alternating current and transformer method of distribution for large 
areas. Chief among the new schemes which have marked the reaction 
following the removal of restrictions of the Electric Lighting Act is the 
Ferranti system to be used at Deptford. This is upon a plan so vast 
as to dwarf the most extensive appliances in use to-day into compara- 
tive insignificance, and its conception is so bold as to excite both the 
admiration and the apprehension of those best qualified to judge of 
such matters. If successful it will be a great advance upon present 
achievements. Mr. Ferranti proposes to employ a potential of 10,000 
volts, with one side of the circuit bare ami designedly grounded at in- 
numerable points. The strongest arc-lighting current in use in Provi- 
dence, has a potential of about 4,000 volts and this increase of tension 
will demand an absolute insulation, the possibility of which is still an 
open question. The Deptford Station has available about four acres of 
ground at the riverside, almost the whole of which will be eventually 
covered- with the steam and electric plant, capable of lighting half of 
London. The " small " dynamos will have a capacity of 25,000 lights 
each, and will be the largest electric generators yet constructed, and 
the "large" dynamos, forty-five feet high over all and weighing 500 
tons each, when driven by 10,000 horse-power engines, will be capable 
of supplying 20l),Oi)(J lights each. The dynamos will be inclosed and 
magnetically locked by the exciting current so that it will be impossible 
to get a shock from the dynamos themselves. The conductors will also 
present a radical departure from anything practised at the present day. 
No precedents being available for the transmission of such high volt- 
ages, Mr. Ferranti had to invent a cable to suit the requirements of the 
case. Throughout the whole system one end of the primary is con- 
nected to earth and the difference of potential between it and the 
human body is therefore nil. The high-pressure end of the main is 
enclosed within this grounded copper conductor, separated from it by 
the most perfect insulating compound obtainable. By this means it is 
expected to deliver electricity at this enormous pressure, and yet render 
no more precaution unnecessary in running the conducting main than in 
placing an ordinary gaspipe. In the transmission of high electrical press- 
ures, Sir William Thompson has shown that the interior of a solid cop- 
per rod is practically useless and the weight of the inside copper is 
thrown away. Mr. Kerranti has therefore made his inner conductor 
cylindrical of pure copper 3-10 inch in thickness. The high-pressure 
mains will be laid along the embankments and lines of the various 
railway companies and underground along the District railway. At 
the distributing points a transformer of 125 horse-power and weighing 
a ton will expand the current down to 2,400 volts, which is the pressure 

now used in the Grosvenor Gallery and will be capable of supplying 
2,500 lamps of 10 c. p. From these stations the current will be dis- 
tributed by overhead lines to private houses, each of which will have 
its own transformer, expanding the current until the pressure is only 
100 volts, which can be used in the ordinary incandescent lamps. The 
Electrical Supply Co., limited, it about to install a Westinghouse plant, 
and a third undertaking, the St. James Electrical Light Co., has 
announced the intention to construct a station for 20,000 lamps. 

THE features of the week are heavy traffic on nearly all trunk lines, and 
an active distribution of products of all kinds. The year's business, accord- 
ing to bank clearings, was slightly in excess of last year. Railroad-con- 
struction was about 5,000 miles less. Pig-iron output, exclusive of Besse- 
mer, was fully up to 1887. The capital of manufacturing companies in the 
Southern States was 168,000,000. Stock operations last year show quite a 
falling off at all the exchanges. There was an increase in the number of 
firms of 37.600, according to one agency; the total number being put at 
1,133,000. The failures for the year averaged one, for 110 firms. In New 
York 3,073 new buildings were constructed at a cost of $47,000 000 against 
4.374, 1887, costing $07,00,000. Philadelphia expended last year $2S,000,- 
000 in buildings. Mortgage foreclosures, so far as returns are to hand, 
show a wonderful falling off. Business men are under less necessity to 
borrow, and are better able to pay, especially as much money is borrowed 
at from one to two per cent less than two or three years ago. There is con- 
siderable trouble in the far West over the lack of money, especially among 
small traders and manufacturers, but it is partly due to the fact that the 
activity iu railroad-building for the past two or three years was not kept up. 
The Atcheson has completed its line to Chicago, the St. Paul to Kansas City, 
the Rock Island into Colorado. The Denver, Texas & Fort Worth is de- 
livering freights from New York via New Orleans throughout the Rocky 
Mountain region. This year the Northern Pacific will run unbroken trains 
from the Pacific f oast to Chicago. The Baltimore & Ohio will probably get 
to New York, and New England will have a valuable additional outlet West- 
via Ponghkeepsie bridge. This little panorama shows substantially what 
has been done by the railroad-builders. Among the new roads projected 
are one from Omaha into Ducotah, 400 miles; one in Iowa to Superior points, 
200 miles; one in Montana, one in Arkansas and one in Texas; all long 
lines. A road will probably be started this year through an unsettled part 
of California, parallel to the Southern Pacific' and distant from it twelve to 
twenty miles. The architects aud builders in the older sections of the 
country have no fault to find with present indications. In all probability 
builders will have more work than last year. Authorities in a half-dozen 
large Western cities have already m.-ide some little preparation for it to the 
extent of contracting for lumber. A large amount of new work will be 
undertaken west of the Mississippi. Combinations have been made looking 
to house-building on a large scale wherever encouragement may be offered. 
The greatest activity will be in the smaller towns, as was the c.'ise last year. 
Capital is taking more chances farther away from home. It is leaving its 
accustomed channels, and is finding better and more productive emplov- 
meut. Never iu our history was there less speculation aud less tendency to 
speculate, if exception be taken in the cases of a few successful trusts. 
Values are more uniform. Railroad rates will probably fluctuate less than 
ever; but, if pooling is authorized, it will, for a while, introduce another 
unsettling factor. 

Architects, especially in Eastern cities, incline to the opinion that their 
services will be in as great requisition as last year, and that suburban-resi- 
dence work will be heavier. Summaries made by lumber authorities show 
that a very abundant supply of hard and soft woods will be thrown upon 
the market next year, and that, on account of the competition from the new 
mills both Noith and South, prices may not be altogether uniform. A 
very large amount of money will be expended by municipalities, big and 
little, for municipal improvements, such as pavements, water, gas, electric- 
light, etc. The builders of machinery aud engines have had inquiries for a 
large amount of work. The builders of locomotives believe that from 
present indications they will have a busier year than ever in their history, 
and some large South American orders are i'n sight. The year's anthracite 
coal output finally foots up 38,000,000 tons By next April there will be 
facilities for 4,000,000 tons additional. Throughout New England trade 
and manufacturing conditions are favorable. 'Ihe print-cloth manufac- 
turers, the boot and shoe manufacturers, paper-makers, machinists, and 
hardware manufacturers are all running full time, and the new projections 
indicate that the safe limits of productive capacity have not yet been 
reached. Other sections are flourishing trumpets and calling on all the 
world to look at them, but quiet New England is even surpassing them in 
enterprise and expansion without a word. Her capital moves the machinery 
in a dozen far-off States, and her brains control it. The records of the 
year's work so far as completed shows no decline in the volume of business. 
Much paper-making machinery has been added, machine-shops have been 
enlarged, more meu are at work now than a year ago, and it is safe tu say 
that there is much more work in sight. New England, instead of losing 
manufacturing advantages, is gaining. There are prospects for cheaper 
coal and iron, and perhaps lower-priced lumber and planing-mill products. 
Real estate valuations are even, and taxation is not increasing its burdens. 
Skilled labor is increasing in supply, and numerous small economies are 
being worked out. The expansion iu the newer sections of the country 
bring wider and better markets to the far East. Abroad, matters are not 
mending. This year the big end of two hundred and fifty million dollars 
will be expended in war nonsense by the great powers, who imagine the 
people will stand such drafts forever. France proposes, if she can tax it 
out of the people, to put one hundred million dollars into destructive 
agencies. Germany has set aside fifty million dollars. Russia has bor- 
rowed one hundred millions. Austria wants twenty millions. Italy is 
scampering around among the money-lenders after twenty millions. Spain 
must have a small matter of five millions. Turkey lias resolved on empty- 
ing seven-and-a-half millions on a new rifle. So it goes. The people see 'it 
all, and wonder when and how the end will come. All this plundering is 
m violation of the spirit of our civilization, and the men who are preparing 
to set the people onto each other will fall short of the mark. Bonds of 
sympathy and fraternity are strengthening themselves. The two Americas 
are the great outlet for the overflow population, and the outflow will in- 
crease aa opportunities for making new homes in the New World multiply. 

S. J. PARKHILL & Co., Printers, Boston. 







03 3 

JANUARY 5, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


70 KaLBV 4>r BOSTON 



The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 680. 


S3 _L k W ,.J s 

^-MBflff ^ 

HmUJ . & ! 


CM,, .'.a- 1 


DIJ j< o 


VOL, Xxv. 

Copyright, 1889, by TICKNOK & COMPANY, Boston, MaB. 

No. 681. 

JANUARY 12, 1889. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Boston as second-class matter. 


The Protest against Improper Conditions of Competition. 
The Dispute as to the comparative Dangerousness of the Al- 
ternating and the Continuous Current Electric Systems. 
The Assertions of the Champion of the Alternating System. 
His Opponent proposes a Scientific Duel, possibly to the 
Death. An alleged unsalable because unusable Lot in 
Brooklyn. Ways of Using Narrow Lots. The Affiliation 
of Student Architectural Societies. Sketching Tours. . . 13 




Houses of Mrs. J. J. French and Mrs. C. E. Stratton, Common- 
wealth Ave., Boston, Mass. Stable for W. F. Proctor, 
Esq., Lorhada, New York, N. Y. Church of All Saints, 
Pontiac, K. I. Pulpit and Choir in the Kneeland Memorial 
Chapel, Lenox, Mass. Residence of Senor Enrique Concha 
y Toro, Santiago, Chili, S. A. Competitive Design for 
Calvary Baptist Church, Davenport, lo. House for James 
E. Waugh, Esq., Charlton Heights, 1). C. House of Mrs. 

Isabelle Nash, Bridgeport, Conn 18 





The American Architect Scholarship 24 



f JJ LARGE portion of the profession seem to regard the pro- 
F\ test against the Massachusetts State-House competition as 
' a matter of local interest only, and overlook the fact that 
the wording of the text makes the protest one " against this 
form of competition," and it is solely because, of this that we 
invite signatures from architects in all parts of the country. 
We hope that next week's list will show a very material in- 
crease over the one published to-day. 

CURIOUS controversy is going on in the newspapers 
between the VVestinghouse Electric Company, representing 
a large amount of vested interest, on the one hand, and 
Mr. Harold P. Brown, who claims that he represents the public 
interest, on the other. It will be remembered that Mr. Brown, 
some time ago, wrote a letter to the New York Evening Post, 
over his own signature, calling attention to the dangerous char- 
acter of the alternating electric currents used in the Thomson- 
Houston system, the Jablochkoff system, and several others. 
In reply to this letter, various anonymous insinuations were 
circulated, to the effect that Mr. Brown was in the pay of the 
Edisou Electric Company, which uses only continuous currents, 
and implying that he was attempting to deceive the public, for 
the benefit of that company, by attributing imaginary dangers 
to rival systems of electric-lighting. Mr. Brown then, to 
fortify his opinion by the strongest evidence, applied to Mr. 
Edison for the use of his great electrical laboratory at Menlo 
Park, for the purpose of trying whether alternating-currents of 
the strength used in lighting would be fatal to animals. Dogs 
of different sizes were first operated upon, and, while one 
weighing fifty pounds received six successive shocks, the last 
shock lasting two and one half seconds, with a continuous 
current of intensity varying from one thousand to fourteen 
hundred and twenty volts, without experiencing any injury, a 
fifty-six pound dog was killed in five seconds by an alternating- 
current of one hundred and sixty volts, a little more than one- 
ninth the intensity of the harmless continuous current. As 
soon as these results were published a new attack was made 
upon them and Mr. Brown. The Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals was called upon to put a stop to the ex- 
periments, while the experiments themselves were declared to 
be of no value as showing the relative effect of alternating and 
continuous currents on human beings, because the dogs treated 
were smaller than men. Mr. Brown then, with the cooperation 
of the Commission appointed by the State Government of New 
York to determine the best method of executing criminals by 

electricity, carried out a new series of experiments upon a horse 
weighing twelve hundred and thirty pounds, and two calves 
weighing about as much as an average man. With all death 
followed in a few seconds the application of an alternating- 
current of seven or eight hundred volts intensity. 

PPARENTLY, the public apprehension must have been 
so aroused by these experiments as to make itself felt in 
the business of lighting by alternating-currents, and the 
Westinghouse Electric Company, which is said to control in 
this country all the systems employing alternating-currents, 
thought fit to hire a large number of newspapers to publish a 
letter, to which every honorable man must be sorry to see the 
name of Mr. George Westiughouse, Jr., subscribed. The letter 
begins with a reiteration of the insinuation, which has been 
refuted over and over again, that Mr. Brown is " conducting 
lis experiments in the interest and pay of the Edison Electric 
Light Company," followed by an assertion that "it is generally 
understood " that as the Edison Company's business may be 
vitally injured if the alternating-current apparatus continues to 
successfully introduced and operated, "the Edison repre- 
sentatives, from a business point-of-view, consider themselves 
justified in resorting to any expedient to prevent the extension 
of the system." As the idea that " the Edison representa- 
tives " have anything to do with the " expedients " in question 
rests entirely on the false assumption that Mr. Brown is one of 
;hose "representatives," it does not need to be disproved; but 
most people who have followed the course of electric-lighting 
in this country will be tempted to point out to Mr. Westing- 
liouse that with the Edison Company the "business point-of- 
view " has hitherto been generally identical with the point-of- 
view of honesty and decency, and that, if he considers the 
systems that his company controls superior to the Edison 
system, he will get more public sympathy by describing their 
advantages without any accompaniment of bragging and slan- 
derous imputations. Proceeding to discuss the facts in the 
case, Mr. Westinghouse says that the animals killed by the al- 
ternating-currents in Mr. Brown's experiments were "carefully 
placed " so as to receive the shock in a way that would be im- 
possible under ordinary circumstances, and offers to produce 
a large number of persons " " who have received a shock of 
one thousand volts from alternating-currents without injury," 
explaining further that alternating-currents are less dangerous 
to life than continuous currents, because the latter decompose 
the tissues, while the former only affect the nerves. 

TTR. WESTINGHOUSE'S contemptuous and abusive ad- 
jo.!. vertisement has now, very naturally, stirred up Mr. 
Brown to make a reply which is a little more vigorous 
than we could wish, inasmuch as it goes out of its way to 
impute to Mr. Westinghouse motives which would be much 
better left for the readers of the correspondence to infer for 
themselves. In regard to the facts of the matter, Mr. Brown 
says that however it may have been with Mr. Westinghouse's 
friends, who have "withstood" pressures "exceeding one 
thousand volts " " without permanent inconvenience," many 
people have been already killed by the alternating-currents, 
and many more have been crippled for life, and are supported 
by pensions from the electric-lighting companies which furnish 
such currents. Moreover, he asserts that the alternating-cur- 
rent wires cannot be made safe, for the reciprocating movement 
greatly increases the tendency of the electricity to leave the 
wire, and, according to his tests, the leakage from the wires 
used by the alternating-companies to the ground is sufficient to 
kill or cripple any person standing on a damp place and touch- 
irjc either wire, while with a continuous current, even of very 
high intensity, a fatal shock can only be received by touching 
both wires of the circuit. As to whether it is more agreeable 
to have one's tissues decomposed by a continuous current, or 
one's nerves shocked by an alternating one, he proposes a simple 
experiment. As he thinks the alternating-current the more 
dangerous, and Mr. Westinghouse says that it is less so, he 
suggests that Mr. Westinghouse and himself should meet in. 
some public place and each grasp a pair of wires of his favorite 
variety. Through these wires should then be sent electrical 
currents, beginning with a pressure of one hundred volts, and 
increasing by fifty volts at a time. Mr. Brown, who is to hold 
the continuous-current wire, offers to lead at each increase of 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 681. 

pressure, and proposes that the one who first cries enough shall 
be considered to have acknowledged himself in error. This is 
certainly a fair offer, and, if Mr. Westinghouse does not like to 
leave his business for such trifles, we strongly advise him to 
send one of his thousand-volt salamanders as his champion. As 
the controversy now stands, his friends maintain that the current 
used in his system is " absolutely harmless," and, consequently, 
we suppose, that the persons who have been killed on touching 
the wires carrying it must, by a singular coincidence, have died 
of consumption, or old age, or some other natural ailment just 
at that instant. Mr. Brown maintains that an alternating- 
current of one-sixth the intensity used by the Westinghouse 
people has killed a large dog in five seconds in his experiments, 
and that, for safety, tRe tension of alternating-currents ought 
to be limited by law to three hundred volts; and unless the 
Westinghouse companies can show a man receiving a shock of 
greater force than this without injury, we are much inclined to 
think that the public will agree with him. 

'TT CURIOUS story about an American town comes to us 
r\ by the way of Paris. According to this, there is in the 
' city of Brooklyn a lot of land which has no owner. The 
lot is not very spacious, being only twenty inches wide, by, 
apparently, two hundred feet or so in length, but it is regularly 
taxed to " Owner Unknown," and as regularly put up at auction 
for the non-payment of taxes by this mysterious individual, but 
finds no purchaser, the building laws of New York being un- 
favorable to the erection of a house on a lot of those dimen- 
sions. The explanation given for the origin of this orphan 
estate is that the block was laid out many years ago with the 
standards of length then in use, but was not divided into lots. 
Long afterwards, when the land had become valuable, the sale 
of the tract in lots began, the measurements of the lots being 
taken from the street-lines, which had been fixed at the original 
survey. The length of the legal standard for New York had, 
however, changed since the survey was made, and, when all 
the lots had been sold by measurements conforming to the new 
standard, there still remained the strip in question, which was 
included in nobody's deed, and could not be conveyed to any 
one without an apparent violation of the laws of arithmetic. 

'TTLTHOUGH this explanation may satisfy the Parisians, 
A]L we are too proud of the astuteness and ingenuity of our 
' countrymen to let it pass without question. We have 
seen a lot not much more than twenty inches wide in an 
American city utilized for a very profitable little fruit store, by 
the simple process of roofing it in, and furnishing it with a 
movable front, which served as door, counter and window, 
while there was plenty of room for reserves of goods in the 
space behind; and it is incredible that the Brooklyn people 
should be so blind to commercial opportunities as to let this one 
escape. Nor can we quite believe in the story of the origin of 
the surplus lot. So far as we know, there has been no change 
in the American standard of length, since Brooklyn was laid 
out, which would account for any such residuums of territory; 
and it is far more likely that the original surveyor used an in- 
correct chain, or forgot just where the end of it had been, and 
drove his stakes somewhat at random. Scores of errors of this 
sort are discovered in most of our States in retracing with 
modern instruments the boundaries given in old deeds, but any 
excess of territory is usually amicably divided among those who 
have claims upon it. 

TTR. HERBERT D. APPLETON, the earnest and thought- 
|X1 ful President of the London Architectural Association, 
"* recently read a paper before the Birmingham Architect- 
ural Association on the " Affiliation of Student Architectural 
Societies," which is full of valuable suggestions, as well for us 
as for those to whom it was particularly addressed. By the 
new charter of the Royal Institute of British Architects the 
London Architectural Association has a representative in the 
Council of the Institute, and Mr. Appleton thinks, with reason, 
that this arrangement could be made much more useful to the 
younger members of the profession throughout Great Britain 
by the establishment of somewhat intimate relations between 
the London Association and those which already exist, or 
which may be formed, in the provincial towns. It is a curious 
fact that the adoption of the compulsory examination for ad- 
mission to the Institute has greatly fostered the development 
of student societies, which find plenty of reasons for existence 

in the advantages which their classes offer for preparing their 
members for the Institute examination, and the ready commu- 
nication between the Institute and the students, afforded by the 
presence in the government of the Institute of a representative 
of the federation of student societies, would be most useful in 
preventing misunderstandings, in improving from year to year 
the system of examinations, with the concurrence of all the 
parties interested, and in promoting professional attainment 
and inculcating the best professional ethics. Beyond this, how- 
ever, Mr. Appleton thinks that a regular communication be- 
tween the student societies will be of much value in many ways. 
It would not take long, for instance, for a body comprising 
several hundred young men to form a lending-library of all the 
best architectural books, journals and photographs, and pass 
them from hand to hand, under the advice of persons familiar 
with the subject, until all the students who cared for it had 
acquired some knowledge of the standard works, as well as 
special acquaintance with such particular departments of art 
or science as pleased them. It seems to be the case in Eng- 
land, as here, that the public libraries are deplorably poor in 
books of value to the student of architecture. In this country, 
according to our experience, the few libraries which contain 
even a meagre assortment of standard works will not allow 
them to be taken from the room in which they are kept, so that 
they are almost entirely unavailable for young men employed 
in offices, while the selection is usually so poor that students 
who have not been warned what to avoid are likely to waste a 
large part of the time which they can manage to devote to 
them. Under such circumstances, a proper students' lending- 
library would be invaluable, while, as Mr. Appleton suggests, 
until this could be formed, much good might be done by ap- 
pointing members in the various towns to examine the local 
libraries, and urge the purchase of books from a list to be pre- 
pared for the purpose by a library committee or some similar 

BESIDES all this, Mr. Appleton proposes that the local 
societies should mutually help each other in facilitating 
the study of buildings, both ancient and modern. He cites 
the example of the Cycling Club, which, by the appointment 
of " consuls " in all the principal English towns, to direct 
tourist members of the club to places of interest, and give in- 
formation about roads and inns, has immensely facilitated the 
use of wheels for pleasure travelling, and proposes that the 
affiliated societies of students of architecture should in the same 
way appoint members in as many places as possible, as local 
advisers to students on sketching-tours. This, to our mind, is 
one of the most valuable suggestions ever made for the benefit 
of young architects, and the plan might well be carried out on 
an international scale. Every architect who has made a sketch- 
ing-tour in an unfamiliar district knows the difficulty of finding 
what he wishes most to see. The guide-books give him a little 
information about the principal buildings, and tell him how to 
find the cathedrals, which are usually visible for five miles 
around, but they are silent in regard to thousands of lovely 
' bits " more available for sketching, and quite as instructive as 
the more renowned structures. In fact, the great cathedrals 
are so familiar by photographs and drawings that they tempt 
the sketcher less than buildings which he never heard of before, 
and to which his sense of proprietorship as a discoverer gives 
an interest and charm which fix their beauties of design or con- 
struction in his mind, and lend facility to his brush and pencil. 
We can well recollect the pleasure with which we stumbled 
upon the little Carmelite church and convent in Paris, on the 
south side of the Seine, near the Hotel Cluny, or the church 
of Saint-Pere at Chartres, or an old tower of brick and terra- 
cotta in a back-yard at Milan, and how novel and delightful 
they seemed after the familiar grandeur of the cathedrals, and 
do not doubt that many of our readers have had the same ex- 
perience, and have, like us, lamented the fortune which, while 
it brought us to a few treasures, led us in ignorance past 
hundreds of others, to which a fellow-student acquainted with 
the region could have directed us. In the study of modern 
architecture, which Mr. Appleton strongly recommends to 
young men, the system of architectural consuls would be of 
the greatest benefit. We often have occasion to furnish pro- 
fessional tourists, both young and old, with lists of the most 
interesting buildings in the American towns with which we 
happen to be acquainted, and, judging from our own experience, 
the amount of time that could be saved by having such lists pre- 
pared by a competent resident in each place would be enormous. 

JANUARY 12, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


Elephant dc la Bastille. Suggestion of 
M. Alavoin. 


WITH sundown the air has 
suddenly become sharp and 
keen, much like that of late 
October at home, differentiating 
the midwinter night of this region 
considerably from the midwinter 
day> The stars glitter brilliantly 
In the clear, cloudless sky, and an 
impressive silence broods over the 
country, hardly disturbed by the 
slight sounds of the camp the 
Mexicans quietly chatting in their 
tent, the cook setting things to 
rights in the kitchen for the night, 
and the " chomp, chomp, chomp " of the animals at their fodder in 
the neighboring corral. The lights in the tents shine through the 
canvass and give them a cheery aspect : from the inside there is 
heard the steady hum peculiar to blazing wood in confinement, for a 
genial warmth is maintained in little stoves simply made of sheet- 
iron fashioned into a cone shape and kept full of mesquite wood, 
which is almost as hard and heavy as iron and gives out a heat like 
coal. These stoves, with the pipe running straight up from the top 
of the cone are simply inverted funnels, with a little draught-hole at 
the bottom. The cold of the. nights would occasion no discomfort to 
house-dwellers in this climate, but it easily penetrates the tents, and 
brisk fires are needed for comfort, even late into the spring. 

Mr. Cushing's tent, occupying the centre of the camp, has a cosy, 
home-like appearance, with the touches of decoration and aspect of 
order that betray the feminine presence. It is a large wall-tent, 
divided by a curtain into two rooms. A canvass covers the ground 
and makes a neat floor, cases of shelves contain a considerable refer- 
ence-library for use in working-up the results of the excavations 
from day to day, and there is a convenient portable desk; shelves, 
desk, etc., all made so as to be packed into small compass and easily 
transported when camp is moved. Bright colored Zuni blankets 
cover the two cot-beds, and there are tastefully displayed on the 
walls and shelves some handsome examples of the decorated basketry 
of the Pima Indians, mostly with bold, rich designs woven in blac-k 
and white, and sometimes additional decoration painted in red and 
green. There are also a few specimens of the ancient pottery exca- 
vated near by. A sewing-machine lands an air of domesticity to the 
place, and several candles illuminate it. 

Mrs. Gushing, who is the custodian of the smaller treasures of the 
collection and guards them with jealous care, brings them out and 
delights my eyes with some exquisite arrowheads, carefully chipped 
and graceful in form, made of quartz and agate, or other colored 
stone, evidently chosen with regard to its beauty ; ornaments of 
turquoise and beads of shell; bracelets and finger-rings carved from 
sea-shells, and last and most beautiful, a wonderful frog found 
wrapped in asbestos in a sacred jar excavated from the ruins of the 
great temple of Los Muertos. It is an exquisite piece of work, show- 
ing not only a genuine sesthetic sense possessed by the ancient 
people, but an artistic conception and decorative quality that would 
do honor to our own race and civilization if produced to-day. In 
making it a shell similar to that of a quahaug, or " little-neck clam " 
was taken and on its convex side the effigy of a frog was produced 
in lines of mosaic-like fragments of turquoise embedded in a black 
cement made from the gum of the greasewood, or hediondilla. The 
line down the centre of the back was made in red bits of shell, re- 
sembling coral in color. The whole was worn down smooth by 
rubbing. The effect is extremely realistic an exception to the 
conventionalism that characterizes most of the art of this, in common 
with other North American primitive cultures. Prof. Edward S. 
Morse, who visited Camp Hemenway in April, took this frog East 
with him for safe-keeping, and stopping over in New York he showed 
it to the people at Tiffany's, who expressed great delight and mar- 
velled that such a thing could have beea produced by an ancient 
people in this country. 

The rest of Camp Hemenway consisted of a tent occupied by 
Mr. Hodge with his desk and records, a tent adjacent occupied 
by Mr. C. A. Garlick, the surveyor and practical superintendent, a 
small tent in which Miss Magill was domiciled, commonly known as 
the " dog-tent " from its diminutive size and fancied resemblance to a 
kennel, a tent occupied by Dr. ten Kate, a Sibley tent for^ guests, a 
large tent for housing the collections, with a shelter of canvass, called 
by its Spanish name of ramada, originally meaning " brush-shelter," 
adjacent as an annex ; a tent for the Mexican laborers, a tent 
for the photograph material and other stores, a shelter for the bag- 
gage, a little "dark tent" for photographing operations, and a shelter 
for the harnesses. The mules, with the two horses, are tethered 
around a large crib under one of the few mesquite trees that have 
been left standing about the camp; they need no shelter in this 
climate and beyond an occasional kick or bite at an encroaching 
neighbor they live together in amity. 

The next morning I make the acquaintance of Ramon Castro, the 
noble-faced young Mexican who acts as foreman of the laborers; 
faithful, industrious, and an innate gentlemen. Later in the day 


Don Carlos, as Mr. Garlick is called* drives in from Phoenix, four* 
teen miles away, where he has been over night on his semi-weekly 
errand of purchasing supplies for the camp. 

It is a typical morning of this region, clear, sparkling air, and the 
sun soon warms up the world or all that portion that lies about us 
into summerish cheeriness, melting the ice that has skimmed over' 
;he buckets in the camp and fringed the ditches with frosty lace. 
But off in the upland regions of Arizona, three or four thousand feet 
above our level, they are having some real winter, as the snow tells 
us that is glittering on the mountains. 

A great mound lies about a quarter of a mile distant, rising in a 
ow, broad mass of brown earth above the plain, and something like 
twenty-five feet above the general level. It is the ruin of the great 
central temple of the place, and Mr. Gushing takes me out to see it. 
>t has been excavated sufficiently to show its construction. It was 
originally probably six or seven stories high, and divided into various 
rooms on each floor. Only the remains of two stories are now to be 
.raced. The outer wall is very thick, something like three or four 
leet. The material is indurated earth, and in the course of excava- 
aon Mr. Gushing made a highly important discovery concerning the 
constructive methods, of these people. Along the top of these outer 
walls is seen a double row of holes running down perpendicularly, 
and each row a few inches within the outer and inner face of the 
wall, respectively. These holes were found filled with the powder of 
decayed wood, and some large fragments of the wood itself were dis- 
covered. Further investigation showed that these walls were con- 
structed by first driving a double row of stakes into the ground, and 
hen wattling-in between the stakes so as to form two parallel lines of 
wattled work. Building this wattling up to a height of a foot or two, 
/he space was filled with moistened earth, packed down firmly, per- 
laps by treading with the feet, or tamping with heavy stones. The 
wattling was then built up higher, and the process continued until 
the wall was carried to its full height. Thus a solid structure was 
'ormed with walls enclosed within a wattled surface. This surface 
'ormed a sort of lathing, and it was covered with a thick plastering 
of mud with a smoothly finished surface such as is still to be found on 
the walls at Casa Grande after a lapse of centuries. It was 
jnknown that this was the method of building these massive walls 
until Mr. Cushing made this discovery. As soon as he saw these 
louble rows of holes he declared what their origin must be, and said 
that wattling must have been used in the way it proved to have been, 
as revealed by subsequent investigation, where the impress of the 
wattling was found plainly made Inside the walls. Here, then, was a 
most significant fact. The origin of pottery in forms of basketry has 
ong been made familiar. This discovery showed that not only did 
the primitive utensils of burnt clay, but also the primitive structures 
with walls of clay, find their origin in basketry types. For, just as 
the coating of baskets with clay suggested the making of pottery, so 
this form of structure bears the records of the story how the primitive 
wattled hut, first rendered more substantial and weather-proof by a 
coating of mud, suggested a more massive form of construction with 
a basketry basis. Possibly all mud or earthen walled construction 
may thus have been developed from basketry. 

In this connection, a subsequent discovery deserves mention. 
Readers of the American Architect may remember an article that 
appeared in these columns a few years ago, briefly recounting how 
Mr. Cushing discovered that in the ancient Pueblos the doors to the 
nouses were made of stone slabs, through an analysis of the ety- 
mology of the modern Zuni word for door, which signifies " a wooden 
stone close," showing that before boards were made available for 
the construction of their doors, they must have closed their doorways 
with slabs of stone. Thus throughout their language the successive 
stages through which their methods of house-construction, their im- 
plements, etc., passed in their development from lower or ancient to 
higher or recent types are preserved in the structure of their words. 
In investigating the ruins of Casa Grande, one of these " stone 
closes" made of mud was found in the shape of a great and heavy 
block of adobe, nicely finished with square corners, and accurately 
fitting into the place where it filled a doorway from one of the rooms 
to another. Subsequently, in excavating the ruins of a smaller temple 
in Las Acequias, one of the ancient cities near Los Muertos, a similar 
door of adobe was discovered lying upon the ground close to the 
doorway to which it belonged, its position such that it might readily 
be raised to fill the opening. These huge blocks were probably 
made in moulds of basketry, and their surfaces afterwards smoothly 
finished by hand. Even if moulds of wood were possible, they would 
have been so difficult to make with their crude implements that the 
idea would hardly have occurred when basketwork was so universal, 
and so easily made available for plastic purposes. The greater 
portion of the soil in these regions contains elements of clay and of 
natural cement, so that when indurated it hardens to an almost rock- 
like consistency. 

From the top of the temple-mound there is a good view over the 
country. We are just about on the low divide between the Salado 
and Gila Valleys, and from this point the water in the irrigating- 
canals, brought up gradually to this level from the Salado above, 
runs down towards the Gila, instead of back towards the Salado. 
When the operations of the expedition began at this point something 
like seven months ago, it was supposed by the settlers that the 
supply of the irrigating-canals would hardly reach much farther 
southward, but the researches showed that the irrigation-works of 
the ancient inhabitants penetrated far beyond, and, in consequence, 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 681. 

the available land in this region has all been taken up, and there 
has been a great development all around, with thousands of acres 
brought under tillage. 

Therefore, the landscape has undergone a rapid transformation. 
When the camp was established here, the section upon which the 
' main portion of Los Muertos stands was covered with a thick growth 
of very old mesquite trees. Only the great mound betrayed the 
existence of an ancient city on the spot. The other ruins were 
hardly discernible. The whole place has now been cleared and 
"brought under water," as they say here; that is, brought under 
irrigation. Only a few trees are left standing just about the camp, 
and the owner of the section, who took it up under the Desert-land 
Act, has sown the greater part of it with barley. Thus the land is 
resuming the fertility which characterized it ages ago. The settlers 
have made a mistake in making such a clean sweep of the mesquite. 
With a few dozen trees left on each section, standing singly or in 
groups here and there, the appearance of the landscape would have 
been much improved, and shade afforded for cattle in their alfalfa 
pastures during the summer heat. With its thirst amply gratified, 
as it is on irrigated land, the mesquite becomes quite a different tree 
from the scraggly, dwarfed growth of the desert-plains, with mis- 
shapen, unsound, contorted limbs. Given plenty of water, it becomes 
inspired with new vigor, and it lifts its head proudly high into the 
air. animated with health that becomes manifest in symmetrical 

Objects of considerable size soon lose themselves in the vastness 
of such a landscape as that spread before us ; the white tents of the 
camp become mere specks on the plain, and the little shanties of 
the settlers on neighboring lands become so diminutive as to afford 
a scale for estimating a distance that otherwise would prove very 
deceptive in this clear air. 

The land chosen by Mr. Gushing for his excavations has been 
kindly left undisturbed by the owner, beyond clearing it of its trees. 
Low mounds slightly rising from the level indicate the ruins, and 
lar"e areas laid bare testify to the industry of the laborers whom 
we see, here and there, casting out the earth with their shovels. 
We stand a long time watching them at their work. The Mexican 
laborers have gained something of the enthusiasm of Mr. Gushing, 
and are eager for results. When something is found they gain new 
encouragement, and their shovels and picks are plied with greater 
celerity. They are gentler, more impressionable and receptive than 
men of a corresponding grade in our own race, and seem to have a 
greater natural intelligence. Their training has made them careful, 
and, when evidences of the presence of pottery, of skeletons, or other 
objects are encountered, they proceed cautiously, and do their best 
to remove intact what is found. Ramon, in particular, has been an 
admirable disciple under Mr. Cushing's schooling, and he has become 
a practical archaeologist, with an almost intuitive capacity for dis- 
cerning the presence of ruins and relics. He can trace the course 
of walls unerringly by indications imperceptible to any one else 
except Mr. Gushing, and marks out with his shovel the lines for the 
men to follow in their excavations. He will likewise tell just where 
the skeletons are to be found in the house-ruins, and one day, at Las 
Acequias, I see him fill Doctors ten Kate and Wortman with aston- 
ishment and admiration ; they are anxious to find some good skele- 
tons, and are beginning to be discouraged at the prospect of encoun- 
tering them in a certain excavation, where two badly-decayed ones 
have been found near the surface. "Let us dig deeper," said 
]! union, "and we sliall find three tine dijunlos: one here, one here, 
and one here," indicating the places and the positions of their heads, 
anxl, sure enough, they were soon found. " Es usled un Jiombre de 
mucjio talenlo!" 1 remarked, in response to Dr. Wortman's enthusi- 
astic request to "Just tell him he is a mighty smart man !" and a 
modest smile of gratification illuminated Ramon's expressive features. 

The excavations of the house-ruins were usually carried to a depth 
of three or four feet below the present surface of the country, laying 
bare the remains of the walls, and showing the interiors. The only 
evidences of these houses, which had long been concealed in the 
Hicsquiic. forest that had grown up over them, perceptible at first 
sight, was a slight and gradual elevation above the surface formed 
from the gradually crumbling material. In the excavation work it 
was difficult to distinguish the walls from the material that buried 
them, being of the same color and quality of earth, and varying only 
in hardness. Therefore, the sense of touch was the determining 
factor in bringing them to light. One of the workmen, in his 
ambition to please by laying bare a goodly line of wall would 
habitually be led astray by his imagination and frequently show a con- 
siderable stretch of "pader " as they called the Gastilian pared or wall, 
in their Sonora vernacular ; but the test of a not over-vigorous kick 
from the foot of Mr. Gushing or Ramon, whose practised 63-6 could 
detect that no wall belonged there, would bring the sham structure 
down into an ignominiously crumbling mass. The real walls would 
not yield to such an assault, but, after months of exposure to sun, 
wind and rain still showed the plans of the great blocks of buildings 
to which they belonged, often covering an area of an acre or more, 
and honeycombed into small rooms and narrow passages. 

The domestic utensils would be found undisturbed in just the 
places where they belonged in a well-regulated Pueblo household, 
unbroken save by the falling walls or tlie weight of earth upon them. 
This fact indicated a deliberate abandonment of the place, under 
Fuch a taboo as would be laid upon it by tlie prieetliood in the case of 
a region made unstabls and uninhabitable, according to their notions, 

by an earthquake or succession of earthquakes, such as Mr. Gushing 
found evidence of. Here, and nearly universally among all the ruins 
explored in this and the Gila Valley, the charred remains of the 
roofs were found. This might have happened by the roofs of 
earthquake-demolished houses falling in upon the hearth-fires, and 
communicated to the adjacent houses. The uniformity with which 
the roofs are everywhere burned, however, seems to militate against 
their destruction in this manner. It might have happened, however, 
that the whole region was overwhelmed by a savage horde like the 
wild and nomadic Apaches, who exterminated the inhabitants and 
burned their towns, or caused them to flee to other parts of the con- 
tinent, possibly thus putting in motion the migratory movement 
southward that established the Mexican cultures. An investigation 
of ancient ruins at various stages southward in Mexico, beginning in 
Chihuahua and Sonora, as careful as that which has been pursued 
here, is of importance in settling these questions, for the conditions 
in which they were left, in comparison with those here, would tell 
much. It would seem that an invading horde would be likely to sack 
the houses and smash their contents. On the other hand, if the 
towns were left deserted they might remain unmolested even after 
the lapse of years, for the superstition of other tribes settling in the 
region would very likely prevent their venturing within the pre- 
cincts of a place, much more across the thresholds of its dwellings, 
that had been abandoned because of divine disfavor, and over which 
still presided the powerful demons who would work harm to all who 
might be so rash as to defy them. But, whence, then, the universal 
conflagration that seems to have visited every one of these ancient 
towns? Possibly the departing inhabitants might have applied the 
torch themselves, making a final sacrifice of their abandoned homes 
in hopes of thereby regaining the favor of the gods for their new 

Beneath the floor of nearly every house are found buried at 
different depths and often in three successive layers the skeletons 
of members of the family that occupied it. The topmost skeleton 
was invariably that of a young person ; on account of their immaturity, 
and also from the fact of being near the surface, these skeletons 
of. the upper tier were in the worst state of preservation. It seems 
likely that, when the young persons of a household began to die the 
house was abandoned because of the misfortune that had come upon 
it, thus accounting for the fact that the last burials made in a house 
were those of young people. Another interesting fact was that it 
was the custom to bury an infant beneath the kitchen hearth. This 
practice of house-sepulture could not have been promotive of sanitary 
conditions, though, in this dry climate, the results would not be so 
disastrous as they might have been elsewhere. Mr. Gushing, while 
in Zuiii, was puzzled to account for the fact that graves were called 
the " houses of the dead," but the discovery of this custom of house- 
sepulture threw light on the subject. Ancient Pueblo skeletons have 
hitherto been very rare, for explorers, not suspecting the custom of 
house-sepulture, could not find where they were buried. 

But a small proportion of the remains was disposed of by sepulture, 
for that was a privilege only accorded to members of the priestly 
easte or of the esoteric societies, whose control over the soul was 
believed to be such that they had no need of external aid to separate 
the soul from the body at death. The ordinary people were 
cremated, and the pottery vessels containing their remains were 
found buried near the bases of pyral mounds, or great heaps wherein 
were found the fragments of the personal belongings of tlie dead, 
burned with them to accompany them into the other world. These 
vessels in which the dead were buried were usually plain, while the 
food-bowls and water-jars buried with the skeletons exhumed in the 
houses were, for the most part, handsomely decorated. 

In Mr. Cushing's paper on the evolution of Pueblo pottery, con- 
tributed to the Fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 
the growth of form from primitive types was traced as clearly as is 
the course of development in a chain of species in natural history. 
Some of the types necessary to complete the chain were not to be 
found at that time, but he pointed out what they should be. All the 
missing types were found here in the course of these excavations, 
thus substantiating the correctness of his reasoning. 

Owing to the nature of the soil, which is exceptionally rich and 
retentive of moisture, encouraging the penetration of the roots of 
vegetation to a considerable depth, and probably also to a great 
extent due to the antiquity of the remains, the pit ery found here at 
Los Muertos is very tender, and falls easily into fragments, requiring 
particularly careful handling. Close examination of pieces freshly 
excavated, will show how delicate little rootlets have wrapped their 
fine net-work all around them, and with their subtle acid extracted 
from the pottery some element that gave it cohesion. For the same 
reason the skeletons excavated here at Los Muertos crumble after 
exposure, so that it is almost impossible to preserve them, despite 
the utmost skill of Dr. Wortman. The potsherds found on the 
surface are as hard as when freshly burned. Both the pottery and 
the skeletons found at Las Acequias were much better preserved, 
owing to the more gravelly nature of the soil there. 


Noes Church, by the Lake Mjosen, in Norway, so well-known to tourists 
through its picturesque situation, was totally destroyed by lire the other 
day. It dated from the early part of tlie thirteenth century. The tire 
was caused by the carelessness of workmen. The Builder. 

JANUARY 12, J889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 




OW that the Annual Exhi- 
bition of the New York 
Architectural League has 
become an established factor in 
professional life, the first duty 
of the conscientious critic is to 
, try to compare each year's col- 
I J^ lection of drawings with those of 
' * the preceding year, so as to 
trace, if possible, the tendency 
of a branch of American art 
which is unquestionably gather- 
ing strength and courage for 
undertaking a brilliant flight at 
no distant day, and to do what 
little he can to point out the 
stumbling-blocks which appear 
likely to be found in the way of 
true progress. 

On the whole, the present ex- 
hibition cannot be called an 

advance upon the last one. The general character, both of the design 
and draughtsmanship, is better, and there is a notable absence of 
the monstrosities which in former years have disfigured the walls, but, 
at the same time, there are very few of the conspicuously beautiful 

stagnate in its hands. The first black-and-white drawing that we 
come to is one of Mr. Pennell's Century sketches. Several others are 
hung about the room, and, of course, all are good, the best being 
perhaps the pen-and-ink drawing of Plantin's studio at Antwerp, 
well known by its publication in the Century. Near by are two pen- 
and-ink sketches of houses, one by Mr. W. A. Bates, and the other 
by Messrs. Lamb & Rich, both tolerably good, and a colored draw- 
ing of St. Mark's Church at Kansas City, by Mr. T. K. James, 
which is also pretty good. Then comes a very brilliant pen-and-ink 
sketch of the portal of Prince Otto Henry's Palace at Heidelberg, by 
Sidney L. Smith, This drawing is worthy of study by architectural 
draughtsmen for the perfection with which the shadows are rendered. 
We are accustomed to think of Mr. Ruskin as a visionary egotist, 
and, very properly, to warn our pupils against reading the " Stones 
of Venice," or the " Seven Lamps " ; but there is one book of his, the 
" Elements of Drawing," which every draughtsman should own, and 
more than that, should utilize by thoroughly mastering every 
exercise in it. In this way, more rapidly than by any other method 
we know of, can one acquire the ready perception of delicate differ- 
ences of light and shade, and the precision in representing them on 
paper, which form the foundation of good pen-and-ink drawing. 
Mr. Smith, however he formed his hand, has secured the evenness 
of shadow which is so hard to obtain, and which Mr. Ruskin's 
exercises develop so surely, and his drawing is a signal illustration 
of its value. 

Number 8 is a pen-and-ink drawing done with liquid sepia, a 
medium which seems this year to be greatly in favor, and, with its 

examples, either of drawing or architecture, which do most to in- near relative, the mixture of India ink and burnt sienna, revived 
struct and attract the public, and give the greatest value to an exhi- 
bition. Another thing that strikes the experienced spectator is that 
although the most renowned of the American designers are repre- 
sented, their work is, as a rule, inferior to that shown bythe same men 
in former years. We find still in the catalogue the familiar names of 
Rossiter & Wright, Lamb & Rich, John Calvin Stevens, Burn- 
ham & Root, Cass Gilbert, Babb, Cook & Willard, Brunner & 
Tryon, and a dozen others, but on going with pleasurable anticipa- 
tions to examine the numbers to which the names are attached, we 
find in very many cases work bearing the obvious marks of having been 
principally designed by assistants, or " dashed off in a hurry," or 
" got through as rapidly as possible," or offering in other ways a 
very slender flavor of the talent which we once admired so much. 

It is easy enough to account for this. The authors of the works 
which charmed us two or three years ago are now in the full tide of 
what their friends call prosperous business, and, instead of designing, 
have to spend their time in adding up, or rather, in subtracting 
from, plumbers', masons', carpenters', gas-fitters', plasterers' and paint- 
ers' bills; in listening meekly to the objurgations of their female 
clients, who refuse to be comforted because their victim forgot which 
house was to have six shelves in the kitchen dresser and which was 

to have only five ; or in rushing -in terror a thousand miles across 

the country, because a disappointed local contractor has discovered 

that their church tower, in whose entasis they took particular pride, is 

" a bulgin' about a third of the way up," and the church committee, to 

whom he has communicated this information, have hardly been able 

to wait for the arrival of the architect with his explanation, before 

voting to displace him, and appoint a protege' of the contractor's in 

his stead. As for the older lights of architectural drawing, Stan- 
ford White, McKim, W. R. Emerson, E. C. Cabot, T. P. Chandler 

and others, we do not find them personally represented at all. 

Whether their omission this year to exercise their powers for our 

admiration is due to the fact that all their leisure time is consumed 

in cutting off Interest coupons from their stacks of investment bonds, 

we cannot say, but, whatever the cause may be, it is none the less 

a misfortune for American architecture that the most capable and 

brilliant men in it, in the height of their powers, should be compelled 

by our system of practice to abandon personal work, and substitute 

the pale reflection of themselves which is obtained by " influencing " 

-* ~i~- jnn/u* ^rtTi We are not consoled for their 

a corps of clever draughtsmen, 
absence from the exhibition by the appearance of a few new men of 
great promise, for, although it is pleasant to see young designers 
coming forward and developing year by year into skilful and 
accomplished architects, there is no art in which the process of 
development continues longer, and, if circumstances would permit, 
the men who delighted us by their designs ten years ago could do 
work now surpassing that as much as that surpassed the crude efforts 
of their student days. 

Looking through the entrance-door of the large room in the 
admirable Ortgies gallery, we find the general coldness of effect of 
the black-and-white drawings relieved by spots of color judiciously 
dispersed about the walls. Many of these are furnished by the 
always interesting designs for stained-glass lent by the faithful 
friends of the League, the Tiffany Glass Company. This year we 
are ($lad to remark the absence of any sketches for stained-glass 
wainscots, and there is rather more variety than usual about the 
window designs. Some of these use nothing but pieces of opal 
glass, put together with the smallest possible modicum of design, so 
as to depend almost entirely upon the play of color in the glass itself 
for effect a method of design which, both in theory and practice, 
we cannot help considering an abuse of a most beautiful material. 
Some of the other sketches show novel, as well as successful treat- 
ments of figure jind decorative subjects, and the Tiffany Glass Com- 
pany evidently does not intend to have the great art of glass-staining 

from the grave in which it has lain for ten or fifteen years past, to 
have almost driven out the indelible brown ink which was once so 
popular, but, we believe, is not used in a single pen-and-ink drawing 
in the exhibition. The sketch in question shows very well the 
merits of the new medium, which is dark enough to give force, 
without the harshness and coldness of India ink ; and although the 
design and the drawing are both rather thin, the effect is pretty. 
Next to this is a drawing in black ink by Mr. E. R. Tilton, purport- 
ing to represent " Bits of Italian Detaj!," of which we wish we could 
speak as well. Mr. Tilton is by no means a bad draughtsman, and 
his subjects are drawn from photographs, so that they might have 
been, and ought to have been faithful representations of some of the 
most delicate and beautiful sculptured detail in existence ; but he 
appears to have thought that no one would notice trifling aberrations 
of outline, or oversights in regard to the proportion of pattern and 
ground, so that it was not worth while to take much pains ; and the 
result is that his drawings are little better than caricatures, boldly 
rendered, but presenting nothing of the fine feeling which is the most 
valuable part of Italian work. Much better than this are his draw- 
ings of the Giraud-Torlonia Palace, and a lot of colonial doorways, 
Nos. 122 and 123, which are careful and good. Numbers 11 and 12 
are in color, the first being a rough, but rather effective sketch by 
Mr. Taft, of a house which would be likely to be considerably less 
effective than the sketch, and the second a well-executed drawing of 
what looks like a parochial school, but turns out to be a Washington 
dwelling-house. The next number exhibits Mr. Henry Neu as a 
pen-and-ink draughtsman, in a competition sketch, made for Mr. 
R. H. Robertson, for the new World building, an effort which cannot 
be called particularly successful in any respect. Another pen-and- 
ink drawing in sepia, by Mr. Hubert Pierson, is intended to repre- 
sent the door of Bourges Cathedral, but, like too many others, 
sacrifices conscientious attention to detail to a dash and effectiveness 
of drawing which would be tenfold more attractive ifjit accompanied 
fidelity to the lovely original. There are plenty of drawings on the 
walls which are quite as effective, as dashing and as sketchy as this, 
but which give such facts as they are intended to express with 
perfect faithfulness, the best among these, next to those by Mr. 
Kirby and Mr. Bacon, of which we shall have more to say hereafter, 
being perhaps Mr. Schladermundt's sketch in Venice, No. 88, and 
Mr. Schweinfurth's frame of little drawings, No. 140, the most careful 
of which are extremely good. 

In No. 17 we arrive at the first example of a tribe of works which 
is represented in great force in this exhibition unfortunately for 
the exhibition, and for those who cherish the idea that architecture 
consists of something more than colored blots on paper. This is not 
the worst of the lot, the most glaringly superficial and meaningless of 
them all, such as Nos. 50, 118, 154, 202, being attributed in the 
catalogue to that very clever architect, Mr. C. S. Luce. The last 
one is, indeed, signed, " C. Luce, Pinxit;" the tool used by the 
" Pictor " being apparently a whitewash brush, with which several 
puddly daubs of various colors have been slopped together into a sort 
of outline of a building, on which have been subsequently dropped 
some little blobs of indigo, which, we suppose, are intended to do 
duty for windows, although in two instances they appear on the out- 
side of what are evidently designed to indicate chimneys. Of archi- 
tecture in these works there is little or none. A rectangular wooden 
box surmounted by a clumsy roof, and furnished with shapeless 
windows at regular intervals is not an architectural object, even 
though one end of it may be yellow and the other red., nor does it 
help it to cloud the middle with green. On the contrary, such veils 
of chromatic haze would spoil the effect of the best piece of archi- 
tecture ever designed, and on an ugly barn they simply increase the 


[To be continued,! 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 681. 

[Contributors are requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of cost.] 


[Gelatine Print, Issued only with the Imperial Edition.] 




CHILI, 8. A. 





[ARCHITECTS in every part of the country are invited to send us their au- 
thorization to add their' names to the protest. Ecs.l 

BOSTON, MASS., December 18, 1888. 

TTTtlE Commonwealth of Massachusetts has, by its Commissioners, 
Jlti advertised for designs for the State-House extension, said 
designs to be furnished in open competition. The conditions 
of the competition, as announced, have evidently been framed with- 
out due regard to the best custom in the conduct of such matters, 
the sole end and aim of which should be to secure to the State the 
best service by making sure that " the best men shall take part ; that 
they shall be encouraged to do their best ; that the best they offer 
shall be selected; and that the author of the successful design shall 
be employed as architect, provided the building is built and he is 

The conditions announced are faulty 

First. In that they are not drawn up in accordance with the best 
custom, and no assurance is given that an expert adviser will be 
employed to aid the Commission in their choice. 

Second. That no assurance is given that the successful competi- 
tor will be employed, but, on the contrary, it is distinctly stated that 
all premiated competitors are to relinquish all ownership in their 
plans to the State, without any further claim to compensation or em- 

Third. Even if the first prize in the competition were as it should 
be, the execution of the building, the actual prizes offered would 
still be entirely insufficient compensation to the authors of the draw- 
ings placed second and third. 

For the above reasons, we, the undersigned architects, citizens of the 
State of Massachusetts [and elsewhere], protest against this form of 
competition, which, in our opinion, is not for the best interests of the 
State or of our profession, and we therefore decline to enter it : 


Cabot, Everett & Mead. 
Wheelwright & Haven. 
Joseph R. Richards. 
John A. Fox. 
Geo. H. Young. 
E. A P. Newcomb. 
Longfellow, Alden&Har- 


Edwin J. Lewis. 
Andrews & Jaques. 
H. Langford Warren. 
Walker & Best. 
Wm. Rotch Ware, 
Hartwell & Richardson. 
Cummings & Sears. 
T. M. Clark. 
Allen & Kenway. 
Band & Taylor. 
Tlios. O'Grady, Jr. 
Sturgis & Cabot. 
Shepley, Rutan & Cool- 


Botch & Tilden. 
Snell & Gregerson, 
Shaw & Hunnewell. 


Wm. G. Preston. 
L. Weissbein. 
Franz E. Zerrahn. 
Carl Fehmer, 
Arthur Little. 
PeabodyA Stearns. 
Winslow & Wetherell. 
W. H. MeGinty. 
W. M, Bacon, 
W. P. Kichards. 
Daniel Appleton. 
H. M. Stephenson. 
W. R. Emerson. 
Wm. Whitney Lewis. 
J. Merrill Brown. 
Chamberlin & Whidden. 
Wm. D. Austin. 
F. W. Chandler. 


H, Walther. 
Jas. A. < -lough. 
Geo. P. B. Alderman, 
Cain & Kilburu. 


Henry H. Gridley. 
W. E. Fitch, C. E. 
D. H. & A. B. Tower. 
T. W. Mann. 


Chas. T. Emerson. 


F. W. Stickney. 
Merrill & Cutler. 


Wheeler & Northend. 
Call & Varney. 
H. W. Rogers. 


Gardner, Pyne & Gard- 

Richmond & Seabury. 
Jason Perkins. 
F. S. Newman. 
J. M. Currier. 


Stephen C. Earl. 
E. Boyden & Son. 
Fuller & Delano. 
A. P. Cutting. 
J. B. Woodworth. 


W. R. Gregg. 


Alderman & Lee. 


C. T. Beardsley, Jr. 


M. P. Hapgood. 
W. C. Brocklesby. 


L. W. Kobinson. 


E. W. Hill. 

W. J. Marsh. 
H. T. E. Wendell. 


J. E. O. Pridmore. 


T. B. Gheqnier. 
H. F. J. Johnson. 


Josselyn & Taylor. 


Willis Polk. 


C. E. Illsley. 


Eames & Young. 
A. F. Rosenheim. 


Gilbert & Taylor. 


S. W. Whittemore. 


P. G. Botticher. 


Fuller & Wheeler. 

F. H. Janes. 


C, F. Eisenach. 
M. J. Merrill. 
H. M. Davis. 


Marling & Burdett. 
R. A. & L. Bethune. 
Green & Wicks. 


Pierce & Dockstader. 


W. B. Bigelow. 
Fowler & Hough. 

G. Edw. Harding & Co. 
Rossiter & Wright. 
W. A. Potter. 

A. J. Bloor. 
J. B. Hinchman. 
C. P. Karr. 
G. E. Harney. 
J. C. Cady & Co. 
G. M. Walgrove. 
C. H. Israels. 
H. M. Congdon. 
Withers & Dickson. 


Babb. Cook & Willard. 
H. H. Holly & Jelliff. 
H. D. Hooker. 

0. P. Hatfleld. 
G. M. Huss. 
H. O. Avery. 

C. W. & A. A. Stoughton. 

W. H. Beers. 

H. Edwards-Ficken. 

H. R. Marshall. 

A. H. Thorp. 

L. B. Valk. 

H. F. Kilburn. 

J. A. Hamilton. 

W. H. Mersereau. 


J. R. Church. 


1. H. Green, Jr. 

UTICA, y. Y. 
W. H. Symonds. 


E. Anderson. 


Smith & Pritchett. 
G. C. Mason, Jr. 
Moses & King. 

F. M. Day. 
B. Linfoot. 
J. M. Wilson. 
H. A. Macomb. 
Cope & Stewardson. 
Hazlehurst & Huckel. 
'J. J. Deery. 


Stone, Carpenter & Will- 


Vai5t-r\ Vaucluse, 


HERE is no one type of apparatus, 
no complete system of heating or 
of ventilating, just as there is no 
one construction suited to all the 
varieties of building. Each building 
has its characteristic peculiarities and 
special requirements, calling for modi- 
fications in the heating and ventilating 
apparatus. In most cases, even of 
' public buildings where ventilation is of 
paramount importance, the selection 
of the apparatus is likely to depend up- 
on its possessing some one feature per- 
haps of great excellence in itself, but 
not necessary in any sense to the attainment of the result supposed 
to be peculiar to it, and not having a single one of the elements 
essential to producing the effects most appropriate and desired. 
These may have been taken for granted or overlooked altogether, 
because overshadowed by the undue prominence accorded to some 
detail of really secondary importance. It appears in this case as if 
the Commissioners, believing a certain type to be generally excellent, 
and having been shown some actual examples, impressive from their 
very magnitude (for that reason perhaps) had forthwith adopted it 
for the court-house. 

Beyond the care shown in the preparation of the plans, for whose 
completeness the engineer deserves the highest praise, we think 
magnitude and the lavish use 9f iron in almost unlimited quantities, 
cast, wrought and galvanized, constitute the only merits of the design, 
if indeed it be a merit to cram the valuable space of a costly building 
with useless material, of which the whole excess is in fact, nothing 
but junk. 

We propose to investigate the subject of heating and ventilating 
this building somewhat exhaustively, and, having determined the 
elements which should indicate the design, see to what extent they 
have had influence in the plans of the court-house apparatus. It is 
first essential to examine the conditions depending upon the con- 
struction and arrangement of the building, and, considering the use 
to which it is to be applied, to fix the requirements in accordance 
with established principles and within the capacity of modern 

These data being ascertained, the next step is to design an appa- 
ratus that can, with least first cost but greatest permanence, most 
nearly attain the results aimed at, doing this with economy in fuel 
and maintenance, and ease and simplicity of management. 

The degree of excellence which the apparatus will possess will de- 
pend upon the thoroughness with whieli the conditions and the 
requirements have been studied in all their aspects, the resources of 
the designer and his skill in securing indispensable results notwith- 
standing obstacles and unavoidable restrictions. 

The apparatus should be capable of such a variety of effects as to 
set at nought the caprices of wind and weather, but the effects will 
not be secured if the means of producing them are lost in a multi- 
plicity of details not readily accessible and scattered over a wide 
area. The arrangement should favor a reduction in the number and 
a gathering together of parts and making the details conspicuous, 
tending to concentration of management. A great number of parts, 

}|0. 601. J[MEIfl(K*IN lUGHITEGT flND BUILDING 1.EWS, J^N. 1 2 1559 

, C-WIUI, ^ A 

Heliotype TrinUDgCo.Bostoi 


COFffltSHT 1889 BY T1CKKOR i 0" 


1689 BY T1CKSOR iC 

Tlnjerican flrcljitect arjd Building IJews, January 12, 1359. I}o. 051. 

Copyright, 1889, by TICKNOR & Co. 






HeUtfype Printing Co.Hostan. 

URGHITEGT ^ ND ]|UILDTOG HEWS, JHN. 1 2 1559 ^o. 651 


siN '|[l^GHIT6T HND 

1559 }|o. GO 1 . 

1889 BY T1CKNOR 4 C 


owing RECTORY 

AS proposed. . 

Hdiotype Trailing Co Bostim . 

JANOARST 12, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


either similar or different, involving endless repetition of adjustment, 
invites confusion. The control of all those elements from whose 
flexibility proceeds the adaptability of the apparatus to changing 
conditions, should be judiciously concentrated, and the operation of 
each part and |he whole together be responsive to it. 

It must be taken into account in the first place that there will be 
machinery to be run by steam-power ; half-a-dozen elevators and 
possibly electric-lighting besides. Therefore a considerable amount 
of steam-generating power is required. Now, it is an important fact 
that the heating effect of the exhaust steam of engines, though less 
intense, is equal in quantity to that of live steam. Compared with 
live steam under pressure it is theoretically not exactly so, but sub- 
stantially and practically no difference can be detected without the 
greatest nicety in the measurements. The significance of this is that 
a large element of economy may be availed of by utilizing this waste 
steam for heating. 

There are two modes of transferring heat from a central source : 
in one, the heat conveyed by water or steam in pipes is liberated 
from the surfaces of radiators set in the spaces to be warmed. In 
the other, the heat is transferred by a current of air, which also may 
subserve the purpose of ventilation. 

As between the two methods the latter is justly believed to be the 
more desirable, because with the heat there is supplied a continuous 
flow of fresh air. 

In those cases, however, where a rapid change of air is of no con- 
sequence, this form of heating is needlessly wasteful. Let it be 
understood that if the temperature is to be kept at a fixed point, say 
70, the entering fresh hot air must displace an equal quantity at 
that temperature, whose heat is thus carried away by the outlet flues 
and lost. / 

The average winter temperature is near 32 ; now if the air is 
taken into the heating apparatus at this temperature and heated to a 
point high enough to maintain the building at 70 (which is there- 
fore the temperature of the air thrown away), then the loss by this 
system is measured by the quantity of air raised from 32 to 70 and 
continuously discharged. Supposing the air in this building to be 
changed once in fifteen minutes as would be the case with this un- 
modified system, the loss would amount in the case of the Court- 
house to the combustion of 571 pounds of coal per hour more than 
would be required to maintain the temperature of the building, and 
in cold and windy weather this loss would be disproportionately in- 
creased, owing to accelerated velocity in the flues, and consequent 
excessive flow of air. 

The system, in mild weather when unlimited ventilation can be 
afforded, is almost stagnant ; on the other hand, when severe cold 
indicates a restricted supply of air, the flow is excessive, and the 
apparatus is taxed far beyond the just needs of the building for both 
heat and fresh air. The use of the building will be sueh that a 
change of air need only be maintained during eight hours of each 
working-day; therefore during two-thirds of the time at least, change 
of air is not necessary. 

It is plain then, that economical considerations demand that the 
heating should not depend upon the supply of fresh air ; that the 
building should be kept warm by direct radiation, and that the air 
should be supplied in proportion to the demand for ventilation, some- 
times more, sometimes less, and only heated to 70. Being freed 
from the duty of transferring heat (except so far as it should be 
suitably warmed for introduction into inhabited apartments) the air- 
supply can be brought under exact control and the ventilation can be 
adapted to actual needs, be increased, diminished or stopped alto- 
gether, without in any way affecting the heating or being itself 

Thus the heating can be suited to the exigencies of the weather 
and the ventilation to the wants of the occupants, without interfer- 
ence. But if the two are inseparably connected, the joint apparatus 
will be worked chiefly with regard to the heating, which is indispens- 
able, and the ventilation, as being of less importance, will be in- 
evitably sacrificed and finally lost sight of altogether. 

Next, as to the modes of heating : We have to decide between hot 
water and steam. It is important to cover a considerable range of 
temperature, and to secure flexibility or promptness of action. Of 
the two, the former is more important. Water-circulation affords a 
complete range of temperature, so that every variety of weather can 
be perfectly met. On the other hand, it is slow to change its tem- 
perature. Steam is much more quickly turned on and shut off, but 
acts within narrow limits. The radiating-surfaces, being calculated 
for the coldest weather, are excessive for all other times. As a rule, 
steam-heated buildings are too hot in mild weather, and not always 
warm enough in extremely cold weather ; there is no provision for 
extremes, yet it is the extremes of weather which it is the very 
province and intention of a complete system to meet and nullify. 
No device for regulating the heat of steam-radiators has- yet come 
into general use, and, in spite of the greater slowness of action, we 
must accept the hot-water system on account of its wide range of 
temperature. But there is another property of steam which we may 
make use of, which will enable us to save the waste steam of engines, 
and to secure a great economy of space and apparatus in the transfer 
of heat from the heating centre to the local heaters. We have found 
that we should use hot-water radiators, but it is not therefore neces- 
sary that the water should be heated at some remote point, and 
thence be slowly transferred to the distant radiators through ponder- 
ous pipes. The radiators can be heated locally by brass coils sup- 

plied with steam, and placed within and acting upon the water 
system at the base of the rising mains. Nothing can exceed the 
rapidity with which steam can transmit heat at great horizontal 
distances through pipes of but moderate dimensions, and with but 
slight loss of pressure and reduction of intensity. Next to its use ill 
driving engines, this, the transfer of heat in great quantities economi- 
cally, is its most valuable proprety, and we must not neglect it. 
There need be, then, no separate system of hot-water boilers, but 
only one type of steam-boilers, useful alike for power and heating, 
thus saving one set of fires. 

We can take up next, having settled the heating, the question of 
fresh air, its quantity, distribution, and control. 

The purest air contains 3 parts of carbonic acid per 10,000; in 
cities, the air contains 4 per 1 0,000 ; all agree that the air is still 
agreeable when it contains 6 per 10,000.' The amount of carbonic 
acid in the breath is about 5 per 100, besides other impurities of 
which it is the measure, or 100 times as much as in air usually 
thought fit to breathe. The quantity of air consumed by one man 
in an hour is less than 18 cubic feet, producing on an average O.G 
cubic feet of carbonic acid; whence, to keep this from increasing 
above 6 per 10,000, it is necessary to supply not less than 3,000 cubic 
feet per person per hour. 2 This must be the limit for small rooms, for 
the jail and the library. For crowded court-rooms, a greater degree 
of vitiation will have to be accepted, if not by the judge and jury, 
certainly by the spectators, for causes largely owing to themselves. 
But the air need not be so bad as to be noticeable, except to one 
coming in from the fresh air out-of-doors. 

The supply of air should be proportionate to the number of occu- 
pants of the rooms as nearly as can be estimated, and provision 
should be made for increasing or diminishing this supply by simple 
means, and without affecting the heating. 

Where the so-called indirect system is used, the only way to lower 
the temperature is by shutting the registers, and thereby arresting 
the ventilation, or by opening the windows and pouring cold air 
down the backs of the occupants; or, where a system of mixing- 
dampers is used, while there may be an approximate, but practically 
very imperfect, control of temperature, there is no control of the air. 
So, too, if there are numerous inlets for the air, the supply will be 
most irregular. Sunday, when the building is empty, it may be 
flushed with deluges of air pouring in from a hundred openings ex- 
posed to a furious gale ; Monday it may be calm, and the ventilation 
inactive when the house is crowded. If there are dampers for the 
engineer to adjust when the wind is northwest, he can change the 
position of them all when the wind is southeast. At the next change 
of wind he will probably close them altogether, and take fresh air 
from the cellar, as is done in most of our city school-houses. There 
can be no system and no regulation under such conditions. The 
flow and quantity of air can be regulated and controlled by air-pro- 
pelling machinery only, and should not be left dependent upon the 
accident of wind, or the manipulation of hundreds of dampers by 
several hundreds of people scattered all over an immense building, 
and acting without knowledge or agreement with each other. It is 
evident that a systematic ventilation demands effective means to 
regulate and control both the temperature and volume. 

Besides the temperature and volume, the moistness of the air must 
be considered. Air contains the vapor of water at all temperatures, 
but its capacity for absorption increases with the temperature. For 
example, at 32 one cubic foot of air can hold two grains of water, 
while at 70 it can hold eight grains, although, being expanded by 
heat, it weighs less. But in natural air it is only at times saturated, 
its mean in this climate being 71 per cent of saturation, in England 
81 per cent, while it varies between the unusual limit of 30 per cent, 
or extremely dry, and 100 per cent, or saturation, when it either 
rains or snows. 

If we take air from out-of-doors at 32 and at 70 per cent of satu- 
ration, called its relative humidity, and heat it to 70 without adding 
water, having about 1.4 grains to start with, the warm air will only 
have about one-sixth of its capacity for water supplied, or 17 of 
humidity. This is not because the heating process lias dried it, as is 
commonly supposed, but because, by rise of temperature, the power 
to absorb water is enormously increased. Air as dry as this is very 
disagreeable to many people ; whether it is hurtful or not is an un- 
settled question. But it would appear that Nature would be a safe 
guide in the matter, and, if we moisten somewhat the air which we 
heat, we should only do what Nature does on a large scale. Here, 
again, we are restrained by practical difficulties. It the moisture is 
abundant, that is, if the relative humidity is high, the dissolved 
vapor will be precipitated as dew on cold surfaces, just as we see it 
in summer on pitchers of iced water. If the temperature of the 
inner surface of a pane of glass is 45, and the temperature of the 
inside air is 65, moisture will just begin to condense on the window- 
glass if the air is at 50 per cent relative humidity. There is no ob- 
jection to this except in the ease of exposed iron skylights, where 
condensation and dripping might be troublesome. Experience shows 
that the relative humidity may be kept up to 50 per cent in this 
climate, except in the most severe cold weather, without incon- 
venience practically, and with great comfort to many people. 

Since the greater part of the time is spent indoors in winter, the 
question of moisture probably has an important part in the effects of 
the climate in this country, and more attention will hereafter be paid 

1 Angus Smith. 
' l)r. Parkcs. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VoL. XXV. No. 681. 

to it. Where there is no ventilation, of course there need be no moist- 
ure provided, and it is only as ventilation becomes more prevalent 
that the subject of humidity will receive more consideration. 

Its bearing on the climate is already being investigated, while its 
influence on the weather has long been established ; but, as to 
climate, it is somewhat obscured by the other influences of tempera- 
ture and sunshine, and not much knowledge has yet been reached. 
It is known, however, that the climate of Florida and of many other 
places much sought by invalids is moist ; Nice has a humid climate, 
but at times, in spring, is almost intolerable, owing to the excessive 
dryness of the atmosphere. This dryness, which also prevails in 
spring in some localities on the coast of New England, is to this day 
popularly supposed to be a dampness, from its chilling effects, but 
repeated observation has established the facts as above explained. 

Evaporation produces cold, because each little atom of vapor 
carries off with it a quantity of heat, and a dry air chills by its rapid 
absorption of invisible perspiration. To avoid chill, dry air must be 
rather warm ; it should have a temperature so high as not to remove 
much heat from the body beyond what is carried off by the evapo- 
ration. A dry air at 80 is not too hot for many persons. If the 
cold produced by evaporation can be avoided, it is plain a lower 
temperature would suffice, and it is probable that a moist atmosphere 
at 62 would have the same effect on our sense of heat as a dry air 
at 75 or more, and is desirable for many reasons. The blood is not 
able to furnish an unlimited supply of water for perspiration, and 
probably the injurious effects of a dry atmosphere will be found to 
consist in such a rapid evaporation from the skin, while the body is 
at rest and the circulation slow, as to diminish the proportion of 
water in the blood of smaller vessels faster than it can be replaced 
by the circulation. This explanation is plausible; but, after all, ex- 
posure to dryness may cause no permanent harm, though to many it 
is a source of momentary discomfort. 

The usual way of supplying moisture is by rapid boiling from a 
pan or hot surface. There are some objections to this, because the 
water contains organic matter and dissolved gases, some of which 
are decomposed and set free by boiling, and impart a smell to the 
air. There will be, however, a residue which is not driven off with 
the vapor, and which, by slow accumulation, makes the water very 
foul. Both of these objections are obviated by evaporating the 
water at a relatively low temperature, and by allowing it to flow 
through the evaporator in a constant stream, only three-quarters of 
it being evaporated. This part of the heating apparatus ought to 
be placed where it can be frequently inspected and seen to be in 
working order. 

Having now considered the ruling elements with sufficient fulness 
to be able to outline a plan, and summarizing the results, we find 
that economy and efficiency require that the main heat-distributing 
system should be worked by steam ; adaptability to regulation through 
a wide range of temperature determines that the local radiators 
should be warmed by hot water, which, as shown, ought to be 
arranged in detached circuits deriving their heat from a steam appa- 
ratus centrally placed ; that systematic and regulated ventilation can- 
not be had without a mechanical propulsion of the air which should 
be susceptible of complete control at one point ; that for the sake 
of comfort, the relative humidity of the heated air should be kept up, 
and, since this is evidently impracticable if the fresh air lie admitted 
at many points, we have another reason for concentrating the entire 
control and treatment of the air in such a way that system in the 
management, prompt adjustment and regularity of working may be 
assured. We now know exactly what is requisite, and the proper 
means to obtain it. The question is, are these means within the 
reach of the architect and the Commissioners, and if so, have they 
availed themselves of them ? 

There are numerous examples in our own country as well as in 
Europe where these principles have been applied with complete 
success; where the apparatus was designed by engineers who not 
only appreciated all that is demanded by good ventilation and under- 
stood clearly what they were aiming at, but possessed the skill to so 
utilize their resources as to hit the mark with certainty. It is true 
that many of these examples are impaired by want of money, for 
none of them had the friendship of Government officials and a Gov- 
ernment surplus to draw upon. 

Before examining the proposed plans to find an answer to these 
questions, it would be instructive to determine for ourselves the 
quantities and the power of a heating apparatus suitable for this 

The contents in cubic feet are 2,695,000 divided as follows: in 
rooms, 1,468,000; library, 132,000; corridors, etc., 1,095,000. 

The area of external walls is in square feet 148,000 ; and of glass 
in windows and skylights, 25,800. Our figures are approximate. 

The average loss of heat at internal temperature of 70 and ex- 
ternal, 32 (the average of our winter climate), will be, according to 
Peelet and Box, per hour, 

by walls, 148,000 sq. ft. at 8.3 units of heat U 1,228,400 

by windows, 25.800 sq. ft. at 19.75 " " " 509,600 

by leakage of air, 200,000 cu. ft. at 0.64 " " " 128,000 

Total loss of heat per hour in heat units, 1,866,000 

Allowing th^t one pound of coal by its combustion yields only 

8,000 units of useful effect, and dividing by this number the above 

total, we have the loss per hour measured in fuel to be 233 pounds of 

coal. This is the average loss. At 6 below zero, the loss would be 

double this, or 466 pounds if the cold should be continuous. But in 
this latitude, the cold seldom reaches so low a point and never re- 
mains there long, moreover, a massive building is not readily pene- 
trated by it, so that if we provide for such a degree of cold, with an 
apparatus capable of meeting this extreme loss of heat we should have 
ample power and something over. 

We have not considered the cubic space for the reason that it has 
no fixed relation to the loss of heat. It may help us to determine the 
quantity of ventilation. 

If we change the air in the corridors twice per hour we have 

1 ,095,000 x 2 cu. f t. 2, 1 90,000 

in the rooms, 6 times, 1,468,000x6 = " 8,808,000 

in the library, once in 40 minutes, 132,000 x 1.5 = " 198,000 

Total hourly change of air, cubic feet, 11,196,000 

Or 186,600 cubic feet per minute. 

The hourly consumption of coal to heat this air from 32 to 70 
will be - 11 - 196 ' 00 - X0.07. _Xa24 X 88 ;= 893 

quantity at 6 below zero would be double this, or 1 786 pounds, 

The average heating effect then calls for the combustion of 
233 I 893 

(the ventilation being carried on only one-third of the 


time, eight hours in twenty-four) or about 530 pounds of coal per 

The maximum effect, which indicates the power of the apparatus, 
calls for 466-)- 1786, or curiously enough, about 2240 pounds per 
hour. This is an extravagant provision, because it is very improba- 
ble that all the rooms will require full ventilation at the same time, 
and since at 6 below zero, the quantity of ventilation may be re- 
duced somewhat, as in fact it always is, even sometimes to the point 
of shutting tight all cold-air inlets. But we intend to be liberal to 
extravagance, so that we cannot be accused of suggesting less than 
the real requirements of the case. 

Above we gave some figures showing the quantity of air required 
per person for good ventilation to be 3,000 cubic feet per hour. In 
our arbitrary rate of change, we allowed for 11,196,000 cubic feet 
per hour, consequently we have provision for adequately supplying 

fresh air for ( ' -= J nearly 4,000 persons when the ther- 

mometer outside is at 6 below zero. This is more than generous. 

The boiler power to fully convert into useful heating effect the 
above extreme and improbable use of coal is that of about 288 
horses, reckoning a maximum combustion of 16 pounds per hour 
per square foot of grate-surface, and an evaporative efficiency of only 
7.7 pounds of water per pound of coal, or 6 boilers of 48 horse-power 

As we intend to utilize the exhaust steam of machinery for heat- 
ing, we need make no provision for power, simply lending the steam 
to the engines before using it for heating, and thus getting the ele- 
vating and lighting-work done for nothing. 

To transmit this heat by radiation from surfaces at a moderate 
temperature agreeable to the occupants, calls for about 12,400 super- 
ficial feet of radiating-surface in the local heaters whose duty it is to 
maintain the temperature of the building, and for heating the air dis- 
tributed for ventilation, a central coil of pipes, containing about 
8,000 square feet, very compact and efficient. 

For moving this air, one fan about 14 feet in diameter running at 
100 revolutions per minute and an engine of 30 horse-power would be 
required. Two smaller fans and two engines would be better, form- 
ing a duplicate apparatus, and there ought to be a separate fan for the 
jail. In the system here outlined, if the heating-plant should be dis- 
abled, the heating could be continued by the power-plant and venti- 
lating-apparatus, and vice versa, and the business of the courts need 
not be interrupted. 

To have sufficient power even above the improbable maximum 
demand, we should increase the boilers by one-third ; as the radiat- 
ing-surtaces maybe subject to disadvantages of location, arrange- 
ment or construction (such as being massed too much together) we 
should increase them liberally, and also provide a surplus so that if 
the building should have become'chilled, the apparatus can recover 
the lost ground rapidly. Let us double the heating-surfaces: We 
now have 6 X 1-33 = 8 boilers of 48 horse-power, and 12,400 X 2 =; 
24,800 square feet in radiators and 8,000 square feet in the main 
coils for heating fresh-air, making a total heating-surface amounting 
to 32,800 square feet. We also need three blowing-fans, with their 
engines, to force the movement of fresh-air, evaporators, and prob- 
ably three fans to insure positive movement in the ventilating-flues 
if they are tortuous and very unequal in length and frictional resists 
ance. The exhaust-fans should be run by electro-motors. It is to 
cost nothing for power to run these fans. There should also be a 
small fan to expel heat from the boiler-room in the summer, to pro- 
vent it and the odor of hot-oil from machinery from passing into 
other parts of the building. 

These, then, are our estimates of the boiler and heating power 
required -by the Court-house, and arrangements similar to those we 
have described for insuring the ventilation we think not only 
desirable but indispensable to a good result. 

VVe have only sketched an outline, but, in general, our apparatus, 
besides being capable of the effects which we stated to be necessary 
at the outset, and which we think will command unquestioning 

JANUARY 12, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


assent, would possess this important quality, the entire control of 
temperature by the occupants of the rooms or persons in charge of 
them, without reference to the ventilation ; there need be no opening 
or shutting of registers i;i attempts to regulate the heat, and no un- 
certainty in the supply and removal of air. If it should be too hot 
or too cold, the remedy is in operating the local radiators ; but the 
ventilation should and could go on absolutely without reference to 
temperatures in the building, for, as stated among the essentials in 
our enumeration of the effects to be obtained, this air would be 
delivered in all parts of the building at a constant temperature, say 
70, which, if the rooms were colder than that, might add to their 
heat up to that point, but could by no means make it greater. Thus 
the engineer's duty would be extremely clear and easy for him to 
perform ; and if the control were properly concentrated, he could 
have no excuse for unsatisfactory results anywhere. 

We are forced to admit that in many cases neither has the 
managing engineer any clearly defined duty beyond keeping the 
building as hot as he can, nor the means of doing much else than this. 

We believe that our conclusions cannot be shaken by any evidence 
obtained from the actual use of any type of apparatus; on the con- 
trary, that it is founded on correct principles and supported by the 
best experience and practice the world over, except in Great Britain 
and districts controlled by the architectural bureau of the United 
States Treasury Department; that it is strictly in line with modern 
progress, and within the capa.ity of modern engineering. 

Let us see to what extent the proposed apparatus is conformable 
to them. 

The Commissioners' engineers specify (12 hot-water and 2 steam 
=) 14 boilers of 45 horse-power each ; about 30,382 square feet of 
direct and 57,240 square feet of indirect radiators, or a total of 
87,622 square feet of heating-surface, besides a large amount in 
ventilating-flues designed to insure a draught. There are no fans. 
There is no provision for moisture ; no utilization of exhaust steam 
for heating. There are no less than 195 cold-air inlets exposed to 
all points of the compass, to be operated, in addition to as many sets 
of valves under varying conditions, by an indefinite number of 
occupants of the rooms, of whom there is no guaranty that a single 
one will be an expert in ventilation. There are 74 cold-air dampers, 
32 switch-dampers and 64 mixing-dampers, all to be operated at 
every change of wind and temperature by the efficient corps of 
supernumerary engineers under the supervision of a skilful chief, 
probably a graduate of the Signal Service of the United States 
Treasury Department, who will issue hourly bulletins, with maps, 
indicating the probable climate for the ensuing hour in various parts 
of the structure, for the guidance of his subordinates and consolation 
of the inmates. Far from centralizing the control, the care of all 
these confused and differing subdivisions is scattered all over the 
building in dark, inaccessible flues, ducts and tunnels obstructed by 
enormous pipes, and all this mass of material, the larger part of 
which must, on account of its unsuitable arrangement, remain 
forever inert and worthless, is to be buried up in masonry, in whose 
construction 600,000 bricks are actually specified to be consumed, 
besides many tons of cast and galvanized iron. 

A large part of the apparatus is exposed to certain damage from 
freezing in case of neglect to manipulate the valves and dampers 
properly ; and it is so built-in within walls and metal casings as to 
make the repairs resulting from such accidents very costly and 

The main pipes are to be covered with felting of cow's hair, which, 
after a year or two, will be rotten or moth-eaten ; some of this is in 
the fresh-air ducts, where it will contaminate the air. 

As to the excessive boiler-power and the enormous surplus of 
heating-surface, it won't do to try to substantiate the correctness of 
the estimates by reference to Government buildings. In these it 
can be shown that the power of the apparatus is so far beyond the 
requirements that large quantities of material have been from time 
to time removed, and much more is never used, that in none (except 
where improved methods have been added) is there any systematic 
ventilation ; that in many the cold-air inlets are permanently closed, 
and where the dampers fit imperfectly, paper is pasted over the 
registers or screens to prevent the wind from blowing documents 
off the tables and desks, the heating-power being so excessive as to 
heat sufficiently through the casings with the open-work screens thus 

In the Government buildings in New York and Boston where this 
system is used, these dampers are all permanently fastened up; 
some of the outer gratings have been closed by solid plates of cast- 
iron ; in the Boston Custom-IIouse, where a new apparatus of 
similar design has recently "been placed, the wind blows straight 
through the building, in at one side and out at the other, carrying 
away out-of-doors heat intended for warming the interior, and, un- 
fortunately, not available for heating neighboring buildings. 

The same unsystematic arrangements for supplying air have been 
inflicted upon most of the Boston public schools, largely under the 
administration of Mr. Clough, the Court-house architect. Out of 
many reports made by sanitarians and health-inspectors upon the 
condition of these buildings, we select the most recent, of which the 
following is a part, by a prominent authority : 

" From the reports of the inspectors, I fail to find the standard 
reached even in the best-ventilated buildings of the city of Boston ; 
and in a large number of the older buildings (especially those occupied 
by the primary department of the school) the deficiency is startling, 

the condition of air being such that no test is required to prove its 
unfitness for respiration, and danger to the teacher and pupil occu- 
pying the building. In many buildings we find no provision even 
for fresh-air supply, and in others the supply is through the cold-air 
boxes leading to furnaces, where, as a rule, they are entirely in- 
adequate, and not infrequently are partially or entirely closed. In 
the class of buildings heated by steam, by what we call the indirect 
system, we find the best provision for air-supply ; but even that, with 
scarcely any exception, comes far short of the standard adopted, and 
the supply for the different rooms is irregular, and materially affected 
by the condition of the temperature and wind outside. A very 
general and almost universal deficiency is in the size of the fresh 
and foul air flues, which are found so small as to require a very high 
velocity in order to accomplish the necessary work. To illustrate, 
it is rarely that we find more than two supply-pipes to a room, and 
these are not over fourteen inches in diameter. To get the amount 
of air required for fifty-six pupils through these pipes would call for 
a velocity of 1,309 feet per minute, which is not obtained. The same 
deficiency exists in the foul-air flues, and it is not infrequently the 
case that the inspectors have found no movement of air whatever in 
these flues." 

To return to the Court-house plans, we assert that they contain no 
internal evidence of careful study of the conditions, or of design to 
effect a single result beyond the certain overheating of the buildinc. 
In fact, we can with difficulty refrain from the thought that the only 
design is to effect a sale to the County of a vast amount of material, 
leaving to accident all the essentials of comfort and health, to obtain 
which these Commissioners were appointed, and for which mainly 
the edifice is to be constructed. Certainly, without them, no perfec- 
tion or magnificence of architecture will be a compensation. 

Perhaps, as the county has gone so far as Baltimore and Washing- 
ton for a type of apparatus, we may go still farther for evidence to 
prove its worthlessness. It so happens that there is an example of 
the greatest historical value, which has established for all time the 
comparative merits of the accidental system of ventilation which our 
Commissioners have adopted and the designed and regulated system 
which has alone yielded positive results. We refer to the Hospital 
Lariboisiere (du Nord), in France. About 1848, the commission 
having charge of the construction of this hospital accepted without 
competition plans for heating and ventilation prepared by an influ- 
ential house in the trade. Fortunately, the Council of Administra- 
tion of Public Assistance of the State vetoed this arrangement, and 
required the commission to obtain a report by competent experts 
upon the proposed plans, together with other propositions from 
parties of high reputation as engineers. The examining experts 
reported unanimously in favor of one of the new plans, but the com- 
mission, under pressure from high quarters friendly to the former 
proposers, decided to give one-half of the hospital to them, and one- 
half to the successful competitor. Both apparatuses were finished 
in 1854, and began work the following year. In the third volume 
of "Peclet's Traite de la Chaleur," edition of 1861, will be found 
forty pages of matter devoted to this hospital, containing the able 
writer's own criticism upon the several phins, and embodying the 
report of M. Grassi, pharmacist resident at the hospital. In this re- 
port, the results of accidental ventilation compared with regulated 
ventilation are fully set forth in tabulated statements compiled from 
careful observations regularly repeated and continued, and confirm- 
ing, after extended use, the views of the Board of Engineers who 
had reported unanimously in favor of the mechanical system of 
MM. Thomas and Laurens, amended by M. Grouvelle's hot-water 
apparatus, wherein the local hot-water heaters were joined in short 
circuits heated by steam. This brilliant idea had already been suc- 
cessfully applied at the great Mazas prison. 

The latest example of this kind of work which we have seen is 
that at the Hotel Dieu (City Hospital), Paris. In this immense in- 
stitution the entire heating and cooking are done by steam from two 
boilers of about 50-horse-power (we speak from memory), the hot- 
water radiators being run by steam-coils. The two main pipes are 
of copper beautifully fitted, all angles being turned by arcs of circles 
of long radius. They appeared to us not over three-and-one-half or 
four inches in diameter. Those in the Suffolk County Court-House 
are proposed to be thirty inches in diameter. 

We confess that the heating effect of an apparatus in Paris should 
be considerably less than here, and that there is no hospital in France 
(except those which are ventilated by windows kept permanently 
wide open, as in England also) which is adequately ventilated. We 
believe this to be due to the extreme economy of the French people, 
and to the fact that until the recent researches of Dr. Angus Smith 
and Dr. Parkes in England, and Professor Pettcnkofer in Germany, 
the quantity of air needed for good ventilation was not appreciated. 
The apparatus of the French engineers has not failed to yield the 
calculated results. If there still exist deficiencies, they are due to 
the real requirements not having been known and stated in the first 
place, as we, from later knowledge, are able to state them now. 

Another great building, the 116tel de Ville in Paris, of which we 
have examined the heating and ventilating plans, but which was not 
complete at the time of our visit, is ventilated also by the mechanical 
system, the local heating depending upon steam-radiators so con- 
structed as to retain the water of condensation in very large quantity, 
thus gaining the supposed advantage of a reservoir of heat remain- 
ing in the water after the steam is shut off, and utilizing this 
property of the hot-water system, apparently in the mistaken view 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 681. 

that it is the most valuable one. In our opinion, this is a decided 
defect in a heating apparatus, and the very and only objection to 
hot-water heating. 

Pe'clet, the greatest investigator, and, at the same time, highest 
practical authority on heating, prefers steam-heating, pure and 
simple, with mechanical ventilation, to all else, owing to its rapidity 
of action, and when a great range of pressure is permissible, to its 
corresponding range of heating effect. But later experience goes 
to show that there are objections to using high pressure in steam- 
heating, and, consequently, its action is confined within narrow 
limits. No way of imparting to hot water the quick action of steam, 
or of constructing a steam-apparatus possessing as great a range of 
temperature as hot water, has yet come into established use. Either 
system would be perfect with the attributes of the other, but the 
world yet waits for their successful union in practice. 

Regarding the Johns Hopkins Hospital, which the Commissioners 
visited, and where the basement is crammed with apparatus for 
heating and ventilation, and where, if they were merely in search of 
something calculated to astonish by magnitude and quantity, they 
certainly found what they were looking for, it should be told that 
the apparatus (fans and all) was confessedly experimental. The 
physician who is supposed to be responsible for it, though a learned 
and able writer and student, not possessing the knowledge, training, 
or experience qualifying him to design a practical apparatus, ar- 
ranged with the Commissioners' firm to furnish one on a ten per cent 
commission, he making suggestions borrowed from books and obser- 
vations of travel. It is plain to see that both partitas to this contract 
were interested in multiplying the real requirements by some factor, 
the doctor's being a factor-of-safety (to him), and the contractor's a 

For doing this work and that of the Government buildings, which 
by inliuence (the chief motive power in Washington) are alleged to 
have been turned into the hands of the same firm which the Court- 
Ilouse Commissioners have employed, many costly patterns and spe- 
cial fittings were required. It is claimed that many of these special- 
ties are called for in the plans for our Court-house, and that the firm 
who prepared the plans have thereby handicapped all competitors 
against th.'in for the work by a preference amounting to many thou- 
sands of dollars in their own favor. This would seem to have some 
color, for the reason that some very desirable fittings purposely 
designed for water-heating, and increasing the efficiency of the circu- 
lation, but not handled by this firm, are not specified, named, or 
shown in the plans. 

It has begun to be known that the Commissioners are not likely to 
get many bids. They must expect that there will be but few, and 
perhaps collusion between the competitors, and that, consequently, 
the evident enormous cost of the proposed scheme may be forced up 
to the point of exhausting the financial strength of the County, 
which, left weak and helpless, will sink down under the tremendous 
weight unloaded upon it under this cover of an alleged apparatus 
for heating and ventilating the new Court-house. 

We have a parting word to add : We hope the many thousands 
of dollars (as much as $30,000?) spent in changing and adapting 
this building into a storehouse for this apparatus, and the space 
sacrificed, will not prove to liave been wholly thrown away. \Ve 
think that the Commissioners' expert house of contractors and 
engineers can afford to give up the $4,000 they are to receive for 
services in specifying their own materials, and pay $10,000 for the 
monopoly ami privilege thus accorded them. We think that they 
ought to do it. Suffolk County, in Massachusetts, will then have 
reason to be doubly grateful to them, and be better able, with this 
legacy in reserve, to keep in repair the monument with which, at 
her expense, they propose to peipetuate their memory. 




THE new attraction at the Musee du 
Louvre in Paris is the Susa Caller)-. 
Directly above the Salle Assyrienne a 
handsome and spacious apartment has been 
fitted up for the purpose of holding the mar- 
vellous specimens of Achemenidan architect- 
ure and Achemenidan art which M. Marcel 
Dieulafoy has dug up out of the mounds that 
cover the site of the ancient capital of the 
Persian Empire. After two years spent in 
arranging the collection a task that, for 
reasons which will become apparent in the 
course of this article, involved unusual diffi- 
culties the gallery is now thrown open to 
the public. 

It was in December, 1884, that M. Dieula- 
foy, accompanied by his talented wife, Mme. Jeanne Dieulafoy, and 
two assistants, Messrs. Babin and Houssay, left Paris, intrusted by 
the French Government with an archaeological mission. The exten- 
sive mounds which were the immediate goal of the expedition had 
attracted the attention of travellers for many years. As early as 
1851 Sir William Loftus visited the village, which still retains the 
ancient name of Shus, or Susa, to the north of Dizfoul, in the south- 
western corner of modern Persia, and made a careful examination 
of the mounds at that place. He found unmistakable proofs of the 

existence of ruins beneath these vast accumulations of dust and 
rubbish, and hoped to induce the authorities of the British Museum 
to undertake excavations on a proper scale. But the archaeological 
interest was at that moment centred upon the mounds, similar in 
character and formation, on the banks of the Tigris and in the 
valley of the Euphrates. A few years before, the Frenchman, P. E. 
Botta, had astonished the world by unearthing the palace of King 
Sargon at Kharsabad, and Sir Austen H. Layard, following close 
upon the heels of Botta, created a veritable sensation by the dis- 
covery of old Nineveh, with the palaces of several Assryian kings. 
A second French expedition was about to be sent into the field, and 
Sir Henry Rawlinson was busily engaged hunting for the " founda- 
tion " records of Nebuchadnezzar at Birs Nimroud. Thus the glory 
of resuscitated Nineveh and of reawakening Babylon threw every- 
thing else into the shade for the time being, and Susa was destined 
to be neglected until the worthy compatriot of Botta took up the 
spade. M. Dieulafoy was particularly well fitted for his task. Ex- 
tensive travels in Persia made some years before had made him 
thoroughly familiar with land and people ; prolonged studies in 
Persian art, of which his five volumes on "L'Art Antique de la 
Perse " are the fruit, had secured for him a high rank among archae- 
ologists, while his practical profession as an architect and his long 
experience as " Ingenieur en chef des Ponts et Chausees " in Paris 
gave him additional advantages, which were no small factors in his 

Arrived on the spot, M. Dieulafoy encountered the same opposi- 
tion from the natives which all explorers in the Orient have had to 
face, and this despite the firman with which he was provided. The 
fanaticism of a Mussulman populace, fanned by the agitation of a 
still more fanatical clergy, form a combination which it is exceedingly 
difficult to master, and when to this front be added the intrigues of 
officials greedy for bribes, one is surprised to find that Dieulafoy 
should have succeeded at all in carrying out the object for which he 
came. In reading his narrative, one is struck more particularly by 
the close analogy existing between the vexations which he had to 
endure and those which rendered Sir Austen Layard's life miserable 
during his sojourn in Mesopotamia some forty years ago another 
instance, and a very unsavory one, of the well-known Oriental con- 
servatism. Mohammedans are taught to look upon every scientific 
effort not bearing directly upon their religion with a contempt not 
unmingU'd with dread. To resuscitate, accordingly, the " buildings 
of the infidels " is both impious and dangerous. Hence every attempt 
at any kind of excavations in the East is frowned upon, and it is 
only in the face of the indomitable spirit of a Layard or a Dieulafoy 
aided by a sufficient quantity of baksheesh opposition in the 
end is forced to give way. 

The half of February had gone by ere Dieulafoy sighted the 
mounds of Susa. Every day was of the utmost value to him, for in 
a few weeks the approach of the hot and rainy season would compel 
him to interrupt his labors. Fancy, then, his exasperation when, in 
response to an appeal for workmen, despite the prospect of good pay, 
three men and a child presented themselves. To add to his im- 
patience, the Governor of the province, with a coolness that chal- 
lenges admiration, wrote to Dieulafoy, in reply to his demand for 
assistance, that it would be better for him to desist from stirring up 
the prejudices of the population, and, assuming a tone of concern for 
Dieulafoy's safety, lie suggested that Dieulafoy leave his baggage at 
Dizfoul and pay the Governor a visit at Schuster, when they might 
at their leisure talk over matters. Dieulafoy was not long in sus- 
pecting the Governor to be in league with the opposition. The 
existence of graves in the mound was a further weapon in the hands 
of his opponents, and the clergy were particularly loud in their de- 
nunciation of this profanation of the soil. The same cry was raised 
when Layard started to dig at Nimroud, and it was afterward ascer- 
tained that the Governor of Mosul had given secret instructions to 
7'emove tombstones from an existing cemetery and plant them in 
various parts of the mound at Nimroud. The graves at Susa seemed 
to be of a more genuine character, but Dieulafoy showed that they 
were the graves of the " infidel " Parfhians not of believers. The 
appeal to consistency was probably not of much avail. What 
enabled him to conquer in the end was his dogged obstinacy. He 
simply would not "go." He remained on the spot, despite the allur- 
ing invitation of the Governor, and devoted himself to quieting the 
fears of the populace, who were told, among other things, that the 
Frenchman had come " to spy out the nakedness of the land." By 
degrees workmen came, and the work of digging could be begun, 
Mme. Dieulafoy herself setting the example by striking the first 
blow with the pick. It wa3 not long before Dieulafoy was able to 
determine with tolerable certainty tHe nature and extent of the 
remains which the mounds contained. Trenches were opened at 
various points, a wall encircling a building of vast proportions was 
traced, and it was ascertained that the edifice in question must have 
consisted of several and sharply-marked divisions. Bricks bearing 
cuneiform characters were found, which made it clear that the edifice 
was none other than the palace of Artaxerxes Mnemon, or Arta- 
xerxes II, the seventh monarch in the Achemenidan dynasty, who 
ruled over the Persian Empire from 406 to 359 B. c. Short inscrip- 
tions found by Loftus in the course of his examination of the mounds 
had also borne witness to the fact of a palace having been constructed 
at Susa by this same Artaxerxes. Dieulafoy's thorough knowledge 
of Persian architecture, as exhibited by the ruins at Persepolis and 
elsewhere, aided him in fixing upon the general distribution of the 

JANUARY 12, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


apartments of which such a palace was composed, and he now de- 
voted himself more especially to that portion of it when; he con- 
jectured the grand reception or " throne " room to have been situated, 
and which promised a particularly rich return. His expectations 
were not disappointed. The trenches being widened, they came into 
the "throne" room itself, where hundreds of glazed tiles in various 
states of preservation still bore witness to its former glory. Each 
tile, as it was taken out, was carefully numbered, and upon piecing 
them together it was found that they formed part of a large frieze 
representing a series of lions, whose fierce look, as they stand to-day 
in the Louvre, still is well calculated to inspire terror. These glazed 
tiles constituted the decoration of the palace walls, corresponding to 
the alabaster slabs, which was the ordinary material employed by the 
Assyrian kings in their palaces. 

It may be imagined into what ecstasies of joy this discovery threw 
the Dieulafoy partyi But still greater surprises were in store for 
them. From other sources, it was known that Artaxerxes had 
erected his dwelling on the ruins of an older building, which had 
been the work of his predecessor Xerxes, which had been destroyed 
by fire. Upon digging below the foundations of the " Apadana" of 
Artaxerxes, as this "throne-room" of the palace was called, M. 
Dieulafoy actually came upon abundant traces of this older building. 
Indeed, the glazed tiles found here form perhaps the most brilliant 
pieces in the " Susa " collection. Upon entering the gallery in the 
Louvre the first thing that will strike the eye of the visitor are the 
enormous friezes to the right and left of the entrance, showing a pro- 
cession of archers. These friezes once graced the walls of Xerxes's 
palace, and what is most remarkable about them is that now, after a 
lapse of 2,000 years, they have been restored to view, the coloring on 
the files is almost as fresh and as gaudy as thousfh the glazure had 
been put on within a few years. Specimens of glazed bricks have 
been found beneath the mounds both of Upper and Lower Meso- 
potamia which date probably from a period anterior to the conquest 
of the country by Persia, and there are reasons for believing from 
traces of coloring found on the slabs of the Assyrian palaces that the 
scenes sculptured on them were painted in many colors, but the art 
of glazing could never have been carried to that perfection in Baby- 
lonia and Assyria as was the case in Persia tinder the Achemenidan 
dynasty. Here results were obtained which were simply marvellous, 
and which have never been surpassed since. Dieulafoy began his 
archa;ological studies with the avowed purpose of finding the source 
for the. brilliant decoration which plays so prominent a role in 
Arabian architecture, and here in the palaces of Artaxerxes and 
Darius he found not only this but also the prototype for much of the 
art that through the Arabs has come down to us. Herodotus speaks 
in his history of the guards of archers known as " the immortals," 
who were in constant attendance upon the Persian king, and Dieu- 
lafoy is of the opinion that the men on the friezes are intended as a 
representation of this body-guard. Another interesting question 
raised by the discovery is an anthropological one. Upon placing 
the scattered tiles in position it was noticed that there was a differ- 
ence in the coloring of the hands and faces. While some presented 
the complexion common in the Orient, others were of a decidedly 
black hue, pointing apparently to an African origin. Have we here 
traces of a black race that once flourished in this region, and to the 
existence of which a number of other circumstances would seem to 
point, or did the Persian kings import these men from the other side 
of the Red Sea? Professor lloussay, one of the members of the 
Dieulafoy expedition, is at present engaged in studying this im- 
portant problem. 

It will now be clear why the work of arranging the collection 
which Dieulafoy brought along involved such an expense of time and 
labor. The thousands of tiles had each to be carefully examined and 
the position of each to be accurately determined. Naturally, upon 
placing them together, both in the cases of the archers of Darius and 
of the lions from the apadana of Artaxerxes, there were gaps every- 
where. In order to furnish the visitor with a vivid picture of the 
actual appearance of the friezes in the palaces of the Achemenidans, 
M. Dieulafoy went to the great trouble of restoring the missing 
portions in following most faithfully, as a matter of course, the 
original designs. He lias been severely criticised in some quarters 
for this attempt, but, as 1 believe, unjustly. The student of art will 
not be led astray by these restorations, which, moreover, are con- 
scientiously indicated on a drawing placed at the side of the friezes, 
and the layman will certainly carry with him a far clearer and withal 
faithful impression of old Persian art than could possibly have been 
the case with merely a confused and imperfect lot of glazed tiles 
before him. What deserves more justly to be criticised is the 
arrangement of the tiles in the friezes of the archers on which 
cuneiform characters are inscribed in the same brilliant colors 
and which are evidently misplaced. As they now stand they give 
no sense whatever, and all that can be recognized is the name of 
Darius. Besides, it is more than likely that the inscription was 
beneath the pictures of the archers, as is generally the case on 
Assyrian slabs, and not between the pictures, as Dieulafoy seems to 
believe. The vestments of the archers call for special notice. The 
short tunics fall in graceful folds over the shoulders, and the varia- 
tion in the patterns of the garments adds materially to the effect 

Let us return to the field of excavations for a moment. With the 
approach of the hot season the Dieulafoy party deserted their camp, 
but early the following winter they were on the ground again. 

Things went more smoothly now, though there was still an opposi- 
tion to contend with, and already in December work was recom- 
menced at the mounds. By the end of the season the funds at the 
disposal of Dieulafoy were exhausted, and he was obliged to close 
his labors. His success during the second season was not less 
significant than during the first. Among the discoveries made there 
is only room here to mention the wall supporting an enamelled brick 
staircase. Mme. Dieulafoy claims this piece as her particular share 
of the discoveries, for she was the first to literally stumble over it, 
while engaged in digging' a large piece of the wall that now occupies 
a post of honor in the Susa Gallery, and a most gorgeous piece of 
workmanship it is. The design, consisting of a series of rosettes, is 
delicately executed, and, as in the case of the friezes, blue, green and 
yellow are the predominating colors. With the whole palace fitted 
up in the fashion of which the friezes and the staircase may be taken 
as samples, the effect must indeed have been startling in its grandeur. 
Dieulafoy also brought along portions of these enormous columns of 
solid stone which ran in the form of a colonnade around a wing of 
Artaxerxes's palace. The longest of these is over 17 feet high, but 
the calculation is that in their perfect state they measured over 
30 feet with a circumference of about three feet. The style of the 
column is distinctly Ionic, but it is spoiled by a grotesque figure of 
a double bull worked in bronze which surmounts it. The combina- 
tion, inartistic though it be, is exceedingly instructive as illustrating 
the attempt made by the Achemenidans to combine two wholly 
different species of art and architecture. The idea of the columns 
is a direct importation from Greece, if they are not indeed the work 
of Greek workmen brought over into Persia for the purpose, a sup- 
position which appears to be borne out by passages in the works of 
some ancient authors, while the bulls are borrowed from the Babv- 
lonians and Assyrians, in whose architecture they occupy, as is well 
known, so essential a place. It is quite impossible to conceive an 
Assyrian palace without the bulls in various shapes and forms 
guarding tiie approaches to the palace chambers. The combination 
of Greek with Babylo-Assyrian art has produced the monstrous 
creation above referred to. It would appear from this that the 
originality of the Persians in their art was confined to their methods 
of glazing and enamelling, and it is probable also that not only in the 
construction of their edifices but also in their inner disposition of the 
various quarters they followed foreign models, in the first instance 
Assyrian models. 

Thanks to the attainments of M. Dieulafoy as architect and civil 
engineer, he has been able to ascertain the relative position of the 
various quarters of which the palace of Artaxerxes was composed, 
with tolerable accuracy, despite the fact that he has only excavated 
what is in reality a small portion of the edifice. From the plan 
which lie has drawn up it appears tiiat the palace consisted of three 
distinct wings, the " apadana," or public reception-rooms, the harem 
and the apartments of the King. Included under the latter were the 
rooms set aside for the royal attendants as well as for the immediate 
family of the King. A wall ran around the whole edifice, and as an 
additional protection for the sacred person of his Majesty, the two 
entrances leading to his apartments, the position of which was 
admirably chosen with a view of securing exclusion combined with 
safety, were, guarded by sentinels kept posted there. What adds to 
the. interest of M. Dieulafoy's discovery is the remarkable agreement 
to which he himself has called attention between the references to 
the palace of Ahasuerus in the Book of Esther and the very building 
which he has unearthed. The three wings just referred to are dis- 
tinctly mentioned by the biblical author under their proper designa- 
tions as "bithan," which corresponds to the Persian apadana, the 
" house for the women," which is the harem, and " the house of the 
King," which represents the third quarter. Moreover, the position 
of these three quarters tallies with the picture of the palace which we 
would necessarily form had we the Book of Esther alone to guide us. 
Adjoining the bithan or apadana was the harem, and immediately 
to the south of the latter were the royal apartments, the three 
forming together an inverted letter L. The Book of Esther, it will 
be remembered, opens with a magnificent description of the festival 
which King Ahasuerus gave in the bithan, and is worthy of note 
that in the delineation of the splendors of the palace the colors of 
the draperies singled out for special mention are the very ones which 
appear most prominently in the decoration of the friezes and the 
staircase. Again the scene where Queen Esther approaches his 
Majesty becomes all the more vivid now that we know that the 
King's throne was stationed at the hack of a hall in the centre of his 
apartments facing a corridor which led into the harem. He was so 
placed, accordingly, that he could see any one approaching from 
quite a distance, and could, by raising his sceptre, indicate that he 
granted the visitor permission to step before him. There was a 
second entrance to the King's rooms by a fortified gate to the left, 
and it is by this gate that the King's minister, Hainan, is represented 
in the book as coming to the King. The terms used to denote these 
small details are all so exact that the conclusion is well-nigh forced 
upon us that the biblical writer who, it will be recalled, places his 
narrative in the city of Susa, must have had before him the very 
building which Dieulafoy has found, and it is in accord with the 
general conditions reflected in the book to suppose that it was 
written at Susa during the reign of Artaxerxes. 

I have only spoken above of the large objects in the collection, 
but there are hundreds of smaller articles that might be mentioned. 
M. Dieulafoy shipped in all 70 boxes from the scene of his labors to 


TJie American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIV. No. 681. 

Paris ; among these many handsome jars and vases, several 
hundreds of seals and cylinders, numerous ornaments of a miscel- 
laneous character, and what is particularly valuable about 20 
large unglazed terra-cotta tiles in a good state of preservation. 
These tiles are covered with inscriptions in the cuneiform character, 
and when they come to be deciphered, as no doubt they soon will be, 
our knowledge, of the occurrences in the reign of Artaxerxes will be 
still further increased. There are good grounds, too, for believing 
that with the continuation of the excavation still further inscrip- 
tions will be brought to light. Indeed, it must be borne in mind that 
Dieulafoy has, after all, only made a beginning with the great mound 
at Susa. The results obtained are the more marvellous because of 
this fact, but the hope is expressed on all sides that the, French Gov- 
ernment will enable its distinguished citizen to continue the im- 
portant mission which he has so successfully begun, and for which 
he has shown himself to be so eminently fitted. A countryman of 
Dieulafoy, Ernest de Sarzec, who spent several years digging at Trl- 
loh, in Southern Mesopotamia, has shown that it is far more advis- 
able to confine one's efforts to exhausting, so far as possible, one 
mound, rather than what so many of the predecessors of De Sarzec 
have done, and superficially work o\er a large territory. Morris 
Jaslrow, Jr., in the New York Times. 


BOSTON, MASS., Juiuary 7, 1889. 

Dear Sirs, The architect in whose office I worked for three 
years, was a member of the American Institute from 1858 to about 
1867. Would the fact that he resigned in the latter year prevent 
my competing for the Travelling-scholarship next June? 


[No. The reason for formulating the condition which has given rise to 
'this question WHS merely to make sure that applicants had received a cer- 
tain minimum amount of good training and so to lighten (lie labor of the 
examiners by ruling out those who probably had had less. Eus. 

Chicago Tribune says : " The flowing well near Tripoli, Bremer County, 
is attracting considerable attention, as it appears to be another Belle 
Plaine gusher on a slightly smaller scale. It is located on the farm of 
J. J. Cooke, about three miles east of Tripoli, and only a short distance 
frcfm the Wapsie River. The well was drilled down through the rock 
and sand about 135 feet. Watei was struck several times, and when a 
depth of 129 feet was reached the water filled the well to within eight 
feet of the surface. After drilling two hours longer the water began to 
overflow. Work was stopped and a six-inch easing put in. At three 
o'clock the next morning, December 30, Mr. Cooke was awakened by a 
roaring noise, and, on going to the well, he found the water spouting 
about three feet above the top of the tubing and throwing out blue 
sand and clay. After throwing out about three wagon loads of this 
debris the water became clearer, but its force increased until it rose 
fully six feet above the top of the casing, besides opening the seams in 
the casing at several places. Four joints of stovepipe were then put 
on the casing, and the water flowed in a torrent from the top of this im- 
provised tube fully twelve feec from the ground. " Since then the well 
seems to have lost some of its force, but it still sends out a stream, 
which, if confined, would, it is estimated, throw a three-inch stream 
fifty feet high. It is the intention to replace the casing in the well with 
a six-inch gas-pipe, and in that way it is expected that the flow of water 
can be controlled. 

THE DrciiEssE DE GAI.LIEKA. As the late Duchesse de Galliera 
expended more money than any lady of our time upon building and 
construction, her death should not he allowed to pass unnoticed in this j 
journal. The name of the Duchesse does not, moreover, appear for the | 
first time in The Architect, as the fine series of illustrations of the j 
" Cities of Italy " which we published in 1873 were from paintings by 
1'aul Baudry in the mansion of the Duchesse in the Rue de Varennes. 
The Duchesse was horn in Genoa, and that city owes much to her 
liberality. A sum of 25,000.000 francs was expended on the harbor, 
the mansion belonging to the Due, with its contents, a gift valued at 
7,000,000 francs, was made over to Genoa, and in addition two hospitals 
were constructed at a cost of 7,000,000 francs. In Paris the erection of 
the Musce Galliera cost 5,000,000 francs, and a still larger sum would 
have been expended but for an error in drafting a deed by which the 
Jluse'e became the property of the city, when the donor's intention was 
to enrich the State. Two blocks of workmen's houses cost 2,000,000 
francs; 11,000,000 francs were spent on the erection and endowment 
of the Ilopital de Clamart, and no less than 24,000,000 francs upon the 
erection and endowment of an orphanage at i'ieury, and an asvlum at 
Meudon. The Due was known as a great railway contractor anil specu- 
lator, and is said to have left a fortune to his widow that wa.s valued at 
nine millions sterling. The greater part of that vast sum has been ex- 
pended for benevolent purposes, and builders have reason to regret the 
loss of so munificent an enthusiast. The Architect. 

the New England Kail way Club, John A. Coleman said: I have had a 
long experience in heating buildings by steam. When the matter of 
using exhaust steam was agitated, and most people were opposed to it, 
we took a number of mills, using then a sixteen-foot tubular boiler, and 
averaged a ton of coal a day. We heated the mill by using large pipes, 
having the circulation as straight as possible, open and free, with about 
two pounds back pressure on the engine, using no direct steam except 
in the morning in starting up and on Sundays. I had similar experience 
in heating the building of the Providence Tool Company during the 
war. The building was seventy feet wide by more than two hundred 
long, the rooms with fifteen-foot studs, and large windows in an ex- 
posed situation, then heated by small pipes all around the walls, and 
using about a ton of coal a day for the boiler. In reconstructing we 
took out the small pipe, cut it up into coils, which we placed in the cen- 
tre of the building, using a six-inch pipe as the main artery through 
the building, and a two-inch socket-pipe for the condensed water, 
avoiding bends everywhere as much as possible. Result was that the 
building was overheated by using only exhaust steam, and about two 
pounds back pressure and no extra coal was used, for the fires. My 
idea in heating is to use large pipes and carry a large body of steam to 
the point where you want to use it, and not strangle it on the way. 
Iron Age. 

ANOTHER BIG WELL IN IOWA. A Waterloo (la.) despatch to the 

BUILDING authorities in six or eight of the larger cities of the country who 
have gone to the trouble of examining into building probabilities for the en- 
suing year, are strongly inclined to believe that taking the country all 
through there will be an increase this year of five to ten per cent at legist in 
building operations which will be mainly of small houses in the smaller 
cities and towns. This statement is based upon the opinion or belief that 
most of the manufacturing expansion will be made in these cities where ad- 
vantages are very inviting, more so than in larger cities where real estate 
is high and taxes oppressive. Besides, circumstances and factors are still 
at work and more strongly now than at any time point to a multitude of 
smaller industries through localities now barren. This tendency is appar- 
ent in any direction that observation is made. The advantages of location 
in the larger Eastern cities are not a great as they were a few years ago 
when special rates gave shippers there advantages over other nearer con- 
sumers. A second fact is that fuel is being supplied in a large section of 
country at a low price where heretofore it was not to be had at nny except- 
ing extremely high prices, and third, artificial fuel is now being made at very 
low prices. Manufacturers recognize that this fuel is now being made and 
utilized very generally in localities which heretofore have been almost with- 
out manufacturing facilities. Another factor which is worth noting as con- 
tributing to this scattering tendency among our industries is the willingness of 
capital to benefit itself with bringing industries almost anywhere. The fact 
has been mentioned heretofore that there is less opportunity and inducement 
for capital to go into railroad enterprises and it must therefore seek indus- 
trial channels. This tendency is a very marked one The large volume of 
capital that has found its way into the Southern States during the past year 
shows the strength of the movement On account of the lack of facilities 
for obtaining reliable statistical information concerning new industries, 
only guesses can be made or statements lelied upon by the leaders in these 
new industrial enterprises in these new sections from reliable authorities in 
far off cities such as Nashville, New Orleans, Kansas City, Fort Worth and 
smaller towns attracting a much more general movement of capital into the 
country of which these cities are at present the business centres. All of 
this activity means that house-building will be prosecuted more vigorously. 
There has been a scarcity of houses all over the new West and the new 
Smith and the necessity has of late induced a good many to undertake to 
supply it. Another influence deserving of study is the continued outflow 
of Eastern reserves to Western farmers. Some writers indulge in appie- 
hcnsions over this tendency and regard it as dangerous. The West is very 
deeply indebted to the East but its productive capacity is being correspond- 
ingly increased and the borrowers at the end of the season have more 
wealth than they would have had had they not obtained the assistance of, 
capital. The rates of interest are slowly moving downward and with this 
tendency the supplies of money seem to increase. Real estate in these nevr 
sections is rather declining excepting in the larger cities where business is 
more immense and elements of uncertainty have been more generally re- 
mnved. Putting all these things together and a good many more, building 
authorities have expressed opinions thus early in the season and are quite 
certain that work will be abundant and that building material of all kinds 
will be in active demand. The buck-makers seem to be acting in view of 
thi probability. The lumber manufacturers are doing the same. White 
and yellow pine will come into very sharp competition throughout the 
West. The Arkansas supply will be thrown into the market and will prob- 
ably help to depress the Michigan and Wisconsin products. Southern rail- 
road managers are giving attention to the lumber traffic as well as to the 
iron traffic with a view to increasing their receipts from these sources. On 
Imn, freight rates were advanced last week very high, to fifty cents to 
Western points and to Southern points twenty cents per ton. These con- 
I flicting rates show what railroaders propose to do. On the old lines they 
( propose to charge all the traffic will bear and on the new roads they pro- 
pose to increase the volume of business us much as possible. Late advices 
from the cotton-fields in the Smith show that the increase of capacity will 
not be so ereat this year, not that there are any actual disagreements. The 
lumber concerns are securing a greater control overproduction and increase 
their capacity at smaller cost than new mills starting up. The iron-makers 
throughout the country report a backward demand just at present. The 
steel-mil makers have nothing whatever to say. The amount of railroad 
building is uncertain Regarding the probability of a combination among 
all of the big roads of the country it can be stated that it is almost chimeri- 
cal. The leaders of the great system will want to retain their independence 
and control over their respective systems. They recognize that there are a 
great many dangers to be encountered in the development of the railway 
systems of the country, that a. great many risks are to be run and that some 
of the roads may go down under the contest. Besides, they are sure that 
the Go\ eminent and the railway commission will deal more leniently with 
them although holding them to the law as it is, with perhaps a few unim- 
portant modifications effected for the lubricating of rough places. 

S. J. PABKHILL & Co., Printers, Boston. 

JANUARY 12, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 

of FM$ f>ovse is 


These ir<3iv?^ <&re Very 


faftw^, wTjfle H*ev are 

* 6 _ 

I *!.'! 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 681. 

i I 



i i 






VOL. xxv. 

Copyright, 18S9, by TICKNOB & COMPANY, Boston, Mass. 

No. 682, 

JANUARY 19, 1889. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Boston as second-class matter. 


Precedents Established by the Massachusetts State-House 
Competition. What a Proper Protest may Accomplish. 
The Grant Monument Competition. The Terms of Compe- 
tition for a Belgian Theatre. French Building Laws. A 
New Method of Reproducing Drawings. A New Device for 
Blue-printing. A Bath-house at Frankfort-on-tlie-M:iin. 
An Appliance for Increasing the Speed of Steamships. . . 2'"> 




Entrance to the House of C. L. Tiffany, Esq., New York, N. Y. 
Gothic Spires and Towers, Plates 37 and 38. The Aye 
of Francis I, Plate I. " The Age of Brass "; "The Broken 
Nose"; " Pere Aynrer." Grand Altar in the Church of 
Gaudalupe, Mexico. House of Frank Campbell, Esq., York, 
Pa Building for the Bell Telephone Company of Missouri, 
St. Louis, Mo. Upper Canada College, Toronto, Canada. . 30 






Hose-ports in Party- Walls 30 


WHATEVER may be the result in the matter of the 
Massachusetts State-House competition, two tilings of 
service to the profession have been accomplished, one 
which concerns public ethics, and the other which will have a 
certain weight as a semi-legal precedent. To be sure, both the 
utterances to which we refer are merelv legislative and not 

.' o 

judicial, and so fall short of what is desirable. Still, it is no 
small matter for so important a body as the Massachusetts 
Senate Committee on Finance to report that a resolution 
looking to the remodelling of the terms of competition for the 
State-House alteration ' ought to pass." Nor is it without its 
value that Mr. McDonough, of Boston, should declare, without 
exciting contradiction, that any architect laying his plans 
before the Governor on January 20, in accordance with the 
terms of the original advertisement of competition, would 
" have legal claim against the State." We hopej if any de- 
signs are submitted and the authorities find themselves dis- 
posed to withhold the promised awards, that the architects who 
may have furnished designs in strict compliance with the terms 
of competition will carry their case at once before the courts. 
The entire profession could afford to contribute funds for 
prosecuting such a cause and Massachusetts, if the case went 
against her, would willingly sacrifice the money for the sake 
of aiding to establish so desirable a precedent. We trust the 
action of the House in recommitting the resolution for further 
consideration will not prevent its being finally enacted. 

HE manly protest of the Massachusetts architects against the 
unsatisfactory terms of competition offered by the committee 
of the Legislature for designs for the State-House enlarge- 
ment, and still more, perhaps, the cordial support which, as our 
columns show, has been accorded to their position by the best 
architects in all parts of this country and Canada, has had the 
effect of causing the unanimous adoption in committee of a reso- 
lution, given in full in another column, which increases the appro- 
priation for premiums from thirty-seven hundred dollars to eight 
thousand, extends the time for submitting designs to the end of 
March, appropriates five hundred dollars for expert advice in 
making the decision, and directs that the architect' whose plan is 
adopted shall be employed to superintend its execution. So easily 
has been won the first encounter in what many thought would 
be a desperate and almost hopeless battle, and so easily will 
those persons generally win who have courage and self-respect 
enough to stand out for what they know to be fair treatment. 
As we have often said, the public bears no malice toward archi- 
tects. It wants their services, and is willing to pay a reason- 
able price for them, and to treat those who can furnish them 

with all due consideration, but of what architects would call 
proper consideration it has not the smallest idea. Hitherto, 
the decent architects have been generally too modest or too 
proud to say what sort of treatment they wanted, and have left 
the field of official competitions to the sort of persons who con- 
sider it a favor to be kicked, and the public has supposed that 
all architects were of the same humble disposition with those 
who ran after its state-house and school-house "jobs." Now 
that this illusion has been dispelled, and the architects of repu- 
tation hat'e declared their position in regard to open competi- 
tions, the public, far from resenting the movement, will, 
we venture to say, be pleased at having found out what 
architects really want, and at being enabled at last to frame in- 
vitations which will be acceptable to them. Of course it will, 
as it always does in matters outside of its every-day experience, 
only emerge from one blunder to plunge into another, and the 
axioms of fair competition are still nearly as far as ever from 
being really understood by anybody but architects ; but the 
latter will, at least in Massachusetts, have learned the lesson 
that they can generally get decent treatment by asking for it, 
and that, if they do not claim it for themselves, nobody else is 
likely to volunteer to be their champion. 

WE doubt if many of our readers have taken any part in 
the Grant Monument competition, the terms of which 
were very poorly calculated to attract architects and de- 
signers of the better class ; but it is of some interest to know 
that about a hundred drawings and models have been sent in, 
and that the Executive Committee of the Monument Associa- 
tion has appointed as its jury of experts to look over the de- 
signs, and report on their merits to the Committee, Messrs. 
Post, Ware (W. R.), I,e Brun, Ware (J. E.), Renwick, archi- 
tects and Professor Wolf. After that is done, it is possible 
that all the designs may be exhibited to the public, for an ad- 
mission-fee, the proceeds to be added to the monument fund. 
Whether such an exhibition would do much to increase the fund 
may be doubted, the public in general taking about as much in- 
terest in architectural drawings and designs as in Egyptian 
hieroglyphics, but it would have a certain attraction for the 
profession, and we hope the idea may be carried out. 

BELGIUM is a place where architectural competitions are 
very much in vogue, being favored by the profession, as 
well as the public, and the secret of the mutual satisfaction 
of both parties to these may perhaps be inferred by comparing 
the following programme, abridged from the notice published 
in L' Emulation, with the terms usually proposed to architects 
in this country. The invitation is issued by the city of Ver- 
viers, which proposes to build a small theatre this summer, to 
cost about ninety thousand dollars, and calls architects to a two- 
fold competition. For the first competition, each participant is 
to furnish sketch plans and sections at one-two-huudredth the 
full size, or very nearly one-sixteenth of an inch to the foot, 
and elevations at double this scale, all rendered in tint, together 
with a memorandum of materials to be used. Each set of 
sketches is to be signed with a cipher, and must contain two 
envelopes, both endorsed with the cipher, one containing the 
real name of the author, and the other, marked " Vote," the 
name of the architect whom he wishes to have on the jury. 
These plans are to be handed in by March 1, and will then be 
judged, the decision being promised before March 15. The 
number of competitors to be admitted to the second trial is not 
given, but six hundred dollars will be equally divided among 
those chosen by the jury, whatever the number may be. The 
date for closing the second competition is to be fixed hereafter. 
Each competitor is to send plans, sections, and elevations at a 
scale of one to one hundred, or about one^eighth of an inch to 
the foot, rendered in tint, together with an estimate of cost of 
the rough work, and estimates, prepared by specialists, of the 
cost of heating, electric-lighting, and stage-fittings. The jury 
will be the same as> in the preliminary competition, and the 
author of the design placed first, if it is found that his design 
can be executed for the specified sum, is to be appointed archi- 
tect of the building, and is to be paid five per cent on the total 
cost, in return for which he is to furnish all the drawings and 
details required, the city providing the necessary superintend- 
ence, through its Department of Public Works, at its own 


The American Architect and Building News. [Vou XXV. No. 682. 

expense. The architect is to be paid one per cent on the pro- 
posed cost when the principal contracts are signed, and four 
per cent on each payment made to the contractors afterward. 
The authors of the plans placed second and third in the second 
competition are to receive three hundred dollars each, in addi- 
tion to their share of the six hundred dollars awarded in the 
preliminary competition. In case the design placed first can- 
not be contracted for within the specified sum, the municipality 
is to have the option of having it remodelled by the author, or 
of taking possession of it and employing some other architect 
to remodel it. The jury is to consist of seven members, one of 
whom is to be the City Commissioner of Public Works ; the 
second another specified municipal official ; the third a manu- 
facturer of the city ; the fourth an architect nominafed by the 
city ; the fifth the city-engineer ; the sixth an architect desig- 
nated by the Societe Centraledes Architectes ; and the seventh 
the architect receiving the greatest number of ballots from the 

TTR. FRANCIS HOOPER recently read before the Royal 
lol. Institute of British Architects an excellent paper on 
French building laws, the provisions of which become 
every day of more interest to the inhabitants of our growing 
cities. The general municipal-regulations in regard to building 
in Paris are known to most of our readers, but a good deal is 
to be learned from the different customs prevailing in the pro- 
vincial towns. Outside of Paris, for example, when it appears 
that the widening of a street or the removal of an obstruction 
will soon become desirable, a survey is made, the value of the 
land to be taken is appraised as if it were vacant, without 
regard to the buildings that may be standing upon it, and the 
town or city buys it at this valuation, stipulating with each 
owner that so long as the building upon his part of the land 
remains fit for occupancy he shall not be disturbed in the pos- 
session of it, but that no structural repairs shall be made to 
the walls or foundations of the portion standing on the land 
acquired by the public authority, which would tend to prolong 
their existence. By this sensible arrangement the town or 
city acquires the land necessary for its future improvements 
without having to pay for any buildings on it, loss of rent, 
damage to tenants, or other expenses, and at a time when the 
cost of the land itself is probably much less than it would be 
later, when the improvements are actually in progress, while 
the expropriated owner is comforted by enjoying for some 
years not only the undisturbed possession of his house, but com- 
pound interest on the value of his land, and the changes de- 
sired are effected as surely as by the methods in use here, and 
at a fraction of the cost, although the process is a slower one. 

{ TT NEW device for reproducing drawings is described in the 
fl British Architect, which seems likely to find extensive 
' application in architects' offices. In principle it appears to 
partake both of the autotype and the hektograph, with more 
advantages, and fewer disadvantages, than either. The draw- 
ing is made with lithographic ink or crayon, as in the autotype 
process, but instead of transferring it to stone, it is executed 
directly upon a prepared plate of zinc, which may be had of 
suitable texture for either pen or crayon, and is said to be very 
pleasant to work upon. The plate is next covered with a fix- 
ing solution, which is allowed to dry, and is then washed off 
with water. The third step is to transfer the drawing to the 
printing pad, which is done by applying ink with a roller, and 
placing the plate and the pad in contact under pressure. The 
paper for printing is next pressed on the pad, and receives an 
impression exactly like the original drawing. If several copies 
are desired, a corresponding number of pads may be treated, or 
successive transfers may be made on a single pad, either wash- 
ing it with cold water after each application, or trusting to the 
accuracy of the register formed by bars provided for the pur- 
pose. The original plate is cleaned with a special solution, 
and used for other drawings for an indefinite period. 

7J NEW device for blue-printing large drawings has been 
I]L lately used, which many architects who have only small 
' " frames may find useful. A cylinder, of any material, 
covered with felt, is used instead of a frame. The cylinder 
should be long enough and of sufficiently great diameter to 
allow the drawing to be wrapped around it without overlapping. 
The sensitive paper is first drawn around the cylinder, and the 

tracing placed over it and smoothly stretched by means of 
clamps, or double hooks with springs. The cylinder is then 
placed in some sort of framework which will allow it to be re- 
volved, either by hand or by a weight. The printing is done 
quite as rapidly as under glass, and the impressions are sharper, 
as the tracing-cloth can be drawn around the cylinder so tightly 
as to remove the wrinkles which always appear under the glass 
in the ordinary frame. We should think that the paper-barrel 
manufacturers might furnish cylinders three or four feet long, 
and sixteen inches or more in diameter, which would serve an 
excellent purpose, and might be mounted, for printing, in brackets 
outside the office-window, with an endless cord and two pulleys 
for securing rotation, and the office-boy for a motor. By using 
rubber bands, a large number of negatives could be placed on 
the cylinder at once, over a sheet of sensitive paper of suitable 
size, and printed together. 

IIFIIE Builder describes a new bath-house just built in Frank- 
\j fort-on-the-Main, which seems to solve the problem of 
cheap public bathing more successfully than anything of 
the kind yet attempted. The building, which is placed in the 
centre of a small square in the workingmen's quarter of the 
town, is octagonal in plan. Each side of the octagon measures 
fourteen feet, which would give a diameter of about thirty-four 
feet. The walls are twelve feet high at the eaves, and rise, 
with a pitch sufficient to carry off water, to a central portion, 
also octagonal, which rises to a height of twenty feet. The 
central octagon, which is about twelve feet in diameter, con- 
tains the furnace in the basement, the drying-room for linen in 
the first story, and a hot-water tank above, the chimney being 
in the centre of all. Around the middle octagon are ranged 
fourteen trapezoidal cells, and outside of these is a passageway. 
The segment nearest the entrances is reserved for a towel 
store-room and administration. There are two entrances, one 
for men arid the other for women, and between them is the 
ticket-office, which communicates with the store-room behind it. 
Four of the cells are allotted to women, and ten to men, by in- 
tercepting at the corresponding point the exterior passageway, 
but the proportion can be varied as required. A water-closet 
is provided in each division. Each cell is entered from the 
passageway, and is divided by a waterproof curtain into two 
parts. The outer part, next the passageway, forms a dressing- 
room, with chair, mirror, books, and linoleum carpet. The 
inner portion contains a basin, with hot and cold water and a 
douche, the temperature of which can be regulated at pleasure, 
the waste-water passing off under the wooden grating on which 
the bather stands. The charge for a bath, including a clean 
towel and soap, is two cents, and the place is already visited 
by two or three hundred bathers a day. The building cost less 
than five thousand dollars, and stands on public ground. Sup- 
posing the number of bathers to average only two hundred per 
day, the gross income, at two cents each, will be twelve hundred 
and fifty dollars a year. The Builder thinks that fuel, water, 
light, washing, attendance, and wear and tear would not be 
more than seven hundred and fifty dollars a year, which leaves 
a net profit of ten per cent on the capital invested. With us 
the expenses would be greater, but at three or four, or perhaps 
five cents for a bath, the profit of such an undertaking ought 
to be considerable, and the benefit to the public health would 
be incalculable. 

NEW appliance for increasing the speed of steamships 
was recently described by M. Gouilly to the Societe des 
Ingenieurs Civils, which promises to be of use. Every 
one who has watched the operation of the propeller in a screw- 
steamer must have regretted the waste of energy involved in 
the splashing and churning of the water about the screw by its 
revolutions, and the displacements which can be seen to extend 
to a considerable distance laterally. M. Gouilly's plan for pre- 
venting a large part of this waste of power is to have the pro- 
peller work in a hollow, truncated cone attached to the stern 
of the ship, having its larger end open and directed toward 
the bows, and its smaller end continued for a short distance by 
an open cylinder. One would think that such an apparatus 
would be a terrible drag upon the motion of the vessel, but its 
effect in concentrating the energy of the screw is so great that 
More than a thousand trials, made with thirty different screws, 
lave demonstrated that the force of propulsion is, on an average, 
doubled, and in many cases is increased in a far greater pro- 

JANUARY 19, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 




has been well said that the 
Paris Salon is an epitome of 
human life. To its welcom- 
ing doors come each year the 
sufferings, the struggles, the 
self-sacrifices and the labors of 
the artists of all nations. In it, 
centre their hopes, their fears, 
their joy and their desperation. 
It is the competing ground of 
all the world of art; a living 
panorama, a Mecca, a confes- 
sion and a judgment. Human 
above all, time alone confirms 
or reverses its dictum. 

Among the many hundreds 
of works of sculpture of every 
conceivable description that 
sought admission to the Salon 
of 1877, was an unobtrusive 
nude figure, in plaster, accom- 
panied with the usual paper 
upon which were written, in a 

strange hand, these explanatory words: "Auguste Rodin, born in 
Paris, pupil of Messrs. Barve and Carrier-Belleuse, Rue Bretonvilli- 
ers, number 3 ' L'Age d'Airain '; statue, plaster." 

The character of the modelling of this statue was so unusual, and 
its general effect so life-like, that some members of the jury of 
admission suspected that it was not a veritable piece of modelling, 
but a "moulage sur nature" a reproduction, by pressing, from a 
mould on the living model and, therefore, not entitled to admis- 
sion. This suspicion meant that the figure was a fraud and its 
author an imposter. The statue caused, considerable and varied 
comment among the jury, one of them remarking : " If it is not 
a cast from Nature, he who made it is stronger than we are." It 
was finally accepted, under protest, and put in a side space near the 
entrance reserved for objects of questionable origin and merit. 

To the author of " The Age of Brass," who is one of the most 
sensitive of men, and loyal to the most exacting requirements of his 
art to a degree as rare as it is high; who had studied and labored 
like a slave in the most complete obscurity, and suffered the acutest 
privations for more than twenty years, the suspicion that he was a 
dishonest man and bis work a counterfeit was humiliating to the 
last degree. Nor was this all, he had been an obligatory server of 
others all his life, and lie had drank to the depths the bitter and 
despicable experiences that fine souls endure in their struggle against 
poverty outside the pale of human sympathy, and subject to the abuse 
of ignorant and brutal employers. 

As the first complete result of all this, Rodin had, at the age of 
thirty-seven years, brought up to the Salon his simple work that he 
might see how it compared with that of good sculptors; and, more 
than all, to answer to himself as to whether fate had forever destined 
him to be a workman, or would now possibly reveal to him that 
he was an artist. But the inexplicable goddess who had thus far so 
persistently followed him in dark clouds, now appeared in a new and 
unexpected guise she placed the mark of trickster upon himself 
and his work. He went to the Salon as one to be shunned. His 
statue was pointed at with scorn. What to do he did not know. 

If there is one fact more than any other that makes Paris the 
heart of the art-world, it is that a real work of art or a real artist is 
never lost. Some one, sooner or later, finds them out and helps to 
put them into their deserved place. The living, radiating life of this 
fact is, that there are hundreds of artists, writers and men and 
women in private and public life, whose keen and receptive sensi- 
bilities are quick to discover and ready to welcome the appearance 
of everything that has in it the life, nerve and worship of art. They 
go to the Salon, not alone interested in the general average of the art 
of France, but to find out and acquaint themselves with the slightest 
and earliest indications of the coming of new men, and the appear- 
ance of advancing notes of progress. It was the good fortune of one 
of these devotees, Adrien Gaudez, himself a sculptor of superior 
ability, to first see and fully appreciate the high qualities of the " The 
Age of Brass," after its arrival at the Salon. He immediately 
hastened to find some of his friends and lead them to the statue. 
They saw it with surprise, examined it with increasing interest and 
admiration, and left it fully convinced that it was one of the few 
master-pieces of French sculpture. Nor was this enough, they 
obtained a better place for it, where it could be seen by every one, 
and they talked about it and sung its praises as only enthusiastic 
French artists can. 

At the same time M. Edmond Turquet, an ardent lover of art and 
of independent judgment, and who was also a member of the State 
Committee of Fine Arts and one of buying-committee of the 
Salon, in making his first visit to the section of sculpture, was 
strikingly impressed by the statue, of the author of which he had 
never heard. Soon after, when the buying-committee were making 
their first visit to the Salon, M. Turquet brought them before it, and 
invited their attention to its remarkable merits. To his astonish- 

1 AH rights reserved. 

ment they informed him that it was noised about that the figure was 
a^ reproduction from a mould, and not an honest piece of modelling. 
To which he observed, " If this report be true, the figure has no 
right to be here. If false, it ought to be bought by the State, as it 
possesses exceptional qualities." To this, reply was made that it was 
a very difficult matter to decide whether a statue was a veritable 
piece of modelling, or a cast from a mould. M. Turquet then said : 
" There is a chief-of-police in Paris whose duty it is to solve greater 
mysteries than this, call him and ask him to open an inquest. It 
must, certainly, be easier to find out the truth about this figure than 
to detect counterfeit money." Notwithstanding M. Turquet's urgent 
interest in the matter nothing was done, and the statue returned to 
the sculptor's studio, at the close of the exhibition, and so far as the 
authorities of the State were concerned, under the ban of counterfeit. 

In the meantime admiration for the statue was daily extending, 
especially among the younger artists, and much ctmosity was 
awakened in regard to the sculptor. No one knew him. To the 
inquiries, Who is Rodin ? Where did he come from V The only 
answers were: He is a Belgian. A good-for-nothing, and will be 
soon disposed of. 

The first inquiry has remained to this day unaswered, and the 
second inquiry and the first answer were explained in the catalogue 
of the Salon. He was a Parisian, though he had been in Belgium for 
some years previous to his appearance at the Salon with his " Age of 
Brass." The last answer and the prophesied result has long since 
been reversed into : " He is one of the greatest artists that France 
has ever produced, and has been so ranked by the best art-judges 
in the world." 

Auguste Rodin was born in the Panthe'on quarter of Paris, in the 
mouth of November, 1840, of parents in very humble circumstances. 
At an early age he was sent to a little boarding-school at Beauvais, of 
which his uncle was the principal, and where he pursued only the 
simplest studies. Neither the master, the school nor the lessons 
attracted him, and he spent the most of his time in drawing fanciful 
designs, telling stories and reciting imaginary descriptions to his 

The only exercise of the school which gave him pleasure was writ- 
ing descriptions of subjects, given out by the master and read aloud 
by him to the school. " The Miser " was, on one occasion, allotted 
to Auguste. It was an easy and timely one ; a fruitful example was 
near at hand, and the sous-loving pedagogue was served up by his 
young relative with all the picturesqueness of which he was capable. 
The master read the dissertation without recognizing its identity, and 
complimented its author upon the excellent manner in which he 
had acquitted himself. But the scholars were more acute than their 
teacher, to them he was set forth in his true colors, and they warmly 
extolled the correctness of their fellow-pupil's description. 

As the resources of the boy's parents were not sufficient to pay the 
expenses of his schooling any longer, he was obliged to come home 
when he was fourteen years of age. The tendency of his natuie 
toward art had begun, many years before, to show itself in various 
ways more or less common to all children of artistic temperament. 
With Auguste, his first attempt at making anything was curiously 
characteristic of his maturer years. When he was five years of age, 
his mother was one day frying some cakes, the dough of which was 
first rolled thin, like pie-crust, and then cut up into various fantastic 
forms, before it was dropped into the boiling fat. These fanciful 
forms attracted the boy's'attention, and he asked his mother to let 
him make some men, to fry. She assented, and he immediately 
made them so large that there was not dough enough to make many 
of them, or room enough in the kettle to fry them, and his mother 
hastened to cut short the ambitious career of the dough-sculptor. 
Strange as it may appear, the incident was not without its amuse- 
ment and significance, for, when the men were fried, the dough had 
been tortured by the fat into such curious and striking positions that 
it made both the mother and child laugh heartily, besides indelibly 
impressing upon the latter's memory his first sight of the ex- 
traordinary movements that even a dough man could be made to go 
through. The reader will see, in the course of this narrative, that 
size and movement of figure are fundamental facts in Rodin's nature. 

At fourteen, Auguste had-no other thought except to study art, and 
his parents, though not particularly interested in it, or in his disposi- 
tion towards it, sent him to what is now known the world over as 
La Petite Ecole, at No. 5 Rue de 1'Ecole de Mddecine, a school 
famous for its age, having been founded in 1 766, and for its distin- 
guished scholars, among whom are Guillaume, Fremiet, Carpeaux, 
Aube, Dalou, and Le Gros. His teacher was Le Coq de Boisbaud- 
ran, of whom and the school Rodin now speaks in the highest terms. 
" They had preserved," he says, " a little of the eighteenth century 
in the school good antique models and excellent teachers." 

In beginning to draw from plaster-cast ornaments, the boy drew 
only the more prominent portions, and, thinking that there ought to 
be some details to fill up the spaces, thus giving completer interest to 
his work, he put in such additional forms as he thought best. The 
master, curious to know why the model was not more faithfully 
copied, discovered that his pupil was near-sighted, a fact which no 
one had previously found out, although Auguste had often wondered 
why he did not see things as other boys did. From this time on he 
was obliged to wear glasses. He remained in this school for three 
years, drawing and modelling in the morning and evening, and 
drawing at the Louvre in the afternoon. At fifteen-and-a-half years 
he gained his first recompense, a bronze medal, for drawing from 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 682. 

the cast, and at seventeen a first bronze medal for modelling, and a 
second-class silver medal for drawing from the antique. 

Though Auguste had no master at the Louvre, he soon found a 
permanent one in his love for and study of the antique, which soon 
became the only one he has ever acknowledged. 

Before he had completed the three years at the school it became 
necessary for him to earn his own bread, as well as to decide in what 
way he was to do so. The force of his instinct for art had now 
become an authority, whose correctness he did not dream of question- 
ing, and he determined to follow art. His mother, with true parental 
anxiety, and sharing the prevailing intelligence of the time, 
cautioned him against entering upon a career for which he had no 
solid preparation, and his family no means of providing. " If you 
wish to be an artist," said she, " you must have not only money to 
pay your teachers through a long course of study, but to help you 
along afterwards, for art, my son, rarely brings generous returns 
to its followers." To which the audacious youth answered: "I 
don't want any professors. I can work it through alone." Such 
an expression of independence and of apparently overwhelming 
conceit, coming from any one save such a character as Rodin has proved 
himself to be, would give anything but a favorable impression of 
the art-nature of him who uttered it, or of his probable future success. 
Nothing that he could have said would have been more opposed to 
what is universally accepted as the proper state of mind for an art- 
student to be in, as well in regard to himself as to the respect due 
to artists and art-teachers. It was an astounding and revolutionary 
position to take, but the true one for Rodin. In that expression he 
summed up himself, without knowing it, as able to exemplify in the 
years to come one of the profoundest facts of individual art progress 
the capacity to go alone ; to begin, keep on, in spite of every 
obstacle and discouragement, to correct his own efforts, to make con- 
tinual progress, and finally to walk above the clouds, firm, and with- 
out impediment or danger, and in debt to no human professional 

The question of bread had now to be considered, and Rodin settled 
it by finding employment among the makers of plaster ornaments 
and the workers in papier-mache. If this secured him a living, it 
also cut off to a large degree his hours of study. And now his inde- 
pendence and perseverance took a more immediate practical shape, 
for, to gain time to continue his studies, he arose very early in the 
morning, and studied until he went to his employer at eight o'clock ; 
at noon he swallowed his dinner qui. kly to gain half an hour, and 
when the day was done he again began studies that extended far 
into the night. Sundays, especially, were his great days. This 
habit of continued work and study he persistently followed for the 
next twenty-four years. 

He wanted very much to go to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and he 
entered upon his first competition for a place in drawing and model- 
ling at the age of seventeen. Neither the first nor the two succeed- 
ing competitions in modelling were successful, though in drawing he 
was accepted, but did not enter the class. As each competition 
embraced a period of six months, it was a year and a half before he 
knew that the privileges of the school, in the department he wished 
to enter, were denied to him. It was a terrible disappointment and 
a deep humiliation. Like every young artist, he indulged in the 
prevailing belief that such men as Ingres, Perault, and Pradier were 
gods in art, to be loyally worshipped by every student. The course 
of study they had passed through he ardently wished to follow, and 
it was not until many years afterwards, when his work showed the 
freedom, boldness, and life of great individuality, untrammelled and 
unaffected by the influence of school or master, did he believe in the 
truth of the felicitations extended to him by Dalou, another eminent 
sculptor who had been through the school, that he was fortunate in 
escaping the kind of study taught in the school. " For," said Dalou, 
" it would have killed you." 

But the time spent in the competitions was by no means lost. 
Before he had left La Petite Ecole he could draw from the living 
model almost as well as he ever could. He had unconsciously begun 
to develop his own way of seeing and working, and the competitions 
enabled him to compare what he could do with the work of the 
students who had succeeded in being accepted. He also saw, for 
the first time, that his drawing and modelling were different from 
that of other pupils, and that they watched him and his work with 
much curiosity and attention. Why his work was not as good as 
that of the more fortunate competitors he did not know, nor could 
he explain the difference between theirs and his own. He now re- 
members that his " things were well constructed, perhaps a little 
dry, but the bones were there." 

Rodin soon found out that the difference between himself and 
other young artists was leading him into an unknown and dreary 
path, where he was destined to travel alone for the next twenty 
years deprived of all professional sympathy and companionship. 

He also managed at this time to go to the evening drawing-school 
at the Gobelins manufactory of tapestry, and with especial satisfac- 
tion, because the model posed three hours at one time, whereas at 
the Government School the pose was for only two hours. Besides, 
he attended Barye's class at the Jardin des Plantes, and although he 
saw and got very little there apparently, he felt later on the result 
of what he had instinctively acquired. Of Barye, Rodin says : " He 
talked very little, and I saw nothing in him at that time.'" " But 
the three years at La Petite Ecole was the germinating period of 
my life, where my own nature planted itself on firm ground without 

let or hindrance; where the seeds of my subsequent development 
were sown ; and where I received the only instruction in my life." 

The work that Rodin was obliged to do for his employers was of 
the most menial description. He mixed plaster, cut off the mould- 
marks from plaster and papier-mache casts, performed the general 
duties of a scullion in such establishments, and made occasionally a 
simple ornament, for all of which he received the luxurious salary of 
forty cents a day. He hated his work and his employers, and they 
returned his sentiments by hating him and finding fault with every- 
thing that he did. 

He continued to serve men of this kind for six years, passing 
through the most horrid moments of his life, and retaining the 
memory of such bitter experiences with them that to this day he will 
not speak some of their names. In his spare hours, however, he was 
himself, and enjoyed the pleasure of doing aS he pleased. His little 
sleeping-room was also his studio more the latter than the former 
and there he modelled and drew from life to his heai t's content. 
As soon as he could he got a hole somewhere- else a shed, cellar 
or stable, no matter how miserable that he could more properly 
call his studio. He invariably attempted some figure larger than 
life as the principal object of his thought, but had always number- 
less sketches in various degrees of execution as a sort of momentary 
enjoyment. Being somewhat negligent, and without means either 
to care for or preserve these sketches and finished models in plaster, 
they dried up, fell to pieces, and went into the clay-tub, to continu- 
ally appear again in other forms, and to follow the same round of 
resurrected destruction. 

While Rodin occupied, in the Rue de la Reine Blanche, a stable 
as a studio, he began to make, and finished in about eighteen months, 
a mask which was destined to result in one of the most sculpturesque 
pieces of modelling of modern times, and which is now known as 
" The Broken Nose." It was made from a poor old man who picked 
up a precarious living in the neighborhood by doing odd jobs for 
any one who would employ him, and who went by the name of 
" Bcbe." Of the great merits of this mask, some observations will be 
made in another place and in connection with other of the sculptor's 
works ; but, as the reader may have the same curiosity that the 
writer had, and ask why the sculptor should choose such a model, his 
answer is given in this place : " He had a fine head ; belonged to a 
fine race in form no matter if he was brutalized. It was made 
as a piece of sculpture, solely, and without reference to character of 
model, as such. I called it ' The Broken Nose,' because the nose of 
the model was broken." And of its value to him, as a point attained 
and to be guided by, he further observes : " That mask determined 
all my.future work. It is the first good piece of modelling I ever 
did. From that time I sought to look all around my work, to draw 
it well in every respect. 1 have kept that mask before my mind in, 
everything I have done. I tried it on my first figure, ' The 
Bachante, but did not succeed ; I again tried it on ' The Age of 
Brass,' also without success, though it is a good figure. In fact, 
I have never succeeded in makin" a figure as stood as ' The Broken 

XT , ,, 00 


" The Bachante " was Rodin's first large figure, made about the 
same time as " Tlie Broken Nose," and upon which he spent nearly 
three years. As he now remembers it, he says, that "in style of 
modelling it was like ' The Broken Nose,' and better than ' The Age 
of Brass.' Very firmly modelled possibly a little cold." He thought 
it a good piece of work at the time, though every one who saw it was 
displeased. So solidly was the clay put together, so severely and 
endlessly was it modelled, that when it had dried and shrunken up 
to its smallest dimension, it retained its proportions in every par- 
ticular. In making this figure the sculptor was more than ever 
powerfully influenced by the increasing domination of his feeling for 
pure sculpture the question of lines, masses and effects ; of drawing 
his model in the severest sense of the term. The subject, as such, 
occupied no place in his mind. It was, with him, then, and ever 
afterwards, the never-ending and all-imposing problem of planes. 
The sculptor speaks of " The Bachante " with a feeling of deep 
regret because he was not able to preserve it, and with sadness 
when he remembers the long hours of patient and suffering labor that 
the figure cost him. 

Among Rodin's friends was a priest, named Aymar, the founder 
of a society called The Sainted Sacrament, and who had summed 
up the experiences of his life and observation, in the expression 
which he enjoyed repeating that "Life was an organized lie," and 
he wanted his bust made, in some respects, in accordance with this 
conclusion. Rodin gladly consented to make it as he saw his sitter, 
and the more willingly because it would enable him to earn a little 
extra money, and this meant a little more human comfort. After the 
bust was completed and several duplicates made, of reduced size, 
Aymar took the sudden fancy that the masses of hair on the sides 
and top of his bust suggested to him the " horns of the devil," and he 
would not accept it unless these troublesome reminders were reduced 
to a more human appearance. This the inflexible young sculptor 
would not do. The facts of Nature had more influence with him 
than the desire to please the fears of the superstitious priest. 
Besides, the head had a certain interest to Rodin. Aymar was a 
born Jesuit, his head and face gave no indication of its owner's age, 
and it had a character that the sculptor liked to study. But, the 
priest was a poor sitter, and in spite of all he could do, Rodin could 
;et very little of the kind of modelling he had put in " The Broken 
Nose," though he caught the character of his sitter with force and 

JANUARY 19, J889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


vigor. The result was that Aymar would not take the bust nor pay 
the sculptor for the time he had expended on it, nor the money he had 
paid out for the duplicates. The modelling of this bust taught the priest 
that there was one exception, at least, to his favorite expression. So 
much did Rodin need the money at this time, that the amount he 
had paid for reducing and duplicating this bust was a matter of 
serious importance to him, and caused him considerable subsequent 

The sculptor was now, 1862-3, working for an ornament-maker by 
the name of Bies, whose shop was in the same street with Rodin's 
studio, and although he never pleased his employer, he was slowly 
winning praise from his fellow-workmen as an adroit draughtsman. 
In the" shop, as well as at home he was always drawing, and as 
frosted-windows were his peculiar delight, he regaled his comrades in 
cold weather with imaginary images that excited their wildest 
astonishment and extended his reputation with them, as a being they 
could not understand. But Bies, even with " The Broken Nose " 
before his eyes, could not see anything in his workman but a 
wilful maker of strange ornaments that he could not use. 

Rodin was also making jewelry for a noted Paris manufacturer, 
Fanieres, in the form of ear-rings and buckles, of the smallest possible 
dimensions. They were modelled in hard wax, and made with all 
the skill and exactness that he was able to put upon them ; but they 
did not please Fanieres. To better his condition Rodin made several 
ineffectual attempts. In 1863, there was in Paris a private art-club 
called by the high-sounding title of " The National Exhibition of 
Fine Arts," which was directed by M. Martinet, and included in its 
list of members, Ingres, Delacroix, Baudry, Carpeaux and nearly all 
the principal artists of the city. Hearing that Martinet was very 
friendly to young artists and much disposed to give them a word of 
encouragement, or do them an act of kindness, Rodin went to him to 
see if he could be made a member of the club. The director put the 
young aspirant through a kind of examination, and came to the con- 
clusion that he was eligible. From time to time the club gave 
private exhibitions of the works of its members, preceded by a 
banquet, and Rodin brought up, on one of these occasions, as the 
sign manual to his right to sit down with the mighty men into whose 
presence he was now to enter, his bust of " Aymar." To his great 
comfort it was much admired, and he felt, for the first time in his life, 
that there was a ray of light not unwilling to fall upon his -head. 
If he could only have courage to bring " The Broken Nose " to the 
next dinner! 

But before that patiently awaited for event was to take place the 
club was dissolved. -During his 'short membership he had seen face 
to face the great lights of French art, and been introduced to 
Dumas pere and Theophile Gautieri Being a great admirer of Car- 
peaux, he ventured, timidly at one of the club meetings, to speak to 
him, and ask him if he would give him work and take him into his 
studio. To Rodin's great joy Carpeaux responded in the most cordial 
manner : " Certainly ! Come when you please." It may be imagined 
that he did not wait long before presenting himself at the latter's 
studio, but, to his sad astonishment, Carpeaux received him coldly, 
almost brutally, and he left without any disposition to return at a 
more propitious moment. 

One of Rodin's comrades was a native of Marseilles, and after 
completing his studies in Paris he returned to his native city and 
undertook the execution of a large amount of stonework, on public 
buildings, for the Government. Needing some skilled assistance he 
sent for Rodin, and the latter set out for the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean ; taking in on his way the interesting cities of Aries, Vienne 
and Nismes. Glad enough to get out of Paris, visit places as enjoy- 
able as the more famous ones of Italy, and earn his bread under 
circumstances which he anticipated would be more agreeable, he set 
to work with the liveliest enthusiasm ; but it was a delusion of short 
duration. He interpreted the model, which he was reproducing in 
stone, very differently from the way that his comrade expected. He 
cut too much off in some places, and left too much on in others. In 
fact, he was not the kind of workman that his employer wanted, 
and so he was discharged. Not desiring to immediately return to 
Paris, he obtained work at his old trade, ornament-making. Neither 
did this last long, two or three weeks of an individual Parisian was 
enough for the warmer-blooded inhabitant of the Phoenecian settle- 
ment, and Rodin packed his bundle and turned his footsteps towards 
home. But he had no sooner arrived than he was asked to go to 
Strasbourg, by a manufacturer of church sculpture, or, what is 
known in the vocabulary of sculptors as a rnarchand de bans dleux, a 
class of men not held in good repute among artists for any reason, 
but for whom many young sculptors are obliged to work to get their 
living. This one had, however, a slight recommendation of superiority 
for Rodin, because he followed a Gothic, style of sculpture, of which, 
in its purity; the latter is an enthusiastic lover. He remained in this 
city three months, and one day, while enjoying the festivities of a 
grand church celebration, when thousands of fair women and young 
girls were filling the streets with their beauty and pretty costumes, 
he saw a little head which pleased him so much that he went to his 
room and modelled in an hour or two " La Petite Alsacienne." 

The six years before referred to were now coming to a close, and 
in all that time Rodin had received nothing but reproaches from his 
employers, and not a word of encouragement from those who had 
seen his busts, sketches and figures. The truth is, he had altogether 
too strong a nature and too much artistic intelligence to have any 
satisfactory relations with the class of men he was obliged to serve. 

He would not swerve a hair to please any one in his work. In- 
stinctively he felt that Nature was the best guide and master, and 
:ie followed her with unchanging faithfulness and at whatever cost. 
It is also true that his genius as an artist was not of that sort to 
recommend him to ornament-makers or commercial sculptors. The 
kind of modelling he did was too robust for the petty requirements 
of such employers. 

There was also in the Rue de la Reine Blanche, a photographer, 
named Aubry, who possessed a good deal of appreciation of art, 
especially as it, concerned his own profession. He knew Rodin, felt 
kindly disposed towards him, and had the unique impression, among 
all of the sculptor's acquaintances, that the latter might possibly get 
something to do for a higher class of employer than those he had 
been working for. He, therefore, asked Rodin to go with him to see 
Carrier-Belleuse, the most extensive commercial sculptor in Paris. 
The result of the visit was, that Belleuse came to Rodin's studio, 
examined his work, particularly " The Broken Nose," and told him 
that he would give him employment. "I was very happy," says 
Rodin, " To go to Belleuse, because it took me away from an 
ornament-maker to one that made figures. I began to work for him 
in 1863, and remained until the breaking out of the Franco-German 
War ; although, at first, I only worked in the afternoons, continuing 
with Fanieres in the mornings." T. H. BARTLETT. 

LTo be continued.! 


WE should forget one of the most satisfactory drawings in the 
exhibition if we passed over Mr. C. C. Haight's pen-and-ink 
sketch, No. 24, for a vestry, offices and schools, a subject in 
which notwithstanding its difficulty, he finds himself thoroughly at 
home. His sketch for a church, No. 164, is much less praiseworthy, 
either in design or drawing, but at its best Mr. Haight's work is 
quiet, well-studied and poetical, to a degree which few architects in 
this country surpass. For an illustration of sentimentalism, as 
opposed to real sentiment like Mr. Haight's, we could hardly have 
anything better than the works of Mr. A. Page Brown, which are 
shown in different places on the walls. Mr. Brown appears to be a 
conscientious person, who studies architecture by reading what some 
one else thinks about it, instead of doing any thinking of his own, 
and who has just had his mind stuffed with the rhapsodies of the 
people who admire Greek architecture on account of its " intellectual 
coldness and purity," their notions on the subject being derived from 
the present aspect of Greek temples, which is about as much like the 
harlequin gorgeousness which their builders bestowed upon them as 
the grin of" a mummy is like the smile of a Theban princess. Being, 
however, for the moment convinced that coldness and purity are the 
correct thing, Mr. Brown can think of nothing better, when he is 
requested todesign a tomb, than to present a bird's-eye view of a 
little Greek temple on a big marble platform. As this would, under 
ordinary circumstances, look merely like a small school-house from 
the rural districts, he has had the happy idea of differentiating it 
from a school-house by presenting it as it would appear to one 
hovering in the air over it, with a wealth of hills and woods and 
other things in the distance. As district school-houses are rarely 
observed from a position in the air above them, whereas, the mind]s 
eye is quite accustomed to soaring over Greece, the classic illusion is 
happily preserved, and is cleverly heightened by. making the land- 
scape generally purple, it being well known that Grecian topography 
presents that color to sentimentalists. 

In another effort, No. 172, Mr. Brown has, let us say, assimilated 
the Caryatid portico of the Erechtheum into a design for a mau- 

' Continued from page 17, No. 681, 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 682. 

solemn ; that is, he has not copied it so exactly that the imitation I 
indistinguishable from the prototype, since we see marks o 
originality in the addition of wings to the caryatides, and in leaving 
out the frieze from the entablature, making it consist of a dentillec 
cornice, placed directly on a huge three-faced architrave. We 
cannot say that either of these innovations appears to us an im 
provement, and are not consoled by finding the name of Mr. St 
Gaudens, imperfectly spelt, associated with that of Mr. Brown in 
the legend on the drawing. When Mr. Brown gets out of the 
Grecian vein, as in his sketches for country houses, we find him 
much more agreeable, as is usually the case with people who mistake 
archaeology for an art. 

The bird's-eye view seems to be acquiring an undeserved popularity 
among sketchers. In No. 34 we find an etching of Milan Cathedral 
by Mr. Otto H. Bacher, which would be very creditable, if the point- 
of-sight had not been taken from about the level of the third story 
windows of the houses on the opposite side of the Piazza. It is true 
that the photographs of the cathedral are often taken from this 
point, to avoid the convergence of the vertical lines caused by 
tilting upward a cheap camera, but the result is that the building 
looks in the picture like a small model, set down in a hole. Very 
probably Mr. Bacher copied his etching from such a photograph, but 
it would have been worth while, before spending so much labor on 
it, to have translated the perspective, so that the building should 
appear as high above the eye as it really does to a person standing 
on the ground in front of it, instead of destroying the dignity of the 
picture by showing the object as it would appear to a giant fifty 
feet high. In another, but less successful etching of the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre, at Jerusalem, Mr. Bacher exhibits the sann 
fancy for belittling his subject by magnifying his spectator, which we 
hope a careful study of Piranesi, Bourgerel, Prout, Haig and the 
other first-rate engravers of architectural subjects will induce him to 
correct in time. 

There may, perhaps, be a certain advantage in considering th< 
sketches of old work, as distinguished from the modern designs, by 
themselves, for in no department of the exhibition is there more 
variety, and in no department, perhaps, do we find works of such 
merit. At the very head we must certain!}' place Mr. F. H. Bacon's 
"Sketches in Greece and Asia Minor," No. 101. These are just a 
little stronger and better than the ones previously exhibited, and 
seem to us the finest pen-and-ink architectural sketches ever made. 
In saying this we remember perfectly the melting beauty of Mr. 
Raffles Davison's best work, and it is quite possible that Mr. Bacon 
would have failed in rendering Davison's subjects, but fortune willed 
that Mr. Bacon's quiet precision of eye and hand should be exercised 
on the brilliantly lighted but barren landscape of the East, rather 
than on soft English views, and the result is greatly to the advantage 
of the American sketcher. Next to Mr. Bacon, leaving out of con- 
sideration Mr. Pennell's work, which has a different object, and 
should hardly be considered among the sketches, and Mr. Kirby's 
drawings, which are rather works of imagination than records of 
fact, we should put a group of three sketchers, all of them uneven, 
but all very good when at their best Mr. Arthur Ilotch, Mr. A. W. 
Brunner and Mr. Schweinfurth, adding perhaps Mr. Schladermundt. 
Mr. Rotch's color drawing of the Church of San Pablo, at Seville, 
is quite a model of an architect's water-color sketch. Close after 
these gentlemen, and a long way in front of the people who, like 
some, whose names we will not mention, make splashy caricatures of 
buildings, which shriek from the walls for us to admire them, come the 
conscientious students, like Mr. T. II. Randall, whose frame, No. 57, 
of Italian sketches in color, is so earnest and true that we easily 
forgive a little crudeness in our gratitude to the artist for allowing 
us to think of his subject instead of him. 

Returning from Spain and Venice for a little while to the nine- 
teenth century of American architecture, we have a few exceptions 
to the rule of creditable, but not remarkable designs and drawings, 
which should be noticed. The most curious sketch in the room is 
perhaps one by Mr. Sydney V. Stratton, No. 77, of a house at 
Natchez, executed in pastel. Now, pastel has its uses, but we feel 
ourselves compelled to say that the rendering of hasty architectural 
sketches does not appear to be one of them, and even so agreeable a 
design as Mr. Stratton's fails to charm when set in a coarse land- 
scape of emerald green with two rectangular patches of vermilion in 
the foreground. This is not the only illustration in the room of the 
fact that color, in architectural drawings, is a dangerous thing, and 
that those who are not sure of using it well had better let it alone. 
As particularly good examples to enforce this moral, we might 
mention Nos. 87 and 180. The former is a water-color drawing of 
Mr. Arthur Little's room in Boston, by Mr. G. P. Fernald. It is 
faithful, with a faithfulness that would do credit to Old Dog Tray, 
and it need hardly be said that the detail of the finish and furniture 
in the room of so accomplished an architect is all interesting, but the 
very completeness of the rendering takes away from its charm, and 
one cannot help criticising the contrast of color between the sofa and 
the big chair, and doubting whether so much brown in the oak 
wainscot ought not to have been balanced by stronger decoration on 
the ceiling, and so on ; and the net result of the inspection is one of 
mild discontent. No. 180, on the other hand, which is a mere out- 
line sketch, in black-and-white, of "An Old Colonial Hall," by Mr. 
Frank E. Wallis, attracts us at once. 

The design is beautiful, both in arrangement and detail, though 
perhaps, no more 80 than Mr. Little's work, but the firm simplicity 

of the drawing, showing with precision what it wishes to insist upon, 
and leaving us to infer the rest from what we see, without distracting 
us by irrelevant accessories, certainly leaves most persons with the 
impression that it represents much the more successful design of 
the two. The late Mr. Richardson, who was a keen observer of the 
conditions of success or failure in competitions, was always prejudiced 
against colored drawings. Until his success in the Trinity Church 
contest, which he won with drawings very slightly tinted, he was 
accustomed to say that he had never gained a competition to which 
he sent colored drawings, and never lost one to which he sent a per- 
spective in pen-and-ink. According to his view, it was a mistake to 
render a drawing so fully as to leave nothing for the imagination of 
the spectator to supply. Even with coloring so good as to be in no 
danger of offending any one, he believed that the average jury, even 
though composed in part of experts, was disposed to fear that a mild 
deception was being practised on them, and that the building in exe- 
cution " would not look so handsome as the picture ; " while a pen- 
and-ink drawing impressed most persons as an inadequate medium 
for representing the beauties of the design, and jurymen, in con- 
templating it, would, as he found, say to each other. " If a mere 
sketch looks so well, what must the actual building be ! " 

It would, however, be unfortunate to carry this principle too far. 
While Mr. Richardson's maxims would apply with full force to draw- 
ings like an extraordinary one rendered in color by Mr. Lautrup for 
Messrs. Burnham & Root, representing a bank building, in which we 
find the windows represented as glazed in lead-work on a scale so 
colossal that the disappointed depositors, who are shown gathering 
in groups about the doorway, could easily crawl through the space 
made by the removal of a single quarry, it is certain that in Mr. 
Peabody's lovely little color sketches, showing a house at Brookline, 
a church at Weston, Mass., and three studies for a church at 
Pittsfield, the design gains much from the rendering. Perhaps as 
sketches the church drawings are the most effective, but the study for 
the house Mr. White's, is so full of the sweetest charm of peace 
and home that we are very much inclined to rank it, slight as it is, 
as the best specimen of architectural expression in the exhibition, 
and one of the best ever shown in New York. 

With these, as shining examples of that rare and precious quality, 
architectural expression, should be mentioned Mr. H. P. Kirby's 
drawings, of which a dozen or so are collected on a stand near the 
door. Our readers know our opinion of Mr. Kirby's compositions, so 
we need say no more than that in some of those here shown he is at his 
very best. A few are sketches from old French towns, in which he 
seems to revel in picturesqueness and contrasts- of light and shade, 
while the others are mostly compositions of his own, more picturesque 
even than French nature, and delicious in their indications of detail, 
Why it is that we do not see some of Mr. Kirby's conceptions carried 
out, we cannot imagine. There seems to be nothing about his 
"Court-house Tower," or his "Country Tavern," which is not per- 
fectly adapted to modern requirements, and either of them has 
architectural novelty and beauty enough to endow a whole American 
town with those qualities, yet they appear to remain unfruitful. We 
cannot say quite as much for his sketches for a Moorish "Casino" 
as for the French Gothic and Transition work, but in the latter, as 
well as in compositions too simple to be of any style, and depending 
purely on picturesqueness, his sketches, at least, are unrivalled. To 
have them lost, even as sketches, to the architectural world would be 
a serious misfortune and we trust that, before it is too late, some 
one will see to it that a complete collection is made of the works of 
this American Prout. 

[Contributors are requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of cost.] 

YORK, N. Y. 

[Helio-chrome, issued only with the Imperial Edition.] 


[Issued only with the Imperial Edition.! . . 


tissued only with the Imperial Edition.! 


SEE article elsewhere in this issue. 


















COPffiffiHT 1889 3YTICKKOR 4C 

Seliotype Printing Co.Boston 






a T 








fl . . 

^^erican ;flrcl?itect aqd Building IJews, January 19, 1559. I)o. 032. 

Copyright, 1889, byTlCKNOR & Co. 
















- ft MEXICAN IfRGHITEGT &ND ]|TJ1LDTNG HEWS, JflK 1 9 1559 J|o. 652 

COWMSHT 1889 B>: TICifflOR iC 

TME. -ArE- OE 
~AV<3-VJ>TE- IL-OPI/^f 

MO. 652. 

COraiSHT 1883 BY TIC 

19 1559 

fc: -./V 


-S-EOR&& p. DVRA/NP-ARC-H'T - 

,oAlTAF^lo - 
ffdioype ?rmtiai..Boston. 

H^GHITEGT ND BUILDING HEWS, Jax 1 9 1559 }|o. 652. 

1883 BY TICKNOR t C 

Hdiotype Fruiting Co.Soston. 




JANUABST 19, 1889.] TJie American Architect ana Building News. 







Chas. T. Emerson. J. L. Silsbee. H. R. Marshall ' 

F wi " MA8S - E * s d ' * "-^ 

F. W. Stickney. u \? K-JIH 
Merrill & Cutler. PORTLAND, ME. f u^ltou 
LYNN, MASS. Stevens & Cobb. W. H. Mersereau. 
Wheeler & Northend. BALTIMORE. MD. C*T& Hastings 
Call & Varney. T. B. Ghequier. E. T. Littell 
H. W. Rogers. R. F. J. Johnson. E. H. Kendall 

PITT8FIELD. MASS. Wya " & NBltlng. W. B. Tuthill. 

H. N. Wilson. CEDAR RAP ID8 , MICH. gTSSfiSS; 
SALEM, MASS. Josselyn & Taylor. J. Stroud. 
W. B. Smith. DETROIT, MICH. F ; D | n ' ch 

SPRINGFIELD, MASS. A- B- Crane - W- s'. KllOwleS. 

Gardner, Pyne & Gard- KANSAS CITY, MO. 
ner. Willis Polk. ROCHESTER, N. Y 
Richmond & Seabury. H. B. Pridden. J. R. Church 
Jason Perkins. s. E. Chamberlin. Thomas Nolan 
F.S. Newman. A. Van Brunt. J. G. Cutler. ' 
BT.LOUI8.MO. O.K.Foote. 

WORCESTER, MASS. f, j, j, ls|ey> SAYVILLE, N. Y. 

Stephen C. Earl. Eames & Young. I. H. Green Jr 
E. Boyden & Son. A. F. Rosenheim. 
Fuller & Delano. E. Jungeufeld & Co. TTICA, N. Y. 

A. P. Cutting. Ty- jj OvnmnHa 

J. B. Woodworth. ST. PAUL, MINN. F.'lL'Gouge 
AvvisTfw AH Gilbert & Taylor. 


Chisholm & Green. YORK, NEB. E. Anderson 

LONDON, OXTAEIO, CAN. ^ ^ ^""^ J. W. McLaughlin. 

MONTREAL, CAN. S. W. Whittemore. L. T. Scofleld. 
Taylor & Gordon. NEWARK, N. j. E - Schwabe. 
J. Venue. P. G. Botticher. COLUMBIA, PA. 


F. Bartlett. C. Edwards. ERIE, PA. 

TORONTO, CAKADA. RAMSEYS, N. J. D ' K ' Dean & Son. 

W.H.Gregg. E. R. Storm. ,,., .__. 
Strickland & Symous. "ILADELPHIA, PA. 
Langley & Burke. ALBANY, N. Y. Smith & Pritchett. 
Fuller & \Vhpelpr ^* ^* Mason Jr. 
DENVER, COLO. F. H? Janes Moses & King. 
W. A. Marean. F- JI. Day. 

AUBURN, N. Y. B. Linfoot. 

MONTE VISTA, COLO. jr. D. JIakepeace. J - JI - Wilson. 
A. Fehmer. H- A. Macomb. 

TUKMIvrmiu <-nwx- BROOKLYN, N. Y. Cope & Stewardson. 

IRMINGHAM, tONN. Kiscnacu Hazlehurst & Huckel. 
Alderman & Lee. M j M < lrril i J. J. Deery. 
BRIDGEPORT, CONN. H.' M. Davis. ' A. J. Boyden 
C. T. Beantaley! Jr. *' J ' ^^bach, Jr. & ^orthington. 
Warren R. Briggs. BUFFALO, N. Y. T - K. Williamson. 
M. P. Hapgood. J*. A. & L. Hetliune. w g Fraser 
W. C. Brocklesby. ^ cTorr 


L. W.Robinson. 
H. G. Russell. p . erce & I)ockstader> YORK, PA. 

WATERBCRY, CONN. * Deuipwolf. 

WASHINGTON, D. c. Kipp & Podmore. 
H.'T.'E. Wendell. J. P. Johnston. PROVIDENCE, B. i. 
K. I. Fleming. Stone, Carpenter & Will- 
J. L. Sinithmeyer. NEW VOKK, N. Y. son. 
W. B. Bigelow. Gould & Angell. 
MACON, OA. Fowler & Hough. K - I- Nickerson. 
P. E. Dennis. G. Edw. Harding & Co. L - p - Longworthy. 
Rossiter & Wright. 


J. J. Nevitt. A. J. Bloor. W. Kent. 
J. R. Hinchman. 
J. K. O. Pridmore. G. E. Harney. TENN. 
W. I). Cowles. J. C. Cady & Co. R. Sharp. 
J. N. Til ton. G. M. Walgrove. 
Burnham & Root. C. H. Israels. KNOXVILLE, TENN. 
F. L. Lively. H. M. Congdon. Baumann Bros. 
J. J. Egan. Withers & Dickson. Beaver & Hoffmelstor 
O. J. Pierce. Babb. Cook & Willnrd. 
Flanders & Zimmerman. H. H. Holly & Jelliff. MEMPHIS, TENN. 
W. W. Boyington. H. D. Hooker. . A. B. Cook. 
O. H. Matz. O. P. Hatfleld. 
H. I. Cobb. G. M. Huss. RICHMOND, VA. 
F. W. Perkins. H. O. Avery. M. J. Dimmock. 
Beman & Parmenter. C. W. & A. A. Stoughton. 


[ARCHITECTS in every part of the country are invited to send us their au- 
thorization to add their names to the protest. EDS.] 

.1TTHE fact that the Committee on Finance, to whom the following 
1 resolution was referred by the Massachusetts Senate, reported 
on Monday last that it " ought to pass " may be taken by the 
profession as a distinct encouragement and should induce all archi- 
tects to uphold each others' hands in all similar cases. 
The resolution prepared by Mr. Kittredge of Boston, from the 
Committee on the State-House, which will probably now be passed 
before this issue reaches our readers is, as follows : 
Resolved, That there be allowed and paid out of the Treasury of the 
Commonwealth a sum not exceeding 8,000, to be expended under 
the direction of the Governor and Council, to enable them to devise and 
report to the General Court in the month of March, 1889, a general 
plan for the use, occupancy and improvement of any land acquired or 
taken for State purposes, including the present State-House grounds, 
and for the alteration or enlargement of any existing buildings or the 
erection of any new buildings thereon, it being hereby provided that 
the architects presenting the plan which shall be adopted by the Legis- 
lature or by its authority shall be employed to superintend the con- 
struction of the building designed in such plan, on terms to be agreed 
upon by the Governor and Council ; and it being further provided that 
500 of the above named sum may be expended under the direction of 
the Governor and Council to enable them to employ experts to advise 
them in deciding upon the merits of plans which may be submitted. 
Resolved, That chapter 92, Resolves of 1888, is hereby repealed, 
provided that any bills contracted under the authority of said resolve- 
may be paid out of the amount authorized herein. 

BOSTON, MASS., December 18, 1888. 
TITHE Commonwealth of Massachusetts has, by its Commissioners, 
J|t advertised for designs for the State-House extension, said 
designs to be furnished in open competition. The conditions 
of the competition, as announced, have evidently been framed with- 
out due regard to the best custom in the conduct of such matters, 
the sole end and aim of which should be to secure to the State the 
best service by making sure that " the best men shall take part ; that 
they shall be encouraged to do their best ; that the best thev offer 
shall be selected ; and that the author of the successful design shall 
be employed as architect, provided the building is built and he is 
The conditions announced are faulty 
First. In that they are not drawn up in accordance with the best 
custom, and no assurance is given that an expert adviser will be 
employed to aid the Commission in their choice. 
Second. That no assurance is given that the successful competi- 
tor will be employed, but, on the contrary, it is distinctly stated that 
all premiated competitors are to relinquish all ownership in their 
plans to the State, without any further claim to compensation or em- 
Third. Even if the first prize in the competition were as it should 
be, the execution of the building, the actual prizes offered would 
still be entirely insufficient compensation to the authors of the draw- 
ings placed second and third. 
For the above reasons, we, the undersigned architects, citizens of the 
State of Massachusetts [and elsewhere], protest against this form of 
competition, which, in our opinion, is not for the best interests of the 
State or of our profession, and we therefore decline to enter it : 


Cabot, Everett & Mead. Sturgis & Cabot. Wrn. Whitney Lewis. 
Wheelwright & Haven. Shepley, Hutau & Cool- J. Merrill Brown. 
Joseph B. Richards. idge. Chainberlin & Whidden. 
John A. Fox. Eotch & Tilden. Wm. D. Austin. 
Geo. H. Young. Snell & Gregerson. F. W. Chandler. 
E. A. P. Newcomb. Shaw & Hunnewell. J. P. Putnam. 
Longfellow, Alden & Har- Win. G. Preston, 
low. L. Weissbein. JITCHBURG, MASS. 
Edwin J. Lewis. Franz K. Zerrahn. H - M - Francis. 
Andrews & Jaques. Carl Fehmer. HOLYOKE, MASS. 
H. Langford Warren. Arthur Little. E. A. Ellsworth. 
Walker & Best. Peabody& Stearns. H. Walther. 
Wm. Rotch Ware. Winslow & Wetherell. Jas. A. Clough. 
Hartwell & Richardson. W. H. McGinty. Geo. P. B. Alderman, 
Cummings & Sears. W. M. Bacon. Cain & Kilburn. 
T. M. Clark. W. P. Richards. Henry H. Gridley. 
Allen & Kenway. Daniel Appleton. W. E. Fitch, C. E. 
Hand & Taylor. H. M. Stephenson. D. H. & A. B. Tower. 
Thos. O'Grady, Jr. W. R. Emerson, T. W. Mann. 

A. M. F. Holton. W. H. Beers. MILWAUKEE, wis. 
D. Adler. H. Edwards-Ficken. G. B. Ferry. 

THE NUMBER OF ILLITERATES. A census of the illiterates in the 
various countries of the world, recently published in the Statistische 
Monatsschrift places the three Slavic States of Roumania, Scrvia, and 
Russia at the head of the list, with about 80 per cent of the population 
unable to read and write. Of the Latin-speaking races, Spain heads 
the list with 63 per cent, followed by Italy with 48 per cent, France 
and Belgium having about 15 per cent. The illiterates in Hungary 
lumber 43 per cent, in Austria 39, and in Ireland 21. In England they 
are 13 per cent, in Holland 10 per cent, in the United States (white 
population) 8 per cent, and in Scotland 7 per cent. Among the purely 
Teutonic States there is a marked reduction in the percentage of 
[literates. The highest is in Switzerland, 2.5; in the whole German 
impire it is but 1 per cent; while in Sweden, Denmark, Bavaria, 
Jaden, and Wiirtemberg there is practically no one who cannot read 
and write. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 682. 


Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

N archaeological camp proves to be a very busy place, although 
it seems a very region of dolce far niente, under the serene sky, 
on the wide and silent sunlit plains basking in the sunlight. 
The landscape is a picture of peace. All nature is enjoying a deli- 
cious repose. No hum of insects is heard in the bright and quiet 
air. The Around is brown and bare ; even the withered herbs have 
nearly all crumbled into dust and been scattered in the wind, 
leaving the brown plain bare and baked. The warm sun of the days 
canno? yet call forth the plants from the sleep induced by the cold of 
the night-time; only the brave blades of the grain have the strength 
to thrust themselves up, little by little, day after day, farther and 
farther into the air, until March sees them undulating like sea-waves 
over the broad fields, their bloom showing foam-like and creamy 
rreen, while mid-April finds them golden and ready for the harvest. 
The brooding calm seems emphasized by the few glimpses of anima- 
tion, the few sounds, that at intervals strike the eye or greet the ear ; 
the scurrying rabbits, the timid little cotton-tails and the great jack- 
rabbit with his enormous ears and astonishingly long leaps; those 
pretty creatures, the "juancitos," which word means " Johnnies," 
rat-like and squirrel-like, with long tails terminating in a tuft of hair 
like those of shaven poodles, and wee ground-squirrels dodging into 
their holes with which the ground is everywhere burrowed into a 
honevcomb that keeps horsemen warily on the lookout when dashing 
acros's country; that humorous fellow, the coyote, skulking among the 
brush or sauntering indifferently along a few dozen feet away when 
he seems to know you are not armed, making night anything but 
musical with his yelpings ; and the birds that hover around, some 
with exquisite musical notes, and the numerous flocks of quail with 
their queer crests perked forward and looking like some prize 
carried in their bills, evidently aware that their meat is as dry and 
tasteless as sawdust, for they run across the roads as indifferently as 
barnyard fowl and rarely take wing. 

But while Nature and her children are taking their ease, Camp 
Ilemenway is well occupied. The laborers have early gone afield to 
carry out" the instructions that Mr. Cushing has dictated to his 
secretary the night before ; the two doctors are out with them look- 
in" after the skeletons of the Ancients ; Mr. Hodge is at his desk in 
his neatly-kept tent writing out his notes or busy with the accounts ; 
Don Carlos is looking after practical affairs, turning out some needed 
carpentry at the bench under one of the mesquite trues, or is on the 
way to Phcenix for supplies, or is at work on his surveys, while Mr. 
Cushing is out keeping the run of the work on the excavations, pho- 
tographing the finds in situ, elated over some interesting discovery 
and drawing inferences therefrom in the light of his manifold ethno- 
lofieal experiences, ranging the plains in the saddle or on the buck- 
board with eyes alert for the slightest traces of ancient landmarks, 
or in his tent finding comparisons among his books or among his old 
notes that throw new light on fresh observations, or writing or 
dictating the daily reports that preserve accurate records of the work 
as it progresses. All this in the intervals left him for work by the 
delicate condition of his health, and often accomplished only by 
dominating over keen. pain by the mastery of a strong will. 

The ladies also are by no means idle, even a camp providing 
abundant domestic cares for Mrs. Cushing, while Miss Magill 
spends the day at her easel over the beautiful water-color drawings 
which she is making of all the important articles in the collections, 
with conscientious accuracy, and to scale. Of the pottery, for in- 
stance, she makes two or more drawings of each specimen, one from 
the side and the other from above or below, or perhaps both, while 
in the case of the decorated ware she makes a drawing of each 
different motive in the ornamentation, affording many beautiful 
designs and hints for decoration which could well be availed of by 
architects and painters. This idea of giving in a painted band the 
motives of pottery design, adopted in the reports of the Bureau of 
Ethnology, originated, 1 believe, with Mr. Cushing and it is extreme- 
ly useful in affording an understanding of the decoration, which, 
when seen on the vessel appears often so complicated as to be diffi- 
cult to elucidate, while, by presenting the motive alone it is made 

Another busy man in camp is the cook, who has a difficult task in 
suiting the appetites of so many, some of whom have been made 
dyspeptic by the exigencies of desert fare. Cooks in camp appear 
to maintain the reputation of the craft for inconstancy and for per- 
versity of temper, and the incumbency of the office often changes. 

1 Continued from page 16, No. 681. 

Various nationalities have been tried : Chinamen, Mexicans, Ameri- 
cans, Irishmen, Germans, Frenchmen. The Chinamen bring the 
economy that they are accustomed to exercise in their own affairs in- 
to that of their masters; it seems a second nature to them, and they 
cannot help it. This is an admirable trait when not carried too far, 
as it is when they economize so as to half starve those dependent 
upon them. In his first months here Mr. Cushing had with him two 
of his Zuni friends. The cook at that time was a Chinaman, and he 
held that men who were idle did not require so much food as those 
who worked, and he applied the idea very rigidly to these two Zunis. 
One of them rarely condescended to labor, while the other often 
went to the excavations and did good service with pick or shovel, re- 
ceiving pay accordingly. To the worker Mr. Chinaman allowed two 
cups of coffee a beverage of which the Indians are very fond 
but the other was sternly denied a second cup, and when one evening 
lie contrived to help himself to a second while the cook's attention 
was momentarily diverted, it was instantly snatched from his hand. 
The cook was likewise chary of pie to the non-worker. 

When I first came to the camp a Mexican was temporarily in 
charge of culinary affairs, during a hiatus occasioned by the resigna- 
tion of a much-esteemed American chef in consequence of a spree, 
and the fare was something unspeakable in the way in which good 
material was converted into various materials of indigestibility. 
A gaunt and pale young man next appeared on the scene, speaking 
one of the vernaculars prevailing south of Mason & Dixon's line, 
fond of talking of " the fine old family " to which he belonged, and 
expressing a sense of the degradation of the estate to which he had 
fallen. If he had had more respect for his calling and talked less 
about his antecedents perhaps his claim to gentlemanly rank would 
not have had to be so volubly expressed in order to obtain recogni- 
tion for I have hail the fortune to encounter genuine gentlemen 
in nearly every walk of life. Poore's specialty was cakes and pud- 
dings, imposing in aspect and formidable in quantity of their quality 
perhaps it is sufficient to say that our failure to eat any of them did 
not seem to discourage him in the least, and the same prodigious 
piles that is, the same in appearance, though unfortunately for 
the resources in eggs and sugar, fresh-made each day were triumph- 
antly borne before us to cap the climax of each meal though left un- 
Jiminished at its end. Perhaps the Mexicans disposed of them at 
their table, which accounts for the aversion they manifested towards 
the cook before lie finally vanished in the cloud of the customary 
: 'tear" that usually serves to mark changes of culinary administra- 
tion in this part of the world. Edward the Alsatian next appeared 
on the scene, and he proved a treasure ; he took a pride in his 
work and knew how to give nice little attractive touches to his dishes 
and impart an appetizing flavor to his preparations. He was cheery 
and diligent, and far into the evening he would sing the German 
folk-songs of his fatherland over his work ; pleasant to hear, for their 
melody's sake, even though he did invariably maintain the pitch a 
semi-tone below the key ! Shortly after he came to us we had a little 
fiesta in honor of the birthday of Don Carlos, and Edward elaborated 
a magnificent cake for the occasion ; with icing ornamented in the 
height of the confectioner's art. But alas, when cut it was like lead 
within ! When Edward came in shortly after he saw a piece lying 
on a plate, and the transitions from astonishment, through disgust, 
to humiliation and grief that passed over his face would have fur- 
nished profitable study for a comedian. "Cheezus G-h-r-i-s-t ! " he 
muttered slowly, inspecting it critically and then tasting it. We 
sympathetically assured him that the cake was good, the icing was 
fine enough to assure that, any way ; but he refused to be consoled ; 
he knew what cake was and when he said it was bad, it was no use 
to tell him it was good he had forgotten the yeast-powder. ."I 
mague you a gake domorrow ! " he declared, and the next noon he 
set his success before us in justified triumph. But the spoiling of 
that cake gave us enough entertainment to atone for the mishap. 
Edward's weak point was his coffee, which was strange, considering 
the part of the world from which he came : as a guest expressed it, 
he was " coffee-blind." It happened that neither Mr. Cushing nor 
the ladies were coffee-drinkers, and so the rest of us suffered in 
silence rather than reveal the flaw in the one who gave such thorough 
satisfaction to them, until we received the delightful visit from the 
afore-mentioned guest, to whom a good cup of coffee was the main 
dependence at breakfast, and he frankly declared that it was the 
most abominable stuff it was ever his fortune to taste ; a declaration 
which was concurred in by the rest of the table with astonishingly 
hearty unanimity. Whereupon Mr. Cushing, who included a good 
knowledge of cooking among his many accomplishments, proceeded 
to give Edward a course of instruction in coffee-making, with some 
degree of success, for the time being. 

Rafael Castro, the handsome, stalwart youth who takes care of 
the animals and attends to the many wants of the camp, is a favorite 
with us all, like his brother Ramon. He is faithful, diligent, and a 
natural gentleman. Watering and feeding the animals, hauling 
water and wood, driving into town after the mail, and doing the 
daily chores of the camp, time does not hang heavily on his hands. 
In the morning the animals are set loose, and they repair in a herd 
to the neighboring acequia for water, Rafael riding bare-back on 
Jack, one of the largest of the mules. The other mules lie down to 
indulge in a roll the first thing, kicking the dust up in clouds. Jack, 
a solemn-faced creature, deliberately follows their example, Rafael 
stepping from his back as he nears the ground, and patiently holding 
the halter until the exercise is finished. "Get up, Jack ! " he finally 

JANUARY 19, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


exclaims out of his limited English vocabulary. But Jack has nol 
yet got enough, and proceeds to take another roll, while Rafae! 
smiles indulgently. Rafael's English is limited to his remarks to tht 
animals, and -1 observe that the Mexicans hereabouts seem to think 
it the proper thing to use our mother-tongue in addressing horses 
and mules. Possibly they learn it from the American teamsters, or 
perhaps it is because the horses and mules are American-bred, anc 
understand the phrases better ! Does not the proverb say thai 
Spanish is the language of heaven, Italian of love, French of socia' 
intercourse, while English was designed to be spoken to animals ! 

Mules are devoted admirers of horses, and Mr. Cushing's herd is 
ardently attached to Douglas ; oftentimes the latter will set them a 
bad example when returning from water, and, feeling the need oi 
exercise, go galloping in splendid style off to our neighbor's barley- 
field, whose greenness appeals appetizingly to his eyes. The others 
feel themselves privileged to follow, and there is a grand scampering 
and flourishing of heels, until, after great efforts on the part ol 
Rafael, they are finally driven back to camp, each marching to his 
or her respective place at the crib with the sober decorum of beings 
who never knew what a frolic was. The mules are a fine-looking 
lot, and it is interesting to note their individual peculiarities, mani- 
ifest when together in camp, or when driven or ridden, in sympathies 
and antipathies towards each other the mutual friendship of one 
pair, the stolid indifference of another ; the strong affection existing 
between Dr. ten Kate's horse Billy, alias Cafe, and the skittish and 
sturdy little mule Z^iii, who are near neighbors at the crib, and 
stand and caress each other by the hour ; the nervousness and femi- 
nine eccentricities of handsome Mary; Bob's occasional outbursts ol 
irritability ; the incurable laziness of great Pete and Barney ; the 
alert responsiveness of Chub and Thistle; the sullenness of Joe, 
and the omniverous appetite of Jack, who has a fondness for bacon 
and for mutton stewed with Chili-peppers. 

The skeletons exhumed at Los Muertos are so badly decayed that 
it proves next to impossible to preserve them, and so Mr. dishing 
decides to establish a side-camp at Las Acequias, where the more 
gravelly soil affords better conditions for sound bones. True, no 
skeletons had yet been found there, for there had been no excava- 
tions on that site, and the two doctors, who are to have charge of 
the operations, express some doubt as to the result. " You shall 
find skeletons in abundance, and splendid ones at that," said Mr. 
Gushing, and the result proves the justification of bis prediction. 

The new camp is pitched in a pretty little hollow, amid a clump 
of old mesquite trees. The hollow is that of one of the ancient 
reservoirs, and the moisture retained there makes it a favorable 
place for the luxuriant growth of the mesquite trees, which always 
flourish particularly well in such a spot. Three tents are brought 
from the other camp, and rjleam brightly amidst the trees : a small 
wall-tent for the Doctors, a larger one for the Mexican laborers, the 
main force being transferred to the new field here, and the Sibley 
has been brought for the storage of the collections. One of the 
Mexicans has assumed the duties of cook, and the kitchen is estal>- 
lished between the first two tents in the open air, the apparatus con- 
sisting of a " tarantula," or great iron frame supported on legs, and 
placed over the fire for the support of the various kettles, frying- 
pans, etc., and a crib is built for the animals needed for service here. 
The name conferred on this ancient city, Las Aeequias, comes from 
the great irrigating-canals that spread out, fan-like, among the ruins, 
and reach away to various parts of the plain to supply the other 
cities of the group. Their course may still be plainly traced here, 
and one of them runs close by the camp, connecting with the reser- 
voir in which it is situated. It must have been an enormous labor 
to excavate them in those times, with nothing but crude stone imple- 
ments and baskets for transportation of the earth. The present 
Tempe Canal follows the course of one of these old ditches very 
nearly for some distance from the river, and where another passed 
through a hard bed of natural cement. The Mormons of the 
neighboring settlement in constructing their canal adopted the old 
route, thus saving an expenditure of between $10,000 and $20,000. 

In a short time the plain is dotted with the yellow heaps of earth 
thrown up by the excavations, and rich arclueological treasures are 
found in the shape of skeletons, pottery, stone-implements, and other 
articles. The two Doctors are found grubbing in the pits, indus- 
triously at work over the skeletons, over whose anatomical charac- 
teristics their enthusiasm is aroused to a high pitch. They are 
intent on securing and saving every bone, and are regardless of 
personal discomfort, not only their clothes being covered with the 
dust, but their faces begrimed and their hair and beards thoroughly 
, powdered, making them look like some strange burrowing animals. 
The result of their painstaking is one of the finest and most com- 
plete collections of ancient skeletons ever brought together, and 
the consequent discovery of certain anatomical characteristics that 
promise to be of high importance in the determination of racial dis- 

Las Acequias, like the other ancient cities, consists of groups of 
large houses, corresponding to our city blocks of dwellings, each of 
which was inhabited by a single clan. These are numbered in the 
course of the excavations, and the numbers are recorded on the plats 
of the ruins subsequently made. The skeletons and other specimens 
found are labelled with the numbers of the ruins and rooms where 
they are found, and the circumstances attending them are also 
recorded, so that each object is accompanied by a concise statement 
of its history, which, in connection with the preliminary and daily 

reports made by Mr. Gushing, will prove invaluable in the study of 
the collection, giving it a scientific worth such as few other collec- 
tions possess. The circumstances under which objects are found, 
particularly when observed by one competent to make deductions 
from those circumstances, are frequently of even more value than 
the objects themselves in their relation to the main purpose of such 
explorations the understanding of the people of whom they are 

The drive between the two camps becomes a familiar experience. 
It is_made by some one in a buckboard almost daily, Mr. Cushing 
keeping close watch of the progress of the excavations. In the 
early weeks of my stay the intervening region is still a wilderness, 
with a clearing only here and there, so we cut straight across 
country through the various patches of mesquite, sage-brush, and 
greasewood that make up the wilderness. It is more difficult to find 
the way over these broad valley-plains than one might think, in spite 
of the landmarks presented by the neighboring mountains, for the 
spot one seeks is difficult to find amidst the general flatness of the 
land and the uniform character of the surrounding objects, which, 
amidst the various rambling cart-ways, make even the road itself hard 
to follow until one has made the acquaintance of its details through 

The landscape undergoes a rapid transformation in the course of 
a few weeks. Here and there, the plain is dotted with the camps 
of laborers engaged in clearing it, consisting of Mexicans at work for 
some contractor who has undertaken the job for the owner. Our 
nights are enlivened by the brilliant brush-fires gleaming around us 
in all directions, near and far. The mesquite trees are cut down 
and burned in piles above their roots, whose ramifications are fol- 
lowed by the smouldering combustion, leaving the ground ready for 
the plow when that instrument shall eventually be brought into 
requisition, which will probably not be for two, or even three years, 
for the mellow, rich soil needs no plow at first. A seed-drill rapidly 
sows the grain when the ground has been cleared, and the only labor 
then required is to irrigate and harvest; the next year, even the 
labor of sowing is unnecessary, for a luxuriant volunteer crop springs 
up from the self-sown, ripened grain, and often, the second year, 
there is still another volunteer crop as abundant as the first ! 

The growth of sage-brush or greasewood is cleared off with slight 
trouble or cost; a stout bar or beam is dragged across the land by a 
pair of horses, one attached to each end. The bushes are displaced 
by the powerful leverage at their bases as the beam is dragged over 
them. The team then follows the same course in the reverse direc- 
tion and completes the destruction, either yanking up the brushes by 
the roots, or breaking off the brittle wood close to the ground. The 
brush is finally gathered into great piles and burned, making a strong, 
clear flame that shows across country for a great distance. 

It is not long before the whole country is cleared, changing the 
aspect of the locality entirely. The land stretches away almost as 
smooth as a floor for miles, the very uniformity in contrast with the 
rugged mountain-chains around giving it a curtain attractiveness akin 
to beauty. The tents of the settlers follow those of the clearing parties. 
It is an easy matter to become domiciled in this region, with its mild 
climate, unlike the settling of the rigorous Northwest: no shelter 
is required for stock, and little for the people, who live at ease in 
light tents, with their domestic belongings scattered about them in 
the dry air, until their first simple cottage of adobe or boards is 
ready. Not unfrequently one sees a handsome new buggy standing 
with evident ostentation before the tent of a new-comer, looming up 
prominently from a distance. 

The greater part of the land is taken up under the Desert-land 
Act, which, in order to encourage the reclamation of the desert, 
enables a citizen, or a man intending to become a citizen, to take up 
a whole section of 640 acres, a square-mile, in the arid regions of 
the country, on condition that it be cleared, irrigated, and cultivated 
within three years from the time of entry, on the payment, at the 
end of that time, of either $1.25 or $2.50 an acre, according as the 
land is within the limits of a railway land-grant or not, the latter, 
or " double-minim " price, being charged in that event ; so that, for 
$800 or $1.600, one can obtain a square-mile of land, and, as only 
one-fifth of the amount has to be paid at the start on making the 
mtry, the land will, of course, pay for this, and also the expenses of 
learing, beside a handsome profit, if it be brought under cultivation 
at once. 

Much of the land is also obtained by settlers under the Home- 
stead, Preemption or Timber-culture Acts, each of which permits 
Jus taking-up of a quarter-section, or 160 acres. It is possible for 
one man to take advantage of all these acts, and so obtain from the 
aovernment 1,120 acres of some of the richest and most valuable 
agricultural land in the world. Many of these settlers, who came 
nto this valley a few years ago with nothing but their blankets, have 
already handsome fortunes. 

Before I leave the valley, in mid-April, the greater part of this 
and, which I first saw as a primitive wilderness, is green with young 
;rain. It will not be long before it all presents the same aspect as 
he beautiful homestead-region of Mesa City, the Mormon town 
tlose by Las Acequias. Driving towards the latter camp from Los 
Vluertos, we see Mesa City simply as a long line of trees in the 
distance, with a few houses of recent settlers scattered here and 
liere in the open on the hither side. It seems but a single line of 
,rees bordering some irrigating canal, but, when we have once pene- 
trated it, we find that it is the border of a beautifully embowered 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 682. 

town, with neat houses and long, shady avenues enclosing many a 
square-mile of vineyard and orchard. The little gurgling streams 
that run rapidly everywhere by the roadside beneath the rows of tall 
cottonwoods, which, with all their great trunks and spreading boughs, 
are but a few years old, are the secret of this prosperity. The 
gravelly soil of this spot was despised by the less intelligent Gentiles 
of the valley as comparatively worthless, but the more experienced 
Mormons at once saw that, for fruit-culture, it could hardly be sur- 
passed. Mesa City, like scores of other Mormon towns that have 
sprung up in this "part of the world, affords a practical example of 
what can be done by intelligent and systematic cooperation in a com- 
munity, great economies being effected by the union of all the pro- 
prietors of the land in introducing a water-supply for irrigation, and 
economically administering it, so as to make it in the distribution 
utilized to the utmost ; also by a well-devised arrangement of the 
land under common agreement, that enables great economies in the 
construction of boundary-fences, and also in its cultivation or use as 
pasturage ; by carrying on other works in common, and thus effect- 
ing a great saving in labor; and again by establishing cooperative 
stores, where all members of the community can purchase the best of 
supplies in great variety at substantially cost-price, making, of course, 
a great saving in the expense of living. The Mormons accomplish 
all this by their superior methods of organization acquired in their 
years of isolation from the rest of the world ; the necessities of 
their situation, as well as their devotion to a common cause, teach- 
ing them the advantages of working in cooperation, both for the in- 
dividual and the community. For this reason the Mormons are, as 
a rule, far more prosperous than their Gentile neighbors. 



FIIREE years ago there was nothing, as the term is understood 
in other cities, that could be classed as an office-building in 
Washington City. To-day we have several that claim attention, 
at least, for their magnitude, convenient arrangement and cost, as 
well as one or two for their artistic effect. The Corcoran Building, 
on Fifteenth Street, built some twelve years ago, was the first 
attempt at the construction of a large building devoted principally 
to office purposes. This building was designed by Mr. James Ren- 
wick, of New York, and cost in the neighborhood of $300,000. The 
ground-floor is taken up entirely by stores fronting on Pennsylvania 
Avenue, Fifteenth and F Streets. To reach the first office-floor, it 
was formerly necessary to climb a flight of steps, between eighteen 
and twenty feet high, and the elevator started in this second story. 
Recently, a great improvement has been made in this respect from 
plans by Cluss & Shultz, architects, by sacrificing a part of one of the 
stores, narrowing the original stairway and changing the space thus 
gained into a hall leading to the elevator, which has been extended 
to the ground-floor. The building is rectangular, the interior rooms 
and water-closets being lighted by a large light-well covered with 
glass. These rooms are poorly lighted and poorly ventilated. The 
exterior is built of red and buff brick, and the design is a modern 
Renaissance. The effect produced by the composition is not at all 
pleasing, as it has the appearance of a huge box pierced by numerous 
small and distinct openings, each treated with pilasters, cornice 
and pediments in buff. The main cornice of the building, as well as 
the cornices and pediments over the windows, are built of boldly pro- 
jecting brickwork. The effects of the weather and time show that 
brick is not the proper material for such heavy projections, as 
the brick have been falling from the cornice so often that it has been 
found necessary to take down the boldest members of the cornice and 
substitute galvanized-iron in its stead. 

The Kellogg Building, on F Street, designed by R. I. Fleming, 
was the first building devoted entirely to office purposes. It is con- 
veniently planned, with well-lighted rooms and the ordinary office 
arrangements. The design is nondescript, stiff, poorly proportioned 
and inartistic ; in fact, such a design as one would expect from a 
designer who was brought up as a carpenter. 

The Pacific finished about two years ago and The Atlantic com- 
pleted last fall, both of which are situated on F Street, are alike ex- 
cellent in their arrangement, size and grouping of the rooms, eleva- 
tors, stairways, water-closets and other small conveniences, as letter- 
boxes and speaking-tubes for each room. From an artistic stand- 
point they differ materially. The Pacific is commonplace to the last 
degree. This is made the more striking because of the evident effort 
after architectural effect, made by the introduction of pilasters, 

segmental arches and moulded brick, all put together in a monotonous 
manner and with poor proportions, which produces disagreeable 
effect on one of even limited artistic taste. The front of The Atlantic 
is a good architectural composition, if the ground-floor is omitted 
when it is taken into consideration. This floor is supported by 
small iron columns small in comparison with the large stone piers 
which are above them in the second storv. The second and third 
stories are built of Seneca brownstone, which is decidedly reddish in 
tone. The windows are grouped in three large semicircular open- 
ings which are deeply recessed. The windows of the third, fourth 
and fifth stories are grouped under three arches, with brick piers 
and arches, and terra-cotta caps and panels, with stone lintels and 
bond-stones. The seventh story is a row of small semicircular open- 
ings flanked by small terra-cotta columns and caps. The line 
between the seventh and eighth stories is distinctly marked by a wide 
foliated terra-cotta moulding. The eighth story is a series of 
rectangular windows, the whole being finished with a simple parapet- 
wall and terra-cotta coping. This building can be praised for its 
good points, but it is something of a pity that its construction should 
not be fireproof, and that the modelling of the stone-carving and the 
terra-cotta ornamentation should lack boldness and decision. They 
are so flatly treated that they lose their distinctive character across 
the street, and the street is not wide. 

The Sun Building, erected by the Baltimore Sun on F Street, is 
decidedly the most costly and pretentious office-building in the city. 
It has been completed in the last year. While the Atlantic Building 
was designed by Mr. J. G. Hill, ex-Supervising Architect of the 
United States, the Sun Building was designed by Mr. A. B. Mullet, 
also ex-Supervising Architect, and Mr. Hill's predecessor. The 
designer in the case of the Sun Building has not been nearly so suc- 
cessful in the treatment of his problem as was the designer of the 
Atlantic. The front of the former is in white marble. With the 
exception of the first two stories, the windows of which are grouped 
into two large and one small round-arched opening, which are de- 
signed in a free Renaissance style, the design of this building has 
nothing to recommend it to favorable consideration. From the 
second to the eighth story the space is occupied by two long or elon- 
gated oriel windows springing from lion-head corbels, which cut 
through and destroy the apparent integrity of the arches of the 
second story. All the fifty windows above the second story to the 
roof are made on the same pattern (and it is an insignificant and 
weak pattern), making the whole painfully monotonous. The eighth 
story, with its sham French roof and a central tower, seems to have 
no reason for existence, unless it is intended by their ungainly stiff- 
ness to act as a foil for the five monotonous stories below. 

Decidedly in this building's favor is the fact that it is well and 
substantially built, and its construction fireproof. The plan is of the 
dumb-bell form, with the stairways, elevators, and water-closets placed 
in the narrow central portion on two light-wells. It cost about five 
hundred thousand dollars, so I understand a large amount in 
Washington for a building about 115 by 150 feet. There is a history 
connected with the selection of a design for this building, which is of 
interest to the profession as a warning against going into competi- 
tion without clear instructions, or with merely verbal instructions : 
Several architects were informed that they could submit sketches, 
and that from the sketches submitted one would be selected, and 
that the rejected ones would not be paid for. The four or five archi-. 
tects mentioned availed themselves of the tempting bait, which was 
to be the most costly business structure in the city. The competi- 
tors, after waiting patiently, or rather, impatiently for a month or 
more, discovered, much to their chagrin, that the contract for mak- 
ing the plans had been awarded to an architect who did not submit 
a sketch in the competition. Two competitors wrote for their plans 
repeatedly (the others were returned, I think, in a short time after 
they were submitted), but did not receive them for some months. 
One set, in particular, was written for repeatedly, and several 
excuses were received in reply, giving as reasons why they were 
not returned that one of the Sun's agents would be over in a 
day or two, and would bring them with him. On the first two or 
three trips the agent forgot them, but would bring them the next 
time. Finally, they were returned by this same forgetful agent. It 
is a little strange that it did not occur to the Baltimore Sun's business 
men that two cents would have returned the sketches by the United 
States mail. As the building proceeded in construction, the archi- 
tect of the retained sketches was very much surprised at the re- 
markable similarity between the design of the first two stories and 
the general plan of the building with the sketches he submitted. 
Whether this was simply a coincidence, only the proprietors or their 
agents can tell. 

All the office-buildings mentioned run up above the adjoining 
property fifty feet or more, and many of the rooms in the four or 
five upper stories depend for at least a part of their light upon 
windows in the side walls. This, of course, will prove unfortunate 
in case the adjoining property-holders at some time carry up their 
buildings to the height of the office-buildings, in which case the light 
in many of the rooms will be limited to a serious extent. 

It would not do to complete the subject of office-buildings with- 
out mentioning the small lawyers'-office building erected recently 
from the plans of W. M. Poindexter & Co. This building is on a 
corner, constructed in simple brickwork, and is unobtrusive, but 
effective, in its design. Being on a corner and narrow, the rooms 
are well lighted. It has an elevator and other office conveniences. 

JANUARY 19, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 




HE leading architects of the city of 
Toronto, with whom the formation 
of an Architectural Association is a 
matter of great interest, were agreeably surprised early last month 
by a circular from the Minister of Education for the Provincial 
Government, addressed to them, requesting them to meet him for the 
discussion of a scheme he had in hand of establishing in connection 
witli the School of Practical Science "full courses of instruction in 
applied chemistry, applied mechanics, and architecture." The in- 
vitation was extended to a number of manufacturers, skilled 
mechanics, and others having interests of a similar character, and 
on the 19th of the month, when the meeting took place, one hundred 
and fifty to two hundred representative men met the minister, and 
a very interesting and lively meeting was held. The minister di- 
rected the attention of the meeting: 1, to the consideration of the 
various kinds of skilled labor now required to carry on the industries 
of the country, and the best means of rendering it more productive, 
and, therefore, more valuable; 2, to the consideration of what 
courses of instruction would be necessary to provide such skilled 
labor at home as is now supplied from abroad ; and 3, to inquire 
what industries (if any) not yet established in Ontario could be made 
productive, provided we could supply them with skilled labor. The 
minister called upon the engineers and engine-builders, and then 
upon those interested in the manufacture of woollen goods and of 
dye-works in connection with this industry, and there was not one 
who did not agree that the establishment of such a school as he 
proposed would be of immense benefit to the trades represented, 
and, therefore, to the country generally. The architects were 
then called upon to express their opinions. It will be remem- 
bered that a deputation of architects waited upon the minister 
some time ago with reference to the establishment of a chair 
of architecture, so that he knew this school would meet with 
their approval if founded on a proper basis, but his knowledge of 
this was confirmed and strengthened by the answers given to his 
questions. It was shown that no means existed in Canada for the 
testing of the strength and properties of the various building mate- 
rials. Architects specify iron girders and columns cements and 
mortars, to be composed according to given quantities : they go 
upon their own practical experience with regard to ironwork, and 
upon private experiments witli cement and mortar, but this at best 
is unsatisfactory, and by no means equal to the satisfaction of having 
materials tested on the spot by proficients. The minister was also 
told that the architects would undoubtedly make their pupils attend 
classes for instruction in the art and science of architecture, were 
such a school to be established. A scheme will be presented at the 
next session to the Legislative Assembly, and it is sincerely to be 
hoped that no time will be lost before this contemplated school will 
be developed and in working order. 

It is many years since we have had a "green " Christmas in Canada. 
But two days before Christmas the last vestige of snow in the streets 
of Toronto vanished, and Christmas Day opened mild and inclined 
to be showery, while in Montreal the rain fell heavily the whole day. 
The new year has opened without any change. The daily prognos- 
tications are " fair and mild," and with the thermometer rising to 
40, and sometimes above, with the lengthening days and the fairly 
clear atmosphere, it is hard to realize that this is January, and not 
April. Quebec and Montreal keep a little colder, as a rule, than 
Toronto, and there is more snow, but the temperature of the North- 
west is very high above the average. Consequently, building opera- 
tions proceed almost without interruption and without much risk. 
Many people who intend to build next year would have been glad 
to have got their houses started a couple of months ago, but, unfor- 
tunately for them, there was no weather-prophet to tell them we 
should have no winter, so far. Consequently they took the advice 
of their architects, and put off work till the spring. The sudden 
changes of temperature to which the climate is subject at this season 
render it impossible to say what a day may bring forth : it is neces- 
sary to cover up the day's work every night, for no one can tell that 
the thermometer will not be below zero the next morning. 

The good people of Montreal have had an anxious time ; the ques- 
tion has been daily : Will the cold be severe enough for the necessities 
of the winter carnival. These carnivals were an annual week of 
festivities, but it was decided that they were held too often, and if 
held once in two years they might be conducted on a more attrac- 
tive scale and would prove a greater novelty, and, therefore, attract 
more visitors. The ice palace is, of course, the central feature, and, 
with the exception of last year when no carnival was held, it has 
been constructed of huge blocks of ice, averaging two or two-and-one- 
half feet thick, cut in the river, brought up to the site, hoisted by 

derricks and being slightly shaped with a hatchet, set in position, 
where usually they soon freeze together. This year, however, the 
ice is only about one foot thick, entailing more labor. Messrs. 
Hutchinson & Steele, architects, have hitherto designed the castle or 
palace, which usually occupies a considerable area, and rises to a 
general height of forty to fifty feet, with towers in addition. For 
the palace of the former carnival a few architects were asked to 
compete, but the request was not generally responded to. But the 
necessary restrictions on the account of the peculiarity of the 
material to be employed, did not allow of very great variety in 
design, consequently the same firm of architects who nad undertaken 
the work on previous occasions carried it out. 

In addition to the already numerous churches of the Roman 
Catholics of Montreal, another one is talked of. It is to be built in 
the suburb of Point St. Charles, and $100,000 is the proposed ex- 
penditure. Point St. Charles is a poor neighborhood, but this fact 
seems to have little or no relation to the construction of Roman 
Catholic churches. Already the parish church of Notre Dame, 
capable of seating 8,000 persons, and the great Church of St. Peter's, 
which requires in the neighborhood of $300,000 to complete, are a 
considerable burden to be borne by the faithful, not to mention the 
smaller churches, almost without number, supported by separate con- 
gregations, or by the revenues from the properties held by the 
various orders of nuns. At Longuielle, a village on the shore 
opposite Montreal, but a little to the east, with a very poor popula- 
tion, a great church has just been completed; the people who were 
ragged and but half-fed supplied the funds, and, it is to be inferred, 
that the poor residents of Point St. Charles will be made to pillage 
themselves for the same object and, of course, for the benefit of their 

The rulers of the St. James Street Methodist Church undertook a 
great speculation. Their church was too small for them, and was 
out-of-the-way for the congregation. The site is a very valuable 
one, almost in the centre of the city, and was adjoined by shops and 
offices crowding closely against it. They decided to build a larger 
church in a more convenient situation, and sell the old place. A 
purchaser could not be found ; then they determined to pull it down 
and erect a six-story block of offices (to which allusion was made in 
a former letter). This building is not completed, but an offer lias 
been made by an insurance company to purchase it for the sura of 

The Architectural Guild of Toronto holds its first annual meeting 
early in January, and it is probable that the reports of the various 
committees to be presented at this meeting will give a fair idJa of 
the useful work done by the Guild in the first year of its existence. 
The report of the Committee on the Matter of Professional Charges 
is one of interest to all. Architects in Canada are fully alive to the 
necessity of some change for the better in the usual tariff. Of 
course, the one and two per centers, who cannot rightly be called 
architects- and, therefore, can never become members of a profes- 
sional body or corporation, will still go on with their scheming, 
sneaking and underhand methods the Guild has nothing to do with 
them. The intention is to get its members to agree to a regular 
system ; its membership consisting of all the principal architects of 
the place, and, therefore, being the only representative professional 
body in Canada. 

The deepening of the ship-channel of the River St. Lawrence 
between Montreal and Quebec to a uniform depth of 27 J feet has 
been completed, and the history of the successive deepenings illus- 
trates the progress of oceanic transport business during the last twenty- 
odd years. Previous to the date of Confederation, July 1, 18(i7, 
the ship-channel had been improved at various dates, until at that 
time there was a channel 300 feet wide by 20 feet deep. The in- 
creasing trade necessitated deepening this, and a Bill was brought 
before the Dominion Parliament and passed in May, 1873, by which 
permission to contract a loan of $1,500,000 for this purpose was 
granted. Two feet was the extra depth decided on : operations were 
commenced in 1874, and by the end of 1878 the work was completed, 
at a cost of $1,153,512. The rapid increase in the size of vessels 
engaged in the Atlantic trade immediately required a deeper channel, 
and as soon as the last works were completed it was decided to 
deepen again, another three feet. Four years afterwards, 1882, saw 
the completion of the channel 25 feet deep and 300 feet wide. The 
quantities of material dredged out by deepening from 20 feet to 25 
feet were : shale-rock, 289,600 cubic yards ; eartli of all sorts, includ- 
ing boulders raised by dredges, 8,200,000 cubic yards ; boulders lifted 
by lifting-barges, 16,700 cubic yards. The channel through Lake 
St. Peter was the longest piece of dredging in one length, 1 7^ miles, 
with a width varying from 300 feet to 450 feet, involving the removal 
of 8,000,000 cubic yards. The total cost of this five feet of deepening 
was, I believe, $2,780,130. In 1885 another loan was applied for 
and immediately granted, for $900,000, this time, to deepen another 
two and one-half feet of the whole area of the channel, and it is this 
work which was successfully completed in the beginning of October 
last, and which was opened by the Montreal Harbor Commissioners 
by a trip in the Allan Line steamship " Sarmatian " with a large 
number of guests. 

After a great deal of time spent in discussion of the pros and cons, 
which, for such a scheme, were matters of great importance, it has 
finally been decided to construct a ship-railway from the Bay of 
Fundy to Bale Verte, and the cost is set clown as in the neighbor- 
hood of five million dollars. If carried out, as it is proposed, with 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIV. No. 

expedition, this ship-railway in Canada will probably be the first in 
use in the world. 

Toronto has in hand a piece of engineering that will by its result 
add considerably to its trade facilities, and the first sections of the 
work are nearly completed. The River Don is a small river to the 
east of Toronto, running in a southerly direction into the bay, so 
small and narrow that it was of no use commercially, although the 
supply of water was abundant. A scheme for straightening and 
widening and deepening this river was determined upon, the shores 
were to be reduced to a uniform level, and waste marshy land subject 
to annual inundations was to be reclaimed, and thus a new district 
with water facilities for transport purposes was to be prepared for 
warehouse and factories. Mounds or banks, in some parts 70 feet 
high, have been cut through and entirely removed, and the place 
now represents a desolate waste, flat as a pancake, with a wide canal 
in the centre. The new line of the Canadian Pacific Railway will 
enter Toronto along one of the new banks. It is estimated that the 
land reclaimed and levelled, with the advantages of the canal, will 
be as valuable as any land in the city, the price being $200 per foot 
front. The total reclaimed area is about 60 acres, valued at 
$6,000 an acre. 

Ottawa has in hand a scheme for the construction of a bridge to 
connect the two shores of the Ottawa River at a distance of about 
two miles from the city, east from Rockcliffe, near the residence of 
the Governor-General, to Gatineau Point. The cost is estimated at 
$250,000, but the corporation expect the Provincial and Dominion 
Parliaments will contribute towards the expenses. 

The little suspension-bridge spanning the river just below the 
Chaudiere Falls at Ottawa is to be replaced by a new bridge, to cost 
$30,000. This little bridge is well known to most visitors to the 
city, as from it a fine view of the Parliament Hill is obtained in one 
direction, and the Chaudie're Falls in the other. The volume of 
water over these falls is considerable, and they are well worth a visit. 
" The Devil's Cauldron," on the south side of the river, is one of 
those pits into which the water rushes at a terrific rate, seethes and 
boils, and never comes out again. Under the bridge are the chutes 
for (he lumber rafts, by which they are taken from the higher to 
the lower level of the river. In the season distinguished visitors to 1 
the city arc usually treated to a voyage on a raft, a rather exciting 
and slightly dangerous species of summer toboganning. The new 
bridge will be 236 feet long by 45 feet wide. 

Contracts for the construction of the Saulte St. Marie Canal on 
Canadian land are let, and the work is to be proceeded with imme- 
diately, as the weather permits. 

tendency to create a draught. The proper way to fight a fire is 
from the inside which is done when possible ; but at times it is impos- 
sible to reach the material burning from the inside, and the fire- 
department is driven to the street which necessitates street streams. 
It is at this point that owners and occupants of buildings should 
provide means to assist the department. My experience of the long 
and tedious job of cutting through party-walls at fires has suggested 
to me the advisability of having a permanent orifice in the party- 
wall that could be utilized by the department and would respectfully 
ask your opii ion on the same. Yours, L. F. STEVENS. 

PRIMITIVE WELL-DRILLING. Abbe Hue thus describes the system 
of deep-earth boring practised in the district in which he has for some 
time resided. A wooden tube six feet in length is first driven down 
through the surface soil. The tube is held at the surface of the ground 
by a large flagstone, having a hole in the centre to allow tlie tube to 
pass through and to project a little above it. A cylindrical mass of 
iron, weighing about four hundred pounds, hollow and pointed at its 
lower end, and having lateral notches or apertures, is jerked up and 
down in this tube at the end of a lever, from which it is suspended by 
a rope. This kind of "monkey" disintegrates the rock, the debris of 
which, converted into sludge by water poured in, finds it way through 
the lateral apertures into the interior of the cylinder. By raising the 
latter at intervals, this sludge is removed from the bore hole. The rate 
of boring in rock of ordinary hardness is one foot in twelve hours. 
Only one man is employed at one time to work the lever. By this 
means wells of 18(10 feet deep are sunk in about two years by the labor 
of three men, relieving one another every six hours. Boston Transcript. 


FlIERE has been formed in St. Louis an organization for ad- 
vancement and improvement in architecture and kindred arts. 
This organization is known as the St. Louis Architectural 
League, with olficers as follows : Louis C. Bulkley, President ; J. 
P. Annan, Vice-President ; II. E. Eames, Secretary ; J. L. Wees, 
Treasurer ; L. II. Seubert, Corresponding Secretary and Librarian. 

This organization is formed somewhat after the plans of the 
Chicago Architectural Sketch-Club. Suitable rooms having been pro- 
cured and furnished in a respectable manner. Regular meetings are 
held every two weeks. The rooms are open all day from 10 A. M. 
until 10 p. M. Special evenings are given to sketching and lectures. 
There are twelve monthly competitions, one semi-annual and one 
annual competition. The subject of the first monthly competition is a 
mantle for the League Rooms. 

L. II. SEUBERT, Corresponding Secretary. 


NEW YORK, Dec. 29, 1888. 


Dear Sirs, I saw in a recent issue of your paper, an article on 
Iron Shutters and Solid Roofs, in which, it is recommended that one 
shutter be left so as it can be easily opened from the outside. Now 
while that would be of some advantage it would be very small, and 
does not solve the problem of preventing large fires. The objective 
point at a fire is, of course, the material burning in the building, as 
the building itself, without the material, would not make much of a 
fire, and when a position can be reached from which a stream of 
water can be brought to bear upon the goods on fire, it can be easily 
extinguished. The penetration and effect of streams from the street 
can be seen by a line representing the front of the building " marked 
for window openings," and a line for the street, it will be seen that 
above a certain height the stream has no penetration and conse- 
quently no good effect but rather acts the other way as it has a 

THE ability which American ship-builders and manufacturers of ship- 
building material are showing in the construction of vessels is conspiring as 
much as anything else to aid the Government's efforts to supply itself with 
a navy. The Delaware ship-builders have made wonderful progress during 
the past three years in workmanship, and some line vessels are now being 
turned out in the Delaware yards. Several war-ships under construction 
will be of the most advanced type. The speed of those that have been tried 
is up to the expectations and specifications of unarniored vessels the Gov- 
ernment has named. Five have been recently launched, including a 
dynamite cruiser, which has developed a higher rate of speed than specifica- 
tions required. It is a model of neatness and of marine engineering, and 
excels like devices of all other Government!'. There are at present fix. 
vessels building. One is a first-class torpedo boat. The tonnage of those 
under construction ranges frnm 4,324 to ],700 tons. The required speed is 
19 knots an hour. The speed of the cruisers in commission is from 19 to 23 
knots, and the tonnage from 2,000 to 5,300 tons. The new navy, when com- 
pleted, will be equipped in all with 371 guns, from 5 to 8 inch bore, besides 3 
15-inch dynamite guns of all armored vessels Two are building which will 
carry six guns: four, 10-inch, and two, 12-inch. Fhe are completed as far 
as the hull, which will carry fomvlO-ineh guns each. Public sentiment is 
to be credited with the creation of a proper war-like spirit upon the part of 
the Government. The work of constructing a navy will be pushed under 
the incoming administration, and during four years it is probable that the 
United States Government will be able to protect itself against any prob- 
able attack that differences in any event might bring about. Within the 
past thirty days information has been received from interior points concern- 
ing the probable activity on boat and river-craft building for the lakes and 
rivers. A great dea.1 of tonnage is now projected, and by the 1st of April, 
it is said, on good authority, that the lake boat-yards will be crowded with 
work for the rest of the season. large interior iron works have already received inquiries and 
specifications for material, and the manufacturers of marine boilers and 
engines and of engines of all kinds for river and lake service are living in 
daily expectation of large orders for supplies of this character. The manu- 
facturers of structural iron have reduced prices 11.20 cents per ton 
in order to bring in increased trade. Qidte recent advices confirm state- 
ments heretofore made relative to the undertaking of a large amonnt of 
bridge building in the Northwest and along the Pacific Coast. From present 
indications the adjustment of railroad troubles will be brought about with- 
out any serious legislative interference upon the part of Congress. The 
railway managers recognize that interference of that kind in the present 
complicated relations of railroad managers would be most disastrous. They 
recognize further that there is a. strong public sentiment in favor of estab- 
lishing further restrictions upon railway malingers and of drawing the line 
still more closely about them. It is this knowledge that has made a feeling 
of harmony among railway managers possible. If Congress is compelled to 
act it may act without proper attention and knowledge as to how to arrange 
legislation that can reach the points that our intricate railway conditions 
are developing. Whatever combination is made each individual system will 
retain its individual identity and control over its own interests but it will 
surrender to the authorized authority the power of making rates. A great 
many evils still exist in the way of hauling freights in the thousands of in- 
dustries. A great deal more is charged per ratio for the short haul than for 
a long one. Commissioners '.;now nil these things and are slow to drive the 
managers into obedience to the law. Their wil.ingness to obey the law is 
accepted in lieu of obedience at present. Perhaps this is the most that can 
be expected while t"ey are passing through the transitional period. All 
these comments and discussions point ultimately in the direction of some 
sort of Government control. Neither public sentiment nor public interest 
demands that such an ultimate result be reached but the influences which 
are at work are driving the railroad interests in that direction. 

Trade and industrial reports from all the industrial and commercial in- 
terests of the country m:ike a very good showing as to volume of business. 
They show that production is under control, that competition is not likely to 
reassert itself to any damaging extent, that prices are likely to be uniform 
throughout the year coming in and that the evils which have brought about 
depressions and panics in years past will not be permitted to assert them- 
selves to any great extent. 

S. J. PARKHILL & Co., Printers, Boston. 

JANUARY 19, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


or Shinles. 

a nnuci) more 
iWh wnile foey are 

Very <e*<ft^v ro ,ft1h>mV* fry 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 682. 


.'* . y m* 

,.*#** J 



VOL. xxv. 

Copyright, 1889, by TICKNOR & COMPANY, Boston, Ma. 

No 683. 

JANUARY 26, 1889. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Boston as second-class matter. 


The Investigating of the Supervising Architect's Office. 
English Views on the Consolidation of Architectural Socie- 
ties. Scandals concerning the New Ceiling over the New 
York Capitol Assembly-Chamber. The recent Fire in the 
Quirinal Palace, Rome. Another Profit-sharing Employer. 
Death of Mr. George Hathorne, Architect. Establish- 
ment of a new School of Electrical Engineering 37 



The Hotel des Brasseurs, Brussels, Belgium. A Station on 
the line of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The Hotel dc 
Ville, Rheims, France. The Old Hotel de Ville, Lyons, 
France. Facade of San Michel, Pavia, Italy. The Hotel 
de Ville, Compiegne, France. The Hotel de Ville, Lyons, 

France. Design for a Country House 42 







Progress of the Architectural Societies' Consolidation Move- 
mentHow to punish a Scamping Gas-fitter. An Expert 

in School-houses 47 



TTTIIE investigation of the office of the supervising architect 
J. of the Treasury Department, if it has not revealed such 
depths of sin and woe as the New York Tribune antici- 
pated, has brought out some matters of interest to the profes- 
sion. In regard to the accusation that he had made his exami- 
nation-papers for draughtsmen so difficult that none of the 
candidates who presented themselves for appointment under 
the Civil Service rules could answer them, Colonel Freret said 
that many of the draughtsmen at present in the office could 
answer them, and gave a long list of those who were able to 
do so. He mentioned, also, that the only person to whom he 
had given any appointment since he took charge of his office 
was one messenger, so the idea that he concocted questions 
adapted to turning the candidate's hair gray, with the object of 
keeping out Republican assistants and getting in Democrats, 
appears to be unfounded. One of the investigating committee 
drew from this evidence the singular inference that the Civil 
Service rules could not be applied to architects and draughts- 
men. A more sensible conclusion, we think, and one much 
more in accordance with the general opinion in the profession, 
would be that a position in the Government architect's office 
presents very little attraction to the better class of young archi- 
tects, and that the men who can answer such questions as 
Colonel Freret's, of whom there are plenty to be found in 
private offices, would rather struggle for many years against 
poverty and neglect, with hope and ambition to console them, 
than to bury themselves for the best part of their lives in what 
the Tribune calls the " fat berths " of the Treasury Depart- 

TT STILL more singular charge, to which Mr. Freret was 
/J. called to answer, was that of having neglected, when he 
wished to employ outside assistance in preparing plans 
for public buildings, to advertise for proposals for such assist- 
ance, as the law requires in the case of mechanics' work. As 
the same law requires that the contract shall be made with the 
lowest bidder, a comparison of the proposals for furnishing 
plans would be only less curious than au inspection of the plans 
which would be furnished at the lowest price; but Mr. Freret 
explained that the work needed for his purpose was personal 
service, and that, by Secretary Fail-child's direction, it had been 
regarded as being outside the intention of the law relating to con- 
tracts with mechanics. Senator Morrill raised a question of 
some significance by asking whether it would not be better to 
have all the business of the supervising architect's office done bv 
unofficial persons, to which Colonel Freret replied that the prin- 
cipal architectural associations of the country had urged this, but 
that he was not iu favor of it, except so far as might be neces- 

sary to expedite the Government business. Notwithstanding 
this answer, we are inclined to suspect that Senator MorriFl 
has his own opinion on the subject, and the investigation, 
which is, fortunately, in the hands of some of the best men in 
the Senate, will undoubtedly help to open the legislative eye 
to some points in the Government practice of architecture 
which it has never before been able to perceive. 

E British Architect has something to say in regard to the 
Consolidation scheme now under consideration by the pro- 
fessional societies in this country, which is worth noting. 
In commenting upon the discussion which took place on the 
subject at the Convention of the Western Association, it takes 
up Mr. Sullivan's remark, that the new Institute " should be 
broad and democratic ; " that it " should not set up factitious 
barriers," but should welcome all the thoughtful, earnest, am- 
bitious men in the profession, and so on. It is not very sur- 
prising that Mr. Sullivan should have been understood to 
advocate the admission of all "thoughtful, earnest, and 
ambitious men," without inquiring as to whether they pos- 
sessed, in addition to these qualifications, the important one of 
a knowledge of their business ; and the British Architect fears 
that the American Institute may suffer, as the English societies 
have, by the admission of men concerning whom no one wished 
to say anything unfavorable, but whose presence in the Institute 
will repel the better trained architects, who will see no honor, 
but rather the reverse, in membership in a society which already 
contains those whom they know to be far inferior to 
themselves in attainment. That a similar consideration kept 
for many years some of the best English architects from join- 
ing the British Institute is tolerably certain, and it is with a 
view to making membership more honorable, as well as more 
difficult, that the system of compulsory examination has been 
adopted, and seems to be working successfully. In this coun- 
try, we are inclined to think that a similar system of examina- 
tions will soon follow the adoption of the new constitution, and 
the revival of the efficiency of the Institute. There is no 
question that the State professional associations are strongly 
in favor of requiring proof, from an applicant for admission to 
their ranks, that he possesses the necessary qualifications. In 
many States petitions have been drawn up by the professional 
societies, and presented to the Legislature, praying that 
persons who cannot pass a strict technical examination may be 
forbidden to practice architecture within the State ; and the 
Boston Society of Architects, one of the largest and most in- 
dependent in the country, some years ago adopted a rule 
requiring all new candidates to pass an examination. There 
is no need of being in a hurry to impose such a standard every- 
where. As we all know, the technical training now accessible 
to American students of architecture was unknown when the 
older members of the profession began their career, and there 
are scores of men highly honored in the profession, and with 
reason, who never heard of the Accadians, or their influence 
on Greek architecture, and who would be hard put to it to ex- 
plain the use of the pendants in fan vaulting. To force these 
men through an examination suited to the graduate of a pro- 
fessional school would be ridiculous, yet their admission, on 
evidence of honorable and successful practice alone, places us 
under no obligation 'to admit without examination the youth 
who has neglected all the opportunities which his senior would 
have so eagerly seized. If we keep in mind the maxim that 
examinations should be devoted to finding out, not what a man 
knows, but how he has utilized his opportunities, we shall not 
go far wrong. At present, the standard in the remoter States 
must be different from that in New England and New York, 
but if each State Chapter will devote itself to attracting and 
sifting out the best material in its own locality, by such means 
as it finds most efficient, all the members of the general body 
will have reason to be proud of belonging to it. 

one might make an interesting book, for architects, 
by describing the successive scandals, alarms, revolutions, 
quarrels, disappointments and fatalities which have at- 
tended the construction of the Albany State-House. The last 
grief that has afflicted the unfortunate proprietors appears to 
relate to the new ceiling of the Assembly Chamber, which re- 
places the famous stone vault. It seems from the New York 


The American Architect and Building Neics. [VoL. XXV. No. 682. 

papers that the specification required that after the ironwork 
was in position " the whole ceiling " should be " covered with 
first quality kiln-dried quartered white oak, wrought out and 
finished in accordance with the several designs, in first-rate 
cabinet fashion, of the several shapes, sizes and thicknesses 
called for by the plans, sections and details ; " all carved work 
to be done "in an artistic and spirited manner by first-rate 
carvers, who understand the motive and intent of the design." 
This specification, as our readers will acknowledge, conveys 
the idea that the ceiling was intended to be covered with oak, 
and the contract price, two hundred and seventy thousand 
dollars, would seem to be large enough to provide for using 
that material ; so it is not surprising that certain members of 
the Assembly, on being told that the work actually consisted 
mainly of plaster-of-Paris, expressed a dissatisfaction which 
culminated in the appointment of a commission of three ex- 
perts, to investigate the matter. We imagine that the office of 
expert to the Albany Capitol has become rather a thankless 
one, for two of the gentlemen appointed immediately declined 
to serve, and the third, being confined to his house with serious 
illness, could not serve if he would, so the Assemblymen most 
interested organized themselves into an informal investigating- 
committee, and had a stage built, from which they could ex- 
amine the ceiling closely. It then appeared that there were 
some oak casings, or veneers, over the iron and wooden beams, 
but that the " artistic and spirited " carved work, together with 
the panelling, consisted entirely of plaster-of-Paris, spread on 
a backing of jute canvas, and painted to imitate oak. On seek- 
ing an explanation of this singular interpretation of the con- 
tract, it was pointed out to the Assemblymen that another 
clause in the specification provided that the panels were " to be 
of quartered oak, as shown, properly glued up and finished, or, 
if papier-mache' is- used instead of oak, the panels are to be 
formed high toward the centre." Nowhere else does there 
seem to be any mention of papier-mache in the specification, 
and the sentence has a curious air of interpolation. 

WHETHER interpolated or not, the clause seems to have 
met with the approbation of the superintendent of the 
work, who very frankly explained that he had decided 
that curved panels would look better than flat ones, and as it 
would be very expensive to make them in oak with the dome- 
like form which he preferred, he had directed papier-mache 1 to 
be used, and that this compound of burlaps, asbestos and 
plaster-of-Paris was the sort of papier-mache that he approved. 
In his opinion the panels were much better made of this 
material than of oak, as the oak would crack with the heat of 
the room, while the " papier-mache " would remain perfect for 
an indefinite period. We should say for ourselves that we 
would rather have an oak ceiling, cracked in every direction, 
than one adorned with "spirited and artistic carving" cast in 
plaster, but this view of the subject does not seem to have sug- 
gested itself either to the superintendent or the Assemblymen, 
whose principal anxiety, aside from a suspicion that they have 
paid for something a good deal more expensive than what they 
have got, seems to arise from the notion that the plaster 
papier-mache is likely to be disintegrated by the heat and dry- 
ness of the air at the top of the room, and to fall on their heads. 

'7TCCORDING to the report of the Royal Commission ap- 
f\ pointed to investigate the causes of the conflagration which 
' nearly destroyed the Palace of the Quirinal in Rome, last 
November, the fire service in the Imperial City seems to leave 
something to be desired. As might be supposed, the palace, 
crowded as it is with precious objects, is, in theory at least, 
protected by the most complete modern appliances for extin- 
guishing fire. There are, or were, several pumps and engines 
in the building, besides a system of stand-pipes and hydrants, 
and telegraph-alarm lines communicating with the metropolitan 
stations ; and a corps of firemen is always on duty. The fire was 
first observed about nine o'clock in the evening, bursting 
through the windows of the rooms on the ground-floor. The 
alarm was at once given, and the palace detachment of firemen 
appeared promptly on the scene. The next thing was to find 
.the key of the room in which the engines and extinguishers 
were locked up. ,This did not take long, but as the room 
turned out to be one of those which was blazing most fiercely, 
it was useless to attempt reaching anything in it. The next 
resource was to telegraph a signal to the metropolitan stations, 

but, as the wires or batteries were out of order, the signal could 
not be transmitted. There was a telephone from the palace to 
the city-stations, which, however, also proved to be out of 
order and unserviceable. In the meantime some of the firemen 
had been detailed to open the hydrants, and were looking for 
the keys, which had been mislaid. After the search had finally 
been given up, the commander, with praiseworthy energy, 
directed that the pipes should be broken, since they could be 
opened in no other way. They were accordingly smashed 
with axes and hammers, but proved to be quite dry inside, the 
water having been for some reason shut off at the mains. By 
this time a group of soldiers had arrived, who formed a line 
and passed buckets from a neighboring fountain, to be emptied 
on the flames. Meanwhile the ciry authorities were aroused, 
and two hand-engines soon made their appearance, which 
poured tiny streams into the blazing building. These were 
followed by men belonging to the steam fire-engine corps, who 
drove up in cabs or arrived on foot, ready for service when the 
engines themselves should come. There was a delay, however, 
of about an hour and a half in the appearance of the latter, 
owing to the fact that the Roman fire-department has no 
horses, but makes requisitions on the omnibus companies for 
motive power, and the omnibus companies, which receive no 
pay for the use of their animals, do not show remarkable 
alacrity in furnishing them. When the engines finally arrived, 
it was discovered that no one had thought to light a fire in 
them, and an hour more was spent in remedying this deficiency 
and getting up steam. Toward midnight, however, they began 
to work, and in three hours afterward the fire went out. 

TITHE well-known establishment of Haines, Jones & Cadbury, 
\J of Philadelphia, now organized as a stock company, has 
for the past two years carried out a simple plan of sharing 
profits with its employes. The sum divided this year among 
the men is ninety-one hundred dollars. This is six and one- 
half per cent on the total wages of each workman who has been 
with the firm long enough to be entered on the list as a sharer 
in the profits, or about three weeks' extra pay for each man. 
There are few persons who would not find a bonus of three 
weeks' extra income at the end of December in each year ex- 
tremely convenient, and we imagine that the Haines, Jones & 
Cadbury men reflected with considerable satisfaction, the night 
before New Year's, upon the occasions when they had made a 
special effort to make their work systematic and efficient, and 
resolved, for the ensuing year, to make these occasions more 
frequent, and to use their experience in promoting still more 
the harmonious operation of the factory which they help to 
conduct. For the next year, a dividend to the workmen is to 
be made if the profits exceed six per cent on the capital, and 
will be shared in by all who have worked for the company 
during the whole year. 

R. GEORGE HATHORNE, at one time a very promi- 
nent architect in New York, died in that city about two 
weeks ago. Mr. Hathorne was a native of Massachu- 
setts, but had spent most of his life in New York. He was a 
man of quiet tastes, but an excellent architect, and devoted to 
his profession. He was one of the early members of the 
American Institute of Architects, and for many years took a 
prominent part in its proceedings. Much of his work was out 
of the city, Springfield possessing, perhaps, his most important 
buildings. He was unmarried, and leaves no very near rela- 

HE New York Mail and Express announces that the 
Trustees of Columbia College have decided to establish a 
Department of Electrical Engineering in connection with 
the School of Mines, and adds that " There is no such depart- 
ment, it appears, at any of the American universities. 
Columbia, therefore, will have the honor of taking the lead in 
the matter." While we wish the new school all possible suc- 
cess, and do not doubt that it will deserve it, the claim that it 
is the first of the kind in the United States needs modification, 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology having for several 
years maintained a Department of Electrical Engineering, 
which is very popular, and has graduated some of the most 
noted young electricians in the country, while, if we are not 
mistaken, there are two or three other schools of the kind of 
high reputation. 

JANUARY 26, 1889.] The American Architect and Building News. 




Main Entrance, Strasbourg Cathedral. 

TO I IE fate that befell 
JjL the bas-relief of 
Henry IV over 
the central portal 
of the H6tel-de-Ville, 
at Paris, has already 
been noted, and 
whether the bas-relief 
of the same monarch 
on the H6tel-de-Ville, 
at Lyons, shared a 
similar fate during 
the first Revolution, 
when the city was be- 
sieged by a Republi- 
can army under Kel- 
lerman, or during one 
of the numerous upris- 
ings that followed can- 
not be ascertained ; 
perhaps, as the city 
was doomed to de- 
struction in revenge 
for maintaining a de- 
fence for two months, 
it is likely that the 
H6tel-de-Ville suffered 
at that time, or if not 
then it may have fared 
ill when the strik- 
ers, thrown out of 
work by the commer- 
cial disorganization 
which followed the 
Revolution of 1830, 
_ seized the building in 
1831 and, presuma- 
bly, pillaged it. It is 

possible, too, that the bas-relief now extant on this building is the 
third of its kind that has been placed there, for the original may have 
been erected in the lifetime of Henry and so have been destroyed 
when the building was burned in 1702. At all events, the illustra- 
tions show that the building at some period of its existence was 
restored, and that the place of honor is still accorded to the bas-relief 
of Henry IV, by Legendre Herald, a native sculptor. 

Coustou's bronze bas-relief of Louis XIV, which still ornaments 
the central fronton of the Invalides, was also subjected to a certain 

amount of injury at 
the hands of the 
Paris mob in 1793; 
but thanks to its in- 
accessible position or 
to an unexpected ac- 
cess of sentimentality 
on the part of the in- 
surgents who may 
have reasoned that 
the Invalides was a 
highly useful and 
valued charitable in- 
stitution, and that 
Louis XIV, whatever 
his misdeeds, did one 
good act for posterity 
in founding it, and so 
deserved, in so far as 
this particular effigy 
was concerned, 
tender treatment at 
their hands a per- 
sistent attempt was 
not made to dislodge 
it; so, though bat- 
tered with stones and 
shot, it was suffered 
to remain till more 

peaceful times admitted of its rehabilitation, in 1816, by Cartellier. 
The inscription on the bas-relief reads : Ludovicus Magnus miiitibus, 
regali munificentia in perpeluum providens, has cedes posuit 1675. 

Wanton destruction in almost every part of France was practised 
by the Republicans, and many a chateau which bore within or without 
treasures of Renaissance sculpture was destroyed. Amongst others 
that succumbed was the Chateau de Vizille (Isere), of which, how- 
ever, there remains a doorway which once opened from the avenue 
into the garden, and still bears upon its fronton a bas-relief of Mar- 
shal Lesdiguieres by Jacques Richier. 

The H6tel-de-Ville, at Compiegne, which was built between 1502- 

1 Continued from No. 676, page 270. 

Marshal Lesdizuieres, Chateau de Vizille, France. 

1510, in the reign of Louis XII, was decorated with statues of saints in 
niches, and in the place of honor, in a niche like that more familiar one 
at Blois, was an equestrian figure of Louis XII, either in the round or 
in high relief. This figure was replaced by a similar figure of Louis 
XIII at a later day, who, in turn, was probably less gently dis- 
mounted during the Revolution. This building was restored some 
fifteen years ago, and a bronze bas-relief of Louis XII, by Jacquemart, 
executed in 1869, now holds the place of honor. 

The Hotel-de-Ville, at Rheims now bears in a similar position an 
equestrian bas-relief of Louis XIII the work of the Sculptor Mil- 
hpmme who in 1818 thus replaced an earlier bas-relief of the same 
kind which had been destroyed on August 13, 1793. 

The famous house of Jacques Cceur,at Bourges, formerly bore an 
equestrian statue of Charles VII, and a more humble one of the, lord 
of the manor himself, who was shown mounted on a mule, which, for 
some now unaccountable reason, was shod backwards, so that it 
would have puzzled an American redskin to know how the animal 
was travelling. 

In the same category should be mentioned the figure of Oldrado 
(or Orlando di) da Tresseno, Podesta of the city, on the wall of the 
Palazzo delta Ragione at Milan, a building erected by him between 
1228 and 1233. This figure, in high relief, representing a personage 
famous, or infamous, as having first burned heretics at the stake,is 
shown "with bare head and hair cut close in the neck, after the 
modern fashion, riding on a heavy-limbed horse. The group though 
wanting in life has a certain homely truth to nature, and is interest- 
ing as being one of the first works of its kind made in Italy since the 
days of Justinian. 2 " 

But equestrian sculpture had other forms of application in archi- 
tecture than as bas-reliefs in the frontons of public buildings. 
Surface-ornament, either in high or low relief, was, of course, the 


From the Temple of Vishnu, Seringham, India. 

form in which it was most commonly used from the times of the 
Egyptian and the Assyrian to the present. The use of the horse as 
a feature of decorative construction is comparatively rare, about the 
only instances being found in Southern India at Madura, Seringham 
and elsewhere, where the horses take the place of cantilevers to sup- 
port the superincumbent structure. 

The horse friezes of Classic times are too familiar to all to need 
description here, but there are to be found in many countries build- 
ings in the decoration of which the horse has been introduced 
effectively, ingeniously or ridiculously, but almost always with 
a purpose which can sometimes be deciphered, but oftener cannot. 
One of the earliest of modern examples is to be found in the facade 
of San Michel, at Pavia, an early Lombard church, across the front 
of which at irregular intervals stretch narrow sculptured bands of 
grotesque figures, amongst which are easily discernible figures of 
Horsemen, centaurs, Pegasi, and wild horses 3 mixed with other 
igures, the whole suggesting an attempt at picturing some of the 
iables of mythology which accident has singularly disjointed. The 
want of connection and arrangement, and the seeming lack of appro- 
priateness of such sculptures as parts of an ecclesiastical structure, 
suggest that the building offers an early instance of the once 

8 Perkins's * Historical Handbook of Italian Sculpture," 

3 " Dragons, griffins, eagles, snakes, sphinxes, centaurs the whole mythological 
menagerie which our ancestors brought with them from their native Iran and 
:hese either fighting with each other or with Lombard warriors, or amicably in- 
terlaced with human figures, male and female, or grinning and ready to fly at 
you from the gray wall interspersed with warriors breaking-in horses or 
following the hounds, minstrels and even tumblers, or, at least, figures standing 
on their heads; in short, the strong impress everywhere meets you of a wild 
and bold equestrian nation, glorying in war, delighting in horses and the chase, 
falconry, music and gymnastics ever in motion, never sitting still credulous, 
too, of old wives' stones, and tenacious of whatever of marvellous and strange 
:iad arrested their fancy during their long pilgrimage from the East for 
zodiacs from Chaldea and emblems of the stirring mythology of Scandinavia 
constantly alternate, in these and similar productions, with the delineation of 
those pastimes and pursuits which their peculiar habits induced them to reiterate 
with such zest and frequency." From Lord Lindsay's " Christian Art." 


The American Architect and Building News. [VoL. XXV. No. 683. 

common fashion of rebuilding into a new building the artistic wreck 
age of some earlier pile. To be sure the figure of the archangel 
trampling down a dragon over the central door, shows that some 
portion of the work was especially prepared for its present position 
perhaps all may have been, for through the whole range o 
mediaeval sculpture it is impossible to always satisfactorily explain 
the presence of the many figures and groups which, while un 
doubtedly grotesque from a modern point-of-view, it is wholly impos 
sible to determine whether they are intentionally or unintentionally so 
The triumph of St. George over the dragon has been immortalize< 
in stone in so many places by so many notable artists that it deserves 
consideration later as a special subject; but, besides St. George 
there were many other heroes of saintly legend who performed their 
feats on horseback, and there are many churches where St. Martin 
St. Hubert, St. Paul and others 1 are more or less intelligibly and 
artistically preserved in marble, stone or bronze. Besides these 
there are legendary heroes and historical personages of doubtfu 
authenticity, who are honored in the same way upon some edifice in 
what is supposed to be their natal town. To search these out 
enumerate them and briefly recount the associated legends would bi 
an interesting but somewhat laborious task, and it will, perhaps 
be enough of an indication of the character of the field which might be 
explored, if there is here given the story of King Gradlon, whose 

Cathedral at Quimper, Brittany.* 

equestrian figure surmounts the gable of the facade of the Cathedral 
at Quimper, in Brittany, the most important and almost the most in- 
teresting ecclesiastical structure in that province. Brittany is pecul- 
iarly rich in legendary lore, and the French painters of our day are 
extremely fond of turning to it for the subjects of those great show- 
pictures that plaster the walls of each year's Salon. Some of these 
legends have an interest also for the descendants of the Anglo- 
Saxon, and amongst them is the tale of Gradlon, who was a brother 
of one of the early British Kings, and was a sample of the clean and 
simple-minded chivalry who have caused the fame of Arthur's 
knights to survive through centuries. King Gradlon's capital was the 
city of Is, 2 on the seacoast, or rather just off the coast, for it was 
actually built below the level of the sea, which was barred out by 
heavy dikes : like Mont St. Michael, it could only be approached in 
boats or by land when the tide was out. Unfortunately, Gradlon's 
daughter Dahut does not seem to have been present when the 
occurrence took place that converted him to Christianity, for one 
can imagine that Messalina, herself, would have listened to warnings 
coming From the lips of St. Corentin, after she had seen him feed the 
king and his train of huntsmen to their satisfaction, all from a single 
slice of a carp, which, after affording this feast, swam away unin- 
jured. In spite of the entreaties of her father and the rebukes of the 
hermit saint, Dahut continued in her profligate courses, and enter- 
tained lovers unnumbered. At length weary of the constant im- 
portunities of the hermit, she, one night, stole from her father, who 
always wore it about his neck, the key which opened the gate in the 
sea-wall or dike, and giving it to her lover of the moment, persuaded 

J THE HORSE AS AN ATTRIBUTE IN SACRKD ABT. The horse is often asso- 
ciated in sculpture and painting with SS. George, Hubert, James the Greater, 
John. Bishop of Bergamo, Martin, Maurice, Norbert, Victor, Pope Leo, Papon de 
Marchienne and Count Thibaut. Besides these, a horse or ass kneeling before 
the holy sacrament is an attribute of Saint Antony of Padua ; a horse before an 
altar is associated with St. Bernard ; a wild horse drags St. Orestes ; a horse 
falling over a precipice leaving his rider unharmed indicates St. Hugo ; a 
hor-e bearing a saint with a child mounted behind him marks Gregory of 
Armenia ; a horse beside a saint betokens St. Ireneus ; a horse or horses 
dragging martyrs along the ground illustrates the stories of St. Anastasius, St. 
Martinien and St. Saturniu ; saints trampled upon by horses may be St. Ge- 

2 is. " The anonymous chronicler of Ravenna mentions a town, which he calls 
Ker-is as existing in Armorica in the fifth century. Here ruled a prince called 
Gradlon vawre, that is, Gradlon the Great. Gradlon was the protector of 
Gwennle, the founder of the first abbey established in Brittany." From Long- 
fellow's " Poems of Places." It is said that beneath the waters of the Bay of 
Douaruenez traces of a submerged city can still be seen. 

him to open the gate just as the tide reached the walls. Roused 
from his sleep by the report of the pressing danger, Gradlon, with 
unselfish parental affection, sought his daughter, and then his 
horse, following the fleeing crowd with his daughter en croupe as 

The Plight of King Gradlon. After a Painting by E. Luminais. 

the frightened citizens splashed through the rising tide toward the 
shore. The horse struggled nobly, but being overweighted was 
losing ground every moment, when St. Gwenole, who alone kept pace 
with the king, commanded him to cast Dahut into the rising 
tide, as it was because of her vicious life that this disaster had over- 
whelmed the city. The king, feeling that the saint voiced God's 
will obeyed, and saved himself. 8 The legend is a famous one and is 
celebrated in poetry as well as prose. Tom Taylor in his translation 
of the Ballads of Brittany thus renders a portion of the " Drowning of 
Ker-Is" : 

Awake, Sir King, the gates unspar! 
Kise up, and ride both fast and far ! 
The sea flows over bolt and bar! 

Now curse'd forever mote she be, 

That all for wine and harlotry, 

The sluice unbarred that held the sea. 

"Say, woodman, that wonn'st in the forest green, 
The wild horse of Gradlon hast thou seen 
As he passed the valley-walls between ? " 

" On Gradlon's horse I set not sight, 

But I heard him go by in the dark of the night 

Trip, trep trip, trep, like a fire-flaught white." 

The annexed cut shows the model for the statue which is now in 
place on the Cathedral at Quimper, the work of the sculptor, A. 
Menard, made neces- 
sary by the destruc- 
tion of the original 
statue by the Revo- 
lutionists in 1793. 
Another cut 4 shows 
the church as it exist- 
ed for many years, 
but it now bears a dif- 
ferent aspect, for one 
of the many works 
of restoration and 
completion entrusted 
to Viollet-le-Duc was 
the completion of its 
western spires, in 
] 858, the funds 
being raised by sub- 
icriptions of two- 
sous pieces con- 
; r i b u t e d by the 
frugal peasantry. 
The actual work of 
construction was 
arried out under 
M. Bigot, the archi- 
tect of the Depart- Kin e G'adlon, Quimper, Brittany. A. Menard, Sculptor, 

The mention of Viollet-le-Duc's name gives a reason for intro- 
ducing here a reproduction from a pen-drawing made by him of 

THE LI-GEND or KINO GRADLON. Another story has it that Dahut, being 
eproved by Gradlon for her profligacy, imprisoned him and warned Corentiu 
lever to approach Is again. Coreutin, however, disguised himself as a prince, 
won her love and obtaining the key to the sluice-gates (as above) freed the king 
and let loose the waters upon Is and Dahut. The trampling of Gradlon's horse 
which carried him from the fated city, is still heard at night, and upon a rock 
ailed Garree, near Le Riz, is shown the mark of his hoof. Every year on the first 
light of May, the peasants say that the city, with all its castles and towers, rises 
rom the waters at the first stroke of midnight and sinks again at the twelfth, 
inch was the magnificence of Is, or Ker-is, as it is sometimes called, that Parts 
s said to have derived its name from being equal to Is, Par-Is. The country 
jeople say that they can hear sometimes the church-bells of the submerged city 
'nging with the motion of the current. 

*From Jules Janin's "La Jjretagne." 

JANUARY 26, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


the Romanesque church at Surgeres, France, (twelfth century) 
upon the faQade of which exist two fragments of equestrian sculpture, 
bas-reliefs in niches high up on the wall. 

The Bretons, at once the most superstitious and the most religious 
portion of the French people, have two other curious monuments 
which have interest for us, one the famous Calvary at Plougastel, a 

what marred by the narrowness of the tabernacles in which they are 
placed, the heads and tails of the horses protruding on either side 
in a very awkward manner. A more agreeable, if somewhat bold 

The Calvary at Plougastel, Brittany. 1 

rich mass of crude sculpture, in the round and in the flat, which 
presents scenes from the New Testament which involve more than 
two hundred figures of large size. The equestrian element is here 
represented by the half life-size mounted figures of two centurions 
who balance one another at either end of the middle arm of the 
three-armed or pontifical cross which is the important feature of 
the composition. This calvary is a rallying point for the pilgrimages 
which are incessantly made to and fro over the face of Brittany. It 
was erected in 1602-4, at a time when the province was ravaged by 
a great plague, and was restored in 1867. The other object is also a 
calvary, at Pleyben, which is likewise large but somewhat less elabo- 
rate in treatment. The equestrian figures, here four in number, are 
at the corners of the pedestal on a level with the foot of the cross. 

One of the most ordinary forms of sculptural decoration applied to 
architecture is the representation on the fapade of a cathedral of a 
whole college of saints and holy fathers, or a complete series of the 
departed sovereigns of the kingdom. These are usually bestowed 
each in his own niche, and, as a rule, are pedestrian figures. The 

St. Martin and the Beggar-man, Lucca, Italy. 

and seemingly unstable treatment is to be found on the front of the 
cathedral at Lucca, where, his horse's feet supported on corbels only, 
St. Martin, in the round, is shown in the act of dividing with his 
sword bis meagre cloak that he may give half of it to the beggar-man 
who stands at his stirrup. This work is ascribed to Guidectus of 
Lucca, an artist of the thirteenth century. Unused corbels on the 

Rudolph of Hapsburg, from the 
Front of Strasbourg Cathedral. 
Erwin von Steinbach, Sculptor. 

The Church at Surgeres, France Aft 

Cathedral of Strasbourg affords a variation from the conventional 
treatment, for here, just above and on either side of the main door- 
way, are equestrian figures of King Clovis and Rudolph of Hapsburg, 
while Dagobert holds a corresponding position in a tabernacle on 
the corner buttress and is kept in countenance at the other corner 
by the strangest of companions to be paired off with a mediseval 
king none other than his magnificence Louis XIV, set there not 
as might be supposed during the lifetime of that monarch, a piece of 
the regulation self-glorification, but about 1823. The three others 
are coeval with the church structure. But the effect here is some- 

"From Jules Janin's " La Bretagne." 

2 From " Compositions et Dessins de Vwllet-le-Diic." ,\ 

King Clovis, from the Front of 
Strasbourg Cathedral. Erwin 
von Steinbach, Sculptor. 

>r a Pen-drawing by Viollet-!e-Duc. 2 

opposite side of the arch seem to show that a similar figure once 
occupied or was intended to occupy a corresponding position. 

King Gradlon is not the only one who has mounted to the topmost 
pinnacle of material exaltation : there are a few other instances 
where it has been found worth while to set an equestrian figure as 
high above ground as possible. The most recent instance of this is 
the monument to the Uuke of Brunswick, at Geneva, which is closely 
patterned after the tombs of the Scaligers, at Verona, in this 
particular. But there are others of a slightly elder time which 
should be noted. Why the brewers of Brussels should hold in special 
honor Charles, Duke of Lorraine, can be explained by those familiar 
with the history of the Netherlands in the last century. Possibly 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 688. 

he, during his rule as stadtholder, did the guild some real or trifling 
favor, confirmed a privilege, abated a tax or some such thing. 
Perhaps he was merely a jolly-good-fellow, and liked his cakes and 

ale, and so became a sort of 
patron saint of the craft. At 
any rate, whatever the cause, 

Brussels, bears on its gable top 
an equestrian figure in gilt 
bronze of the Duke modelled by 
the sculptor Jacquet, about 
1854. This is the fourth eques 
trian statue that has been 
placed here. The first was a 
statue in stone of the Elector 
Maximilian Emanuel of Bava- 
ria, the work of the sculptor 
Marc Devos, erected in 1697, 
at a time when the building was 
known as L'Abre d" Or. This 
statue was overthrown by a 
storm and was replaced by 
a reproduction in bronze with 

the inscription, DUX BA 

Detail! of West Front of Lucca Cathedral.' 

SALTJs. In 1752, this statue 

" ave P laee to a bronze Statue .of 

Charles of Lorraine, by Simon, 
a goldsmith of the city. This statue was conceived in the Classic 
style and would pass for a reproduction of Boiichardon's Louis XIV. 
When the French invaded Belgium during the Revolution this 
statue was destroyed and half a century passed before the void was 
filled by the present statue. A model of the statue of the Elector 
of Bavaria exists in the National Museum at Munich. 

Still another misplaced horseman can be seen apparently riding 
over the roofs of the cathedral at Mayence. 

JEAN LEGENDRTC-HERAL (OB HERALD). Born at Montpellier* 1795. Died 
1851. Pupil of Chinard and Kevoil. Principal works : Narcissus Hebe Eury- 
dice, Leda, Psyche, St. Paul and a statue of " Giotto tracing a sheep's head in 
the sand," the latter being in the Louvre. He made a statue of Turgot for the 
Chamber of Peers and one of Laurent de Jussieux for Louis Philippe and many 
portrait busts. 

GUILLAUMF. COUSTOIT. Born at Lyons, 1677. Died 1746. Brother of Nicolas 
Coustou. another well-known sculptor. Studied in Paris under Coysevox; 
gained the grand prize and went to Rome. Some of his best works were made 
for the garden at Marly, including the " Horse Tamers " now at the entrance to 
the Champs Elysc'es. He also executed, among other works a bas-relief of 
" Christ with the Doctors," at Versailles, and statues of Louis XIV and Cardi- 
nal Dubois. In the Louvre, the Salle des Coustou contains his statue of Marie 
Leczinska, and works by his brother and his son Guillaume, who was also a 
sculptor. The elder Guillaume also made a bronze figure of the Ehone for the 
pedestal of Desjardin's equestrian statue of Louis XIV at Lyons which was 
destroyed during the Revolution. 

FRANCOIS DK BONNE. Due de Lesdiguieres, Connetable de France. Born 
1643. He fought on the Protestant side in the civil war which began about 1562 
and obtained the chief command of the Pri.testant army in 1575. He was one of 
those who most effectually aided in placing Henri IV on the throne. In 1608 he 
was made Marshal and Duke and about 1610 commanded the army in Italy 
where he defeated the Spaniards. He abjured Calvinism in 1622 and was made 
Constable of France. Henri IV once said he would acknowledge his own 
inferiority to no captain in Europe except Lesdiguieres. Died 1626. 

Louis XII (called " The Father of his People)." Born at Blois 1462 Suc- 
ceeded his cousin Charles VIII in 1408. Married Anne of Brittany. Conquered 
Milan and (in alliance with the Spaniards) Naples. He was. however, afterwards 
defeated by the Spaniards (with whom he had quarrelled), at the Garighano and 
later by the Holy League and finally forced to evacuate Italy. During his reign 
Brittany was reunited to France. He died in 1515. 

HENRI ALFRED MARIE jArQuF.MART. Born at Paris, 1824. Pupil of P. 
Delaroche and Klagmann. Among his works are an equestrian statue of " The 
General-in-Chief of the army of Italv. 17%" (Salon of 18641 ; statues of 
" Michael Ney, December 7, 1815 ; " " Suleiman Pacha " and " Mahommed-Bey " 
(both for Cairo) ; a bronze group of " A Camel-driver of Asia-Minor " Souvenir 
of Upper Egypt, and many other admirable works portraying animals, in the 
modelling of which he is among the first of living sculptors. He made the two 
Griffins for the Fontaine Saint Michel, at Paris. 

FRANCOIS DOMINIQUE AIME MILHOMME. Born at Valenciennes, 1758. Died 
at Paris, 1823. Pupil of Lebrun. He made many busts and statues among the 
latter being Hoche, Colbert, and Louis XIV, and executed a number of com- 
missions for work on and within public buildings. 

CHARLES VII (" The Victorious)." Son of Charles VI. Born 1403. Became 
kingin 1422. With the help of the Maid of Orleans he reconquered France from 
the English. Died 1461. 

JACQUES C<ErR. A French merchant and able financier, born at Bourges 
about the end of the fourteenth century. He acquired an immense fortune and 
Charles VII made him director of his finances. In 1448 he lent that king 200.000 
crowns of gold. It is stated that he transacted more business than all the other 
merchants of France. Falsely accused of various crimes he was in 1453 fined 
400,000 crowns and banished. He died in exile 145B. His magnificent hotel at 
Bourges is famous as one of the finest monuments of the Middle Ages. 

MADURA HALL, built between 1623-45. " The facade of this hall, like that of 
almost all the great halls in the South of India, is adorned either with yalis 
monsters of the lion type trampling on an elephant or, even more generally by 
a group consisting of a warrior sitting on a rearing horse, whose feet are sup- 
ported on the shields of foot soldiers, sometimes slaying men, sometimes tigers. 
These groups are found literally in hundreds in Southern India, and, as works 
exhibiting difficulties overcome by patient labor, they are unrivalled, so far 
as I know, by anything found elsewhere. As works of art. they are the most 
barbarous, it may be said the most vulgar, to be found in India, and do more to 
shake one's faith in the civilization of the people who produced them than any- 
thing they did in any other departments of art. From Fergusson's " History of 
Indian and Eastern Architecture." 

' From a paper in the Architectural Association Notes. 

'Some authorities say at Lyons, or rather call him, " unr. scutpteur Li/nnnais." 
Joanne's Guides and other authorities say that the Lyons Hotel de Ville was 
erected in 1646-1655 ; burnt in 1674 : restored in 1702 by Mansart ; entirely 
restored by Desjardins about 1861. The statue is spoken of as having been put 
up since this last restoration. 

AMEDEE-RENE MENARD. Born at Nantes, 1805. Pupil of Ramey. He 
made the monument of Rear-Admiral Theodore Le Rey at Pornic ; statues of 
" Haid5e," " Mercury inventing the caduceus," " The Condemned," the 
monument to Billault at Nantes and one to Mgr. Graveraud in the Cathedral of 
Quimper. His native city contains a number of works by him, many of which 
serve to decorate its public buildings. 

RUDOLPH OF HAPSBURG. Emperor of Germany and founder of the House of 
Austria ; born 1218 ; died 1291 ; son of Count Albert IV of Hapsburg ; sought to 
enlarge his patrimony by many wars with the Swifs, Hungarians, Alsatians and 
other German peoples ; chosen King of the Romans and Emperor in preference 
to Alfonso of Castillo and Ottocar of Bohemia in 1273, an election brought about 
by the Archbishop of Mentz as a reward for Rudolph's escort on his journey 
across the Alps, then infested with bandits ; his election led to wars with his 
defeated rivals ; failing in his attempts to restore the imperial power in Italy he 
abandoned his claims upon that country and ceded to the pope a large territory 
saying : " Rome is like a lion's den in the' fable ; I discover the footsteps of those 
who went toward it, but none of those who return : " he put a stop to the build- 
ing of castles by the nobles and in one year razed seventy to the ground. 

CLOVIS. Founder of the Prankish monarchy : born 466 ; died 511 ; was con- 
verted to Christianity by a miracle at a battle near Tolbiac, 496, where he was on 
the point of being overcome by the Alemanni when he thought of his Christian 
wife Clotilda and her God, and falling on his knees cried : " God of Clotilda, give 
me assistance in this hour of need and I confess thy name." and immediately 
the tide of battle turned in his favor, and true to his word Clovis was baptized 
within the year. 

DAGOBERT. King of the Franks; son of Clotaire II ; born 600; died 638 : his 
court rivalled in magnificence that of Constantinople ; revised and published the 
Salic and Ripnarian laws. His is a curious figure to find upon a church for an 
old French chronicler says : " This Solomon of the Franks, given up to lewdness, 
entertained no less than three wives bearing the names of queens, and so many 
concubines that it would be too long to enumerate them." He was buried at 
St. Denis. 

between Maria Theresa and Frederick the Great, by whom he was defeated at 
Czaslau in 1742. In 1744 he forced Frederick to evacuate Bohemia. Married a 
sister of Maria Theresa, and was appointed Governor of the Low Countries. At 
the beginning of the Seven Years' War he was commander of the Anstrians, and 
gained a victory over the Prussians at Breslau in 1757 ; but, having been com- 
pletely defeated in the great battle of Leuthen, in the same year, he resigned 
his command. Died in 1780. 

of " Love Disarmed " and "Aurora." 

[To be continued.! 

[Contributors are requested In send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of cost."] 


[Gelatine print, issued only with the Imperial Edition.! 
SEE article on " Equestrian Monuments." 


HE building contains two waiting and toilet rooms, ticket-office 
and baggage-room, on first lloor. On the second floor there are 
telegraph-offices and sleeping-apartment for night operators. 

The building is built of mountain boulders up to sill line, above this 

of brick. The interior finish is of red-oak. 


THE last number of the Moniteur des Archilectes brings us this 
print just in time to include it amongst the illustrations of the article 
on "Equestrian Monuments." " 


THIS plate is reproduced from the " Tableaux Hlstoriques de la 
Revolution Francaise," in connection with the article on "Equestrian 
Monuments " elsewhere in this issue. 


THIS plate reproduced from RameVs "Le Moyen Age Monumenlale 
et Archeologique " in connection with the article on " Equestrian 
Monuments " elsewhere in this issue. The building is attributed to 
the Lombard kings but belongs to the late eleventh century. 


THIS plate, showing the building as it now exists, is referred to in 
the article on "Equestrian Monuments." 


TAKEN in connection with the print of the building as it existed 
before the post-Revolutionary restorations, this illustration referred 
to in the article on " Equestrian Monuments " elsewhere, affords an 
interesting study. 


653. $fMEI\IG*N IftGHITEGT ,ND BUILDING ]|EWS , J^N. 26 1559 

CCFYHffiHr 1869 BY Til!OR 1C? 

Eeliotype Printing Co.Boston 


Ho. G55. 


S, Jax.26 








>0. 6 5 3 1[MEI\IG5IN H^GHITEGT ^ND BUILDING B^WS , JflN. 26 1559. 


Heliotype Printing CaBostan 

le 14. Deccinbre lyq.l . on 24 Fi-imaire Au 2 " nt de la Repiililique 
















03 aonxaij. Aq '6881 ' 

!HGHITEGT ^ND BUILDING HEWS, Jax 26 1559 BO. 653. 










, Jnx26 1559 }|o. 653. 

26, 1889.] The American Architect and Building Wows. 


Avi&rion. " 


S the work proceeds, the obscure 
hints and indications concerning 
the life of this ancient people 
become more clear and plain. A beau- 
tiful instance of how history, archaeol- 
ogy, and the traditions retained by 
living peoples all contribute in their 
interrelation to reveal a picture of the 
past with graphic fidelity is afforded 
by a certain thread which Mr. Gushing 
followed out in its course hither and 
yon, until it led to the conclusion. 
Briefly it must be stated here. The 
narrations of the early Spaniards men- 
tion a certain pueblo', the " kingdom " 
of Cibola, or Zuni, as containing a pop- 
ulation of so many within and so many 
without the walls. Standing by it- 
self, this statement has been accorded 
no particular significance by historical 
students. But here in these excava- 
tions Mr. Gushing came across frequent 
remains of a different class of dwelling 
than the urban houses, standin^ in 
clusters in the fields, or just outside 
the boundaries of the towns. Then he 
recalled a folk-tale of the Zunis, about 
a maiden who herded turkeys, and belonged to the low-class dwellers 
outside the town. The Zunis to-day have certain persons who, for 
various shortcomings, are compelled to live across the river, outside 
the town, though not now numerous enough to form a distinct com- 
munity. AH these facts combined to bring out certain evidence with 
distinctness: that these peculiarly situated and constructed dwell- 
ings were the habitations of an ultra-mural, low-caste, agricultural 
and herder population, and that domesticated animals were kept by 
the town-dwelling Indians in pre-Columbian days. Among these 
domesticated animals were turkeys, and probably rabbits, and 
perhaps still another very important kind, as we shall see. Mr. 
Gushing has found, in his linguistic investigations of the Zuni 
language, how the past of a people may be recorded in the structure 
of their idiom as plainly as fossil-remains tell the story of the geo- 
logical past, or contain the record of the development of a chain of 
species in the gradual modifications of the evolutionary chain. The 
Zuni tongue has a word for this outcast, ultra-mural population, 
which conveys the moaning of "self-thrust out," or, "cast out by 
their own acts " ; that is, voluntary outcasts. Such a people, bv 
Rome circumstance, some act of desecration perhaps not even inten- 
tional, place a ban upon themselves which forbids either them or 
their descendants to live in contact with those within the walls. A 
permanent outcast class is thus formed. This is quite in accord 
with primitive religious beliefs. It is notable that in Peru there 
was also an outcast agricultural population, and Peru contains many 
resemblances to this primitive North American culture. It is also 
notable that the Sudras, the low-caste population of India, are tillers 
of the ground. 

In excavating the remains of one of these ultra-mural houses, a 
group of animal figurines was found buried together. They were 
.crudely, but realistically made animals with long ears and without 
horns. The Zunis have to-day the practice of making figures of 
sheep, horses, and other domestic animals, which they sacrifice for 
an increase of herd. As these ruins were unquestionably pre-Colum- 
bian, and as, of course, there were no sheep here in those times, the 
problem was: What were these effigies meant for? Their resem- 
blance to the llama was so marked as to be noted at first sight by 
Doctors ten Kate and Wortman and other observers. This, taken 
in connection with other evidence, led Mr. Gushing to the belief 
that among the domesticated animals of these ancient people there 
was a species of the llama family. The other evidence was found in 
the numerous petrographic inscriptions abounding in the South- 
west, in the traditions of the Zunis, and in the narratives of the 
early explorers, which speak of a domesticated animal answerino- to 
this description among the Pueblos of that day. To be conclusive, 
however, it needs the finding of the bones of the species among the 
ancient remains something that has not yet been done 'and, 
while the testimony of the old Spanish explorers is strong, it is 
notable that they do not mention seeing the animals themsefves, so 
that at that time they must already have become rare. Mr. Gushing 
has, however, accumulated an important mass of testimony weighty 
enough to justify laying it before the scientific world to await' the 
time when the required links shall be found, encoura^in" others to 
look in the same direction. 

It is well known that North America was the home of the au- 
chinea, or llama family, the ancestor of the Old World camel, and 
the fossil-remains of numerous species, large and small, have been 
found by paleontologists, while no fossils have, I believe, yet been 
found in South America, the present home of the family, limited to 
four species there. Two of these species are domesticated there, 
and have been since prehistoric times the llama, the only beast of 
burden that existed among the aboriginal population of the New 

World ; and the alpaca, which was bred for its wool. As these 
species are, therefore, comparatively new in South America, and as 
it has been something of a puzzle for naturalists to account for their 
being there ; and as, moreover, North America was the home of the 
family, it is not unreasonable to suppose that some one or more of 
the species of auchinea were already domesticated- among the ancient 
populations of this part of the world; that they were taken to South 
America by the gradual spread of the primitive cultures thither in 
very remote ages ; that the other species differentiated there from 
the original stock in consequence of escape from domesticity ; that 
meanwhile, in North America, the climatic changes wrought by the 
advance of the glacial period drove the various species of the family 
into new environments, where the conditions proved unfavorable 
and brought about their extinction. Some may have remained in 
domesticity, and possibly lingered here and there till about the time 
of the Spanish conquest, when descriptions of them were heard by 
the invaders of Cibola. As serious epidemics are often known to 
break out among domestic animals, it is not unlikely that something 
of the sort may have swept the last of them from existence, which 
would account for the fact that none of them were seen bv the 

One day Mr. Gushing, Don Carlos, Ramon and I, with a Mexican 
laborer, proceed to explore the great cave in the face of Central 
Butte, near the town of Tempe. By its position Mr. Gushinc* deter- 
mines it to have been the " northern place of sacrifice " "for the 
neighboring ancient town of Los Hornos. The butte lifts its head 
boldly from the plain, forming a lofty cliff. In its precipitous face 
the dark opening of the cave shows like the deeply recessed 
entrance of a Gothic cathedral, the pointed arch something like 
forty feet or more from the base. The customary slope of detritus, 
worn away from the rock by the slow friction of the ao-es as they 
pass, lies at the foot of the butte. Ascending this, and standing at 
the mouth of the cavern, we survey the surrounding country. The 
prospect is enchanting. It is the height of spring-time, the 9th of 
March. Verdant fields rich with young grain spread for miles 
around, embroidered by long lines of trees in full leaf, and silvery 
threads of irrigating-water gleaming in the sun. Here and there a 
house may be seen almost concealed beneath a mound of leafage, and 
not far away stands the clustered town, accented bv puffs of" steam 
from the train just arrived. 

Don Carlos leaves us and drives into the town, regretful that 
routine errands prevent him from sharing our explorations, and the 
rest of us turn to the lesser mysteries of the cave where in their 
devoutness the worshippers of "perhaps many centuries ao-o have 
stored the symbols of their faith that shall help illuminate the 
understanding of the seekers after knowledge of what man is as they 
delve in the soil where his being is rooted the nature of primitive 

1 Continued from page 34, No. 682. 

The cave is a great crevice between the two monstrous masses of 
rock which lean against each other, and form the mass of the butte. 
It narrows gradually and runs in for something like fifty feet or 
more, far enough to make the light very dim at the farther end. 
I he floor slopes upward from the entrance at a heavy grade. The 
air is dry, and at a considerable distance outside the entrance may be 
perceived the odor peculiar to caverns in this country, coming from 
the droppings of the bats and the terrestrial rodents that inhabit it. 
The rat-like juaneitos have brought in the joints of the cholla cactus in 
great abundance. As this cactus bristles with its sharp spines like a 
porcupine, it is a marvel how they ever manage to transport it 
without lacerating their mouths or making pin-cushions of themselves 
after the style of St. Sebastian with his arrows, as portrayed by the 
old masters. Throughout Arizona the floors of such caves are found 
covered with a deep bed of chollas. But wherever white men have 
entered and the prospectors for mineral have been about every- 
where they have almost invariably set these chollas on fire, for the 
sake of enjoying the spectacle of seeing the animals scamper out of 
the place in terrified swarms. The chollas are exceedingly in- 
flammable, and blaze like tinder. The fire communicates ?o the 
accumulated guano, and smoulders down beneath the surface to a 
considerable depth. Thus, when the cave is a sacrificial one. as is 
apt to be the case, great quantities of precious relics are heedlessly 
destroyed to afford a moment's diversion for unthinking men. 

This cave had, of course, shared the usual fate. But several 
months before, when Mr. dishing had visited it, he had found a 
number of interesting sacrificial relics, and the indications were that 
a systematic search would reveal rich finds. So Ramon and the 
laborer took pick and shovel and began to dig over the floor from 
the entrance inward, and Mr. Gushing and I grubbed in promisin"-- 
looking corners. The floor was covered with the broken fragments 
of rock that had been falling from the roof and sides throiurh the 
ages, covering it to a depth of three or four feet. All this was im- 
bedded in guano and a surface of loose ashes. Our search was soon 
rewarded, for relics abounded everywhere. How long the cave must 
have been used for sacrificial purposes cannot be conjectured. The 
relics must have existed by thousands before the fire, for savages 
never disturb a sacrificial place, even of an enemy, fearing to provoke 
the hostility of the gods and spirits that guard the spot. As it was, 
we found them in large quantities ; both in charred fragments, in 
whole examples more or less charred, and many that had escaped 
the fire entirely, protected by their depth, or some intervening rock. 
The relics were chiefly sacrificial cigarettes, made of cane; also 
prayer-wands and plumes, and sacred tablets. Great masses of 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 683. 

string and fragments of cloth were found, gnawed from the sacrifices 
by the juancitos to make their nests. Many of the cigarettes were 
wrapped with miniature breech-clouts, nicely woven of cotton, some 
of them with bits of turquoise and other ornaments attached. Some 
of the cigarettes were in bundles of four, others of six, according to 
the nature of the sacrifice, or, perhaps, of the rank of the man 
making it. Some were still filled with tobacco, which, when a bit 
was burned, had the familiar smell. In spite of the great age, the 
dryness of the air and, perhaps, the quality of the guano imbedding 
them, the uncharred relics were mostly as fresh in appearance as 
when new, even the woven cotton looking clean and white. 

In these ancient cigarettes of cane, we find the prototypes of both 
the pipe and the cigarette. They are always made to include the 
joint of the cane, which is punctured with a small hole. The hollow 
on one side of the joint corresponds to the bowl of the pipe, being 
filled with tobacco, while that on the other side answers for the stem. 
What a job we had ! Our excavations filled the place with the 
dust of ashes and finely pulverized guano, which was perfectly dry, 
and the smell of ashes and guano mingled made a horrible odor. We 
were nearly suffocated ; I felt myself growing sick and sicker, but 
in the enthusiasm of the search I hardly heeded it until the 
lengthened shadows, creeping over the plains as we looked from the 
entrance, warned us that the day was nearly ended, and we had 
nearly ten miles to go for supper. Don Carlos came with the team, 
and we emerged in about the most disreputable-looking condition 
imaginable, with hair and clothing filled with the malodorous dust, 
and faces grimy with it. But our treasure-trove was worth it ; 
besides many other valuable specimens, it included, counting what 
were found the next day when Mr. Cushing completed the explora- 
tion of the cave, over 1600 of the sacrificial cigarettes. 

Before we start for the camp, Mr. Gushing makes a reconnaissance 
of the butte and comes across a smaller cave. A rattlesnake is 
coiled up at the entrance, and above he sees a pretty tip of fur 
hanging from the edge of the shelf of a sort of niche. " Ah, a Pima 
sacrifice ! " he exclaims mentally, and he is about to slay Mr. Snake 
and lay hands on the ethnological specimen, when the latter stirs 
and disappears, and in its place appears the other end, the head, of 
one of the most beautiful and most avoided of quadrupeds, for it was 
the tail of a sleeping skunk ! As there is a chance that the cave 
may contain some real specimens, he concludes not to spoil it by the 
consequences of irritating the pole-cat, and he leaves both the occu- 
pants in peace. 

We ride back in the mild evening air, in the white light of a 
wonderful silver sunset that seems like warm, glowing moonlight. 
The side-camp is now at Los Hornos, where the men are engaged in 
excavations; Dr. Wortman greets us with the news of an important 
find, in the shape of a fragment of a small copper bell, the first piece 
of metal-work discovered by the Expedition. A few days later a 
complete little bell of the same metal is found in the same place : 
peculiarities of its workmanship tell clearly an important story which 
Mr. Cushing interprets in the light of his knowledge of Zuni silver- 
smithing, in which he served an apprenticeship. It tells that it was 
of pre-Columbian origin, that the art of fusing, smelting and solder- 
ing metal was known, and that, while theirs was essentially a stone- 
age culture they were at the dawning of a metal-age, and that the art 
of metal-working practised to-day by the Zuiiis is, as they have 
claimed, of native origin handed down from ancient times, and not 
acquired from the Spaniards. 

Among the important investigations made by Mr. Cushing is that 
of their system of irrigation, which was both elaborate and exten- 
sive. The lines of their canals are to be traced for miles and miles 
over the plains, and a map of the canals supplying the Salado group 
of ruins is made by Mr. Garlick. Sections of the canals are ex- 
cavated to reveal the method of their construction, which proves to 
have been peculiar. The canals contained a smaller channel running 
alon" as a sort of groove in the centre, so that a cross-section 
resembled in outline that of a vessel amidships, the smaller channel 
corresponding to the keel. The purpose of this was apparently to 
secure the maintenance of a flow in the smaller channel when there 
was not water enough available from the river to give a flow in the 
large channel, the narrowness of the former giving a depth and a 
velocity, with the minimum of evaporation, such as would have beer 
impossible with the shallow flow in the flat bottom of a broad cana 
without this supplementary device. It appears likely, also, that the 
canals were used for navigation hy rafts of reeds, corresponding to 
the balsas in use in the Colorado River and the Gulf of California 
to-day, as well as in Peru and Bolivia. So long has been the time 
since these canals were in use that in many places they are filled by 
the action of the elements to a level with the surface of the country, am 
it was not until the growth of the vegetation of spring-time that their 
course could be traced, being then marked by lines of bare ground 
between masses of flowering plants caused by the gravelly banks 
and the richer soil between and on either side. These lines were 
shown beautifully in some photographs. 

In the excavations of the canals it was found that the supply 
ditches led off just above the level of the supplementary, or keel 
canal. To prevent the wearing away of the bank and consequen 
shoaling at the point of junction, the acute angle at the branch wa 
hardened by burning it under a hot brush fire, being baked to a 
coarse terra-cotta, and a projection from the opposite bank to deflec 
the water into the branch channel was similarly treated. 



HOUGH Rodin now began to earn a 
little more money, and was pleased 
with the change in the character of 
his vocation, his troubles were by no 
means at an end ; in fact, the worst one 
was about to begin. If he had endured 
many annoyances during the past six 
years, he had at the same time enjoyed a 
large amount of pleasure in the pursuit 
of his studies. They had enlarged and 
deepened his artistic insight, sharpened 
his sensibilities, given greater authority 
to his instincts, and begun to formulate 
an exacting judgment so far as his own 
work was concerned. All this had be- 
come a force which he hardly realized. 
He had made great progress : he was 

sculptor ; young, but going at a great pace over a safe route, 
and free from any serious obstacle. He had constantly worked 
'rom life in his own studio, always seeking the finest points of his 
art, the harmonious arrangement of masses, and the severest 
sculpturesque effects; working slowly, thinking much, observing 
clearly, and trying to reproduce his model with exactness in all its 
outlines, interior and exterior. It was his only and his sole way of 
jetting happiness endeavoring to make good sculpture. But when 
le began with Belleuse he found that the latter's method of produc- 
_ng sculpture was entirely different; that the main object was to 
ulease the uncultivated, often vulgar, fancy of the commercial world. 
To accomplish this, the living model was dispensed with, haste took 
the place of thought and observation, a bad style of modelling was 
practised, and a manner of finishing equally reprehensible. To 
Rodin this was unpleasant and injurious. All that he had so pain- 
iully acquired during the past six years was now to be made subser- 
vient to this method simply to gain his daily bread. He regards the 
:ime spent with his new employer as having been of great injury* to 
liim as an artist, and that, had it not been for the intense urgency 
of his temperament and the persistent habit of working at home 
from life, it would have ruined him. The advantages of increased 
Facility in handling clay, which he acquired with Belleuse, "were 
nothing," he says, " in comparison to the free and healthy develop- 
ment of his own instincts." Of some of his experiences during the 
seven years with Belleuse, Rodin observes: " Though I was making 
poor sculpture for Belleuse, I was always thinking to myself about 
the composition of figures, and this helped me later on. I carried 
to the work I did for him the result of my study at home. He occa- 
sionally praised me, though not much or often, and rarely, if ever, 
criticised. I knew he liked what I did. He was too much of a 
business man to praise much, for he did not wish to raise my wages. 
He was no common man, was very intelligent, understood his own 
kind of work, and was lucky to have me for the price he paid. I 
think, in sentiment, Belleuse was an artist. He had good ideas of 
arrangement, a pretty correct eye, and composed well, though he 
had never been able to study. He could make a sketch that no one 
could finish as well as myself, and he did not always know this. He 
was a man of his day in sculpture. Nothing that I ever did for him 
interested me." 

In 1864-5, Rodin ventured to carry to the Salon " The Broken 
Nose," but it was refused. This was a blow as cruel as it was unjust. 
It hurt his pride so much that he did not try again to exhibit any- 
thing at the Salon. It cut off whatever benefit these exhibitions 
might have brought him, and prevented all professional recognition. 
Its effect, for a long time, condemned him to the life of a workman. 
He had, so far, been unable to form any relationship that could 
help him along in the world, either as a man or as an artist. The 
refusal of the Salon to accept the mask deprived him of his last and 
only hope. Save for a devoted wife, he was utterly alone. 

But all this did not discourage him. He continued to work harder 
than ever, if such a thing were possible, and in his own way. The 
love of his idea of sculpture, without any disturbing consciousness 
that he possessed any especial merit as an artist, pushed him on. 
His rooms were filled with sketches of every description, with 
plaster-casts of " The Venus of Milo," " The Dying Gladiator," and 
other Greek plasters, and always a clay-figure under-way larger than 
life. His moments of deepest despair were caused by his never 
knowing whether or not he was making progress, while his burning 
ambition was to make good sculpture to produce a figure as 
thoroughly modelled as " The Broken Nose." 

" At my work," he says, " I was never sad. I always had pleasure 
in it. My ardor was immense. I was always studying. Study 
embraces it all. Those who saw my things pronounced them bad. 
I never knew what a word of encouragement was. The little terra- 
cotta heads and figures that I exposed in shop-windows never sold. 
So far as the world went, I was shut out from it, nor did I know 
that it could be of use to me. I went to the Salon and admired the 
works of Perraud and other leading sculptors, and thought, as ever, 
that they were great masters, though in their sketches I saw that 
they were not strong. In looking at the hands they made, I thought 
them so fine that I never should be able to equal them. I was all 

1 All rights reserved. Continued from page 29, No. 682. 



The American Architect and Building News. 


this time working from nature, but could not make my hands as 
good as theirs, and I could not understand why. But when I got 
my hands all right from life, I then saw that theirs were not well made, 
nor were they true. I now know that those sculptors worked from 
plaster-casts taken from nature. Then I knew nothing about casting 
from nature ; I only thought of copying my model. I don't believe 
those sculptors knew what was good modelling and what was not, or 
could get out of nature all there was in it. As my memory was 
good, I copied in those days, at home, the pictures I admired at the 
Louvre. Many of the things I made in my studio were better than 
anything I have since executed, and, had I been less negligent, some 
of them might have been preserved. I would now give many 
thousands of francs if I could have some of those figures. Since 
then I have known the value of good friends, but, if I could have 
had even one in those days, it might have been a world to me. Then 
I did not know that my work had any merit." 

The thousand and one encouragements and helps that young artists 
usually receive, and without which few of them would ever succeed 
to any recognizable degree, Rodin knew nothing about. He never 
came into close and instructive contact with any master, never 
thought of asking one to see and criticise his work, because he sup- 
posed them too great to be approached by humble students like him- 
self. Besides, he felt that by hard work he could carry to fruition 
the expression he had used to his mother "I will work it through 

When other young sculptors were receiving medals at the Salnn, 
and were being encouraged by the government with prizes and commis- 
sions, Rodin thought that they must be very happy, though he did 
not envy them or repine at his own humble lot. His world and the 
world around him were wholly distinct from each other. 

When the Franco-German War broke out work with Belleuse 
came to an end, and Rodin applied himself harder than ever to the 
pursuit of his studies. He was then living in the Montmarte 
quarter, and had a studio in the Rue Hermul, very near the city- 
wall. Like every other able-bodied citizen of Paris, he joined the 
National Guard, and served the hours required of him as a corporal. 
He had no money, food and fuel soon became scarce, and misery, 
cold, and hunger were almost unendurable. They were at first glad 
to eat horse-meat, and at last a small piece of hardly eatable bread 
was all they had. To make two busts in terra-cotta of the officers 
of his battalion, for six dollars each, was a veritable godsend. 

Fortunately for Paris, the war came to an end, the city was 
supplied with food, and Rodin managed to get money enough before 
the Commune began to start him for London, where he hoped 
to find work, though he knew no one in that city. As his old 
employer, Belleuse, was in Brussels, Rodin took that way of reach- 
ing his destination, thinking that he might be again employed. In 
this he was successful, and he began for the second time to put into 
shape the sketches of this enterprising sculptor. After he had been 
at work for a few months at the extravagant salary of thirty cents 
an hour, Belleuse made an exhibition of his things, and Rodin, also, 
put some of his own terra-cotta heads and figures in a shop-window 
in the same street where those of Belleuse were, but without the slightest 
idea of competing with him. He soon learned, however, of the 
danger of even a similitude of competition with a business sculptor. 
When the next pay-day came round, Belleuse parentally suggested 
to Rodin that it would be a good idea for him to rest awhile. 

Although no reference was made by Belleuse to the two exhibi- 
tions, Rodin saw the point. It was a discharge, and the workman 
accepted it, though he was considerably surprised. Nor was it very 
agreeable, for he had just sent all the money lie had to Paris, save 
ten dollars ; he was in a strange land, had not enough to proceed to 
London, no prospect of work in Brussels, and only this small sum to 
depend upon ; and even this had come from Antwerp, in payment 
for some terra-cottas which he had sent there before the war. With 
the ten dollars Rodin laid in a stock of provisions, a good ham being 
the chief reliance, and determined to work for himself and do a little 
waiting for events. 

In the meantime Belleuse had made a successful sale of his works, 
while Rodin had not sold anything. The heads and figures that he 
had made for Belleuse sold for many thousand per cent more than 
they had cost him, and it puzzled Rodin to think that he should be 
discharged by an employer who was making such large profits on so 
small an investment. In about three weeks Rodin had consumed his 
store of food and was wondering what to do next, when he encoun- 
tered a Brussels sculptor, named Van Rosbourgh, who had some 
talent for making figures of infants, and who had worked for Belleuse 
in Paris before the war. Finding Rodin unemployed hfi proposed 
that they should form a partnership for the purpose of executing 
some large works of sculpture that he could get to do from an archi- 
tect who was erecting some public buildings in the city. Rodin 
agreed to this proposition, on the conditions that he should sign no 
contracts, but share equally in the profits. As it soon appeared that 
Van Rosbourgh was a good-for-nothing drunkard, as well as a worse 
than useless assistant in the studio, Rodin dispensed with his 
services, kept him out of the studio as much as possible, and did all 
the work himself. 

This sculpture consisted of two large groups for the outside of the 
Money Exchange, and two large caryatides for the inside. For the 
King's and Ducal Place and the conservatory, each, two large bas- 
reliefs, and other decorative figures for private buildings. Rodin 

went at his task with vigor, and pushed it along with an untirincr 
enthusiasm. His models, made partly from life, were four feet high" 
or one-third the size of which they were executed in stone. 

The Money Exchange sculpture, Rodin learned afterwards, had 
been promised to Belleuse, but Van Rosbourgh had sufficient 
influence to get it away from him. He also learned that the fact of 
his being a Frenchman was the real reason why all his work was 
given to the company to do. The prices they received were very 
moderate, and though Rodin worked very fast he could succeed in 
gaining merely ordinary wages. 

In 1874, soon after the completion of the Brussels commissions, 
they were engaged to go to Antwerp, to make a monument 1 in com- 
memoration of J. F. Loos, a Burgomaster. 

The commission for this structure had been given to a rich ship- 
owner, who had the ambition to pose as a sculptor. He agreed to 
pay the two sculptors two thousand dollars for making the plaster 
models of five figures, life-size. But Rodin, thinking it a good 
opportunity for the credit of all concerned, to do some extra fine 
statues, decided to make them full-size, or nine feet. Unfortunately 
he was throwing pearls before swine, and received the reward often 
meted out in payment for generous actions, for the contractor would 
only pay fourteen, of the twenty hundred dollars promised ; though 
he was very willing to put his name on the monument, as its author. 
Nor did Rodin's annoyances begin or end here, and of them he savs : 
" I made the figures as I pleased, as I did everything I ever made, 
but our employer did not like them. He wanted them in the 
Rubens style of sculpture, and he would come to the studio when I 
was absent he did not dare to come when I was there and oblige 
Van Rosbourgh to alter them, to their great injury. I left the'm 
hardy and vigorous, but Van Rosbourgh's changes, and the wretched 
way that they were executed in stone, have made them round, heavy 
and lifeless. I was so disgusted with this that I lost all interest in 
the figures, and never went near them while they were being cut. 
Miserably as this was done, the workman gained more money for 
what they did than I got for the models. Although I was in feeble 
health, a severe cough making my nights wretched, I worked on 
those figures with the greatest ardor from a decorative point-of-view, 
and it was while I was making the figure of the sailor that I was 
struck with its resemblance to the statues of Michael Angelo, though 
I had not had him in my mind. The impression astonished me, and 
I wondered what should cause it. I had always admired Michael 
Angelo, but I saw him at a great distance. My studies had been a 
blind search after the movement of figures, and in making this one, I 
was, for the first time, impressed with its resemblance to the com- 
positions of the great Florentine. I tried to understand and explain 
it to myself, but could not. My interest and curiosity were greatly 
awakened, and to satisfy my mind of the reality of this resemblance, 
and to confirm my hope of its depth and value, either as the result 
of my long years of effort, or as the effect of my admiration for him, 
I made a lot of sketches to see if I could get the same character, but 
without success." 

As badly as the figures on the monument were executed in stone, 
they produced sufficient effect in Antwerp, upon the public, to cause 
it to suspect that they were not the handiwork of the person whose 
name was upon the structure. This suspicion grew to such propor- 
tions that he went to Van Rosbourgh and earnestly advised him to 
get rid of Rodin. " But how can I do it ? " said the latter, " he is a 
very valuable man." " Easy enough," answered the disturbed ship- 
owner, " Don't give him any more work." The suggestion was 
potent, the partnership was dissolved and Rodin, again the object of 
brutal treatment, returned to his old studio in Brussels, at HI Rue 
Sans-Souci, and began, with the little money he had saved by the 
greatest economy, " The Age of Brass." Knowing a captain, con- 
nected with the Belgian War School, Rodin asked him to send to his 
studio some of his young soldiers that he might select a model. Of 
the eight or ten thus placed at his disposal, he selected a Flemish 
youth, of twenty-two years of age, named Neyt, a fine noble-hearted 
boy, full of fire and valor. T. H. BARTLETT. 

(To be continued.) 


. TIT HE annual agitation of the Massachu- 
I setts lumber dealers in favor of legisla- 
tion giving to material-men an absolute 
lien without notice to the owner and irrespec- 
tive of payments made by him to the contrac- 
tor, or, as they ingeniously put it, the repeal 
of the " law requiring notice," has begun 
again ; and a more vigorous effort than 
usual is being made, by the subscription of 
money and the circulation of petitions, to 
make that impression on the Legislature 
which previous efforts in this direction have 
failed to produce. For a number of years 
past the lumber dealers have petitioned the Legislature for such a 
law, invariably without success ; and there is little danger of this 
year's movement proving successful ; but it would be well for owners, 
contractors, architects and the public generally to keep an open eye 
upon the lumber dealers' movement, and be prepared, if necessary, 

1 See the American Architect for June 25, 1887. 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 683. 

England States, by the great commercial, industrial and building 
communities of New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio, in fact of every 
State and Territory in this country, except those mentioned above, 
and take its building laws from the new and thinly settled territories 
of Arizona and New Mexico, is preposterous and altogether unlikely 
to prevail. 

LTo be continued.l 

A CHURCH MOVED BY A TREE ROOT. The foundation of a church 
in San Lins, Cal., has been shifted seven inches by the roots of eucalyp- 
tus trees, and the latter are therefore to be cut down. The trees are 
perfect giants, their tops reaching thirty feet above the church's steeple. 
Cleveland Leader. 

to resist the bill by organized effort. Hardly any scheme 
could be devised more unjust or inequitable in itself, or more likely 
to injure the interests of all persons engaged in building opera- 
tions, than this plan of putting material on a par with labor, and 
giving an absolute lien to both. 

Owners of real estate, of course, will object, because it would 
compel them, without any means of self-protection, to run the risk of 
paying for the material that goes into their buildings, twice over. 
Practically, the large owners, capitalists and trustees, who would be 
apt to employ legal advice before building, would not be the ones to 
suffer ; for they could and would protect themselves either by exact- 
ing of the contractor heavy bonds with responsible sureties, or they 
would withhold until the end of the job a much larger proportion of 
the contract money than is now customary. So far as the owners of 
real estate are concerned, it is the men of moderate means who build 
houses and stores for themselves to occupy, upon whom the burden 
of the proposed legislation would mainly fall. 

Contractors, however, would suffer heavily. The smaller ones 
would be driven out of business entirely ; those possessed of moderate 
capital would not be able to swing so many contracts as under the 
present system ; and a great part of the business, that relating to 
large buildings, at least, would tend to concentrate itself in the 
hands of the few builders possessed of sufficient capital or credit to 
get along without large advances on their contracts, or who could 
furnish good security. They would also suffer by reason of the 
undue power which the material-men would have over them if any 
dispute should arise as to the quality of the material furnished : dis- 
advantageous and inequitable settlements could be easily forced by 
the material-men, by threats of stopping the advances by putting on 
a lien. 

This whole question concerns the architect also; for although he 
has no pecuniary interest in the matter, yet if, as would inevitably 
be the result of this legislation, the cost of building houses should, in 
many cases, far exceed the estimated sum, the blame would, rightly 
or wrongly, be thrown upon the architect, and he would be censured 
for selecting irresponsible contractors, or permitting unscrupulous 
sub-contractors to furnish material. 

We think that on the whole and in the long run, the material-men 
themselves would not gain. Those among them who want the 
privilege of selling goods to an obviously irresponsible contractor 
might, perhaps, save a debt here and there ; but the general result 
to material-men, as a class, would not be beneficial. Anything that 
tends to increase the cost of building must tend to diminish in like 
proportion the amount of it; and probably the new business methods, 
which the change would necessitate, would compel material-men 
either to give longer credits, or to waive their lien. Furthermore, it 
is fair to assume that any material-man who should make a practice 
of selling goods to irresponsible contractors, then lie by without 
giving notice to the owner, lulling him into paying out the contract 
money, and then jump upon him with a lien when the building was 
done and the money all paid, would not get extensive employment 
from the architects' offices. 

The only people pushing the matter are, curiously enough, the 
lumber dealers. Why these people alone among material-men should 
be so persistent in their demand for this change is a little difficult to 
understand, unless it be that the business methods of the lumber 
trade are particularly lax. At a two-days' hearing before the House 
Judiciary Committee, last year, where the lumber dealers were out 
in force, the two most prominent facts brought out were the 
alleged desire on their part to drive the cheap contractor out of 
business, and the wholly mistaken idea that the legislation, such 
they demand, is common in this country. Their real object is, of 
course, not to drive out the irresponsible contractors, but to do all 
the business they can with them, and then, through the intervention 
of the State, make innocent third parties pay for their materials 
twice over. 

Nor has such legislation commended itself to the judgment of 
legislators in other States of this country. In only five States, viz., 
Maryland, Delaware, Kansas, Missouri and Minnesota and seven 
Territories, has such a law been enacted ; and in some of these there 
are qualifying provisions for the protection of owners. In Pennsyl- 
vania, New Jersey, and, we believe, also in Virginia, similar laws 
have, at various times, been upon the statute books, but have been 
repealed. In none of the States and Territories in which the lumber 
dealers' scheme obtains, is the collection of debts facilitated by any 
right of attachment on mesne process such as we in New England are 
familiar with. The claim of the lumber dealers that the great State 
of Massachusetts should ignore the essential principles of right and 
justice, disregard all the precedents furnished by the rest of the New 


TI7II ERE has been lately, at the 
J^> Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, 
a collection of engravings, etch- 
er ings and wood-cuts by Albert Diirer, 
\ which remained on view until the 
middle of January. For an oppor- 
tunity to study many of the prints, 
the public was indebted to Mr. Henry 
F. Sewall, of New York, and the rest 
were drawn from the Gray Collection 
_^ of Engravings belonging to Harvard 

r College, but now in the custody of 
the Art Museum. The admirable 

annotated catalogue prepared by Mr. 
Koehler, Curator of the Print De- 
partment, records 275 numbers, and 
among them eight original draw- 
ings by Diirer, from the Collection 
von Franck, lent by Mr. F. Meder, 
of New York. We have heard of 
"original" paintings by the great 
German artist being in the possession 
of some of our highly favored fellow- 
countrymen, but here were some au- 
drawings which are accepted by such 

horities as Heller, Thausing and Ephrussi for our inspection, 
ey include a " Portrait of a Woman " ; a " Head of the Virgin " ; 


a study for the left arm of Eve, for the painting of " Adam and 
Eve " ; one for the feet of an apostle in the picture of " The Assump- 
tion of the Virgin," and three studies, in pen-and-ink, washed with 
color, for the details of the portrait of Charlemagne (now at Nurem- 
berg), showing the Imperial crown and orb, and a part of the sword 
of thc^ mighty Emperor. Among the prints were to be found all of 
Durer's masterpieces, his " Great " and " Little Passion," his 
"Apocalypse," his "Life of the Virgin," his "Adam and Eve," 
"Melancholy," "Knight, Death and the Devil," "St. Jerome in his 
Cell," and " Great " and " Little Fortune," with other prints familiar 
enough and many more not often seen. 

One of (he most remarkable things was the " Arch of Honor," or 
" Triumphal Arch," designed by Diirer in honor of the Emperor 
Maximilian, an immense drawing which was engraved upon ninety- 
two blocks of various sizes, measuring, when put together, nine feet 
wide by ten-and-one-half feet high. Impressions from but thirty-six 
of the blocks were exhibited, but there was a modern (photome- 
chanical) reproduction of the whole arch, reduced in size. Un- 
fortunately, however, this so folded as to hide a portion 
we suppose because of want of space. This " Arch " was drawn 
upon wood from Durer's sketches, mainly, it is supposed, by Hans, 
Albert's brother, and Hails Springinklee. It was cut by Hieronymus 
Andrea, and is dated 1515. The work was intended to represent a 
Roman triumphal arch, but its style is that of the period of the early 
German Renaissance, and it is covered with fantastic and symbolic 
ornamentation, while some of the details recall Venetian architec- 
ture. The arch has three gateways. Above the central one (the 
" Porch of Honor and Might ") is the genealogical tree, reaching 
back to Troy, of the Emperor; while over the side-gates (called of 
" Praise " and " Nobility," respectively) are twenty-four scenes from 
the life of Maximilian ; and the arch, also, bears representations of his 
predecessors and the princes with whom he was allied, with a pro- 
fusion of other figures and coats-of-arms. The inscriptions and ex- 
planatory text are by Stabius, the Emperor's historiographer and 
poet-laureate, and the whole is a marvel of minute precision and 
"xuberant fancy, quite impossible to describe, but worthy of the most 

Intimately connected with this arch 

careful examination and study, 
are the ~ 
Hans '. 

pieces, of " The Siege of a City," with its'representation'oYa fortified 
mediaeval town towards which is advancing an enemy's army, its 
advance guard already in close combat with some of the besieged, 
should be noticed. Look, too, at the background of the little "St. 
Anthony," supposed to show the city of Nuremberg, with the hi"h 
roofs of its quaint half-timbered houses guarded by castle towers. 
The saint, free for a time from besetting visions of foul fiend and 
lovely seducing woman, is here quietly studying his prayer-book ; 
near by his staff has been stuck in the ground and from below its 

double-cross hangs a bell, signifying the power of the saint to banish 
evil spirits. Another most finely executed landscape, with buildino-s, 
may be seen in the " St. Eustace " (generally, but mistakenly, called 
'St Hubert"), Durer's largest plate; and there are wonderful 
glimpses of distant cities crowning rocky hillsides, or slopino- gently 
to some calm river-shore, in many others of his prints. For 
examples of his marvellously fine and firm decorative drawing see 
the " Coat-of-Arms with the Skull," the superb "Coat-of-Arms"with 
a Cock," and several similar plates. Not all of our readers, perhaps, 
know that Diirer, who in the universality of his genius, recalls 
Leonardo, was a competent architect, though he designed little, nor 
is it known that he ever practised. He wrote upon architecture, also 

JANUARY 2G, 1889.] 

TJie American Architect and Building News. 


a book on fortification, and, in the manuscript works he left behind 
him, may be found extracts from Vitruvius, reproductions of old 
capitals, plans for the construction of the cupola of St. Peter's at 
Home, and various other plans and illustrations. 


NEW YORK, N. ., January 17, 1889. 


Dear Sirs, Accompanying; is a synopsis of the proceedings of 
the meeting of the Committees on Consolidation of the A. I. A. and 
W. A. A. held on January 7th, 8th, and 9th. 

Pursuant to the resolutions adopted at the late conventions of the 
American Institute of Architects and of the Western Association of 
Architects,'the committees appointed by the two societies, met on 
January 7th, at the rooms of the American Institute in the Welles 
Building, New York. 

There were present, on behalf of the Institute, Mr. Littell, Chair- 
man, and Mr. E. H. Kendall of New York, Mr. A. Stone of Provi- 
dence, and Mr. James G. Cutler of Rochester. Mr. D. H. Burnham 
of Chicago, the fifth member of the Institute Committee, being una- 
voidably absent, had sent a letter setting forth his views. 

The Committee representing the Western Association consisted of 
Mr. 1). Adler, Chairman, of Chicago, Mr. W. W. Carlin of Buffalo, 
Mr. John W. Root of Chicago, Mr. A. Van Brunt of Kansas City, 
and Mr. George B. Ferry of Milwaukee, all of whom were present. 

On coming together informally, Mr. Alder gave a statement of the 
position of the committee in its representation of the views of the W. 
A. A. ; its main feature expressing the belief that any system of 
unification, to carry the vitality necessary to success, must be based 
on principles of equal fellowship. The committee then separated to 
consider and act upon this proposition. 

The Institute Committee also took up the communication presented 
from Mr. Burnham. On reassembling, after these separate sessions, 
a committee of the whole was formed. Mr. E. H. Kendall being 
chosen Chairman, and Mr. George B. Ferry, Secretary. The com- 
mittee at once proceeded to consider the various matters incident to 
the scheme of consolidation, which embraced : the draft of a Consti- 
tution and By-Laws, a circular letter to the members of each associa- 
tion, and the recommendation of a place for holding the first 

Then followed three days of active hard work, characterized by 
the most hearty co-operation on the part of every member of the 

The discussion was full, broad and of the most cordial nature. 

Every effort was made to embody such features in the rules to be 
recommended as would promote the vitality of the new organization. 

The belief prevailed that every stimulus should be given to the 
ambition of members, to seek preferment at the hands of their 
associates ; also that much of the animosity and ill-feeling arising 
between individuals was due to a lack of acquaintanceship. 

To promote ood fellowship, the annual convention, with its at- 
tendent social features, was looked upon as an essential requisite, 
and steps were taken to prevent the burden of expense falling upon 
the Fellows resident at the place of meeting. 

It was also believed that the adminstration should be left within 
the control of the convention, to the utmost degree ; while the exe- 
cutive portion should be administered by the fewest number necessary 
for the efficient handling of the work. 

Nothing was more agreeable to the members of the committee 
than to find that anticipated fears of disagreement were entirely 
groundless ; and it is believed that every member carried away with 
him, not only feelings of the most agreeable nature as to the work 
accomplished, and the cordiality of relations between the members, 
hut the belief that the scheme of consolidation, as formulated, will 
meet with approval on the part of the members of each association, 
and that it will mark an important event in the history of the archi- 
tectural profession in this country. EDWARD H. KENDALL. 

Chairman of Joint Committee on Consolidation. 



Dear Sirs, Is there any way of obtaining satisfaction from dis- 
honest contractors who have no money? A gas-fitter takes a con- 
tract to pipe a house for thirty dollars. He runs the pipes for the 
drop-lights through the middle of the rooms the whole length of 
the house, and saws all the beams nearlv in two in the centre, to 
make a notch to lay the pipe in, although liis specification expressly 
forbids the notching of any beam more than two feet from the bear- 
ing. He puts in a piece of split pipe, mended with putty and red 
lead, under the floor, and lays the pipes with a fall in miscellaneous 
directions, and with bracket outlets at all varieties of height from the 
floor. The carpenters, without saying anything to me, put a row of 
shores through the middle of the parlor and dining-room, to keep 

the floor above from falling, and complete the house. It is then 
discovered that the chamber floors sag frightfully when any one 
walks over them ; that there is a copious leak in the floor, but that 
the gas naphtha, refuses to emerge from most of the proper out- 
lets, through the trapping, by condensation, of the numerous bends 
and hollows in the pipes. After enduring this as long as possible, 
the second story beams are removed, and replaced with others, not 
notched; the plastering is stripped off the walls and ceilings in both 
stories, new gas-pipes put in, and the plastering, flooring and finish- 
ing done over again, at a cost about fifty times as large as the 
amount of gas-fitter's contract. He has not a cent, and is in debt for 
beer. From whom can I get satisfaction? Is not the carpenter at 
fault for going on and completing, without notifying me, a building the 
strength of which the gas-fitter had destroyed? If not. is there not 
some way of recovering judgment against the gas-fitter and sending 
him to the debtor's prison ? Or is there no such thing as a debtor's 
prison, or any other place where he and his like can be shown the 
error of their ways? SIXEX. 



Dear Sirs, A rather novel competition, if it may be so-called, 
came under my notice recently which may interest your readers, and 
comment on the same by yourselves may not be lost on the committee 
whom the citizens have vested with power to act in their service and 
who are, of course, responsible to them in the matter. The facts are 
these : a certain city being about to increase her school accommoda- 
tions, were beseiged by architects of all sorts to secure the job, until 
it finally came down to a matter of the price at which they would 
do the work. Some offered their full services without compensation ! 
Finally, a selection was made of one who represented to the commit- 
tee that he was building numbers of school-buildings, which the 
committee evidently swallowed easily enough, while, in fact, the only 
school-houses he was superintending were under investigation which 
resulted in his dismissal for certifying to payments for the builder 
when the work was neither done in a correct manner nor as per draw- 
ings and specifications from the foundation, and the specifications 
had provided for only 2x10 joists for long spans over large 
school-rooms and in other ways were entirely inadequate, if followed 
to the letter. Later, this same architect was engaged as an expert 
witness to give testimony in an action with a builder, and, after he 
had given his evideiv e the learned counsel on the other side on cross- 
examination, killed this expert testimony by asking him about the 
schools he had just been employed to superintend and if he had not 
been dismissed on account of incompetency, which question he tried 
to dodge, but chagrined, he finally admitted. This city has, I think, 
fallen into bad hands, and would have done better if an architect that 
is both capable and honest had been employed by them to take 
charge of the expenditure of a hundred thousand dollars or more of 
money, even if they had to pay five to seven per cent for his services. 


[WE think our correspondent must be mistaken in (werting that " archi- 
tects of all sorts " besieged this committee to secure the job. ED.*. AMER- 

THE PETCHIKAPOU WATERFALL. Marvellous stories are related by 
the few Montagnais and Nascapee Indians who have penetrated far into 
the interior of Labrador respecting a cataract, beneath whose terrific 
leap Niagara pales into insignificance. But one white man has ever 
seen these falls, and the Indians' ideas of measurements and distances 
are so imperfect that, even where their stories agree, it is exceedingly 
difficult to deduce from them anything like reliable data. An expedi- 
tion lately undertaken by Handle F. Holme, F. R. G. S., and H. Duff, 
Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, to explore the interior of Labrador 
and investigate these falls, unfortunately, failed in its object, the ex- 
plorers having been misled by erroneous calculations as to distances 
and the exact location of the cataract, and compelled to return in con- 
sequence of running short of provisions. They got so near to the object 
of their expedition, however, that they were enabled, from the general 
configuration of the country, to form what must be a tolerably correct es- 
timate as to both the location and magnitude of the cataract. This 
estimate agrees with the description of the grand falls furnished by 
Maclean, who visited them in 1839, and whose farther progress into the 
interior was stopped by them. He gave the width of the river immedi- 
ately above the falls at 1,500 feet, but says that the cataract itself is 
not more than 150 feet across. The height of the falls he estimates at 
2,000 feet. This estimate is indorsed by a half-breed named Kennedy, 
met by Messrs. Holme and Duff in the interior, and who thirty years 
ago was in charge of Fort Nascapee on Lake Petchikapou. One of the 
chief difficulties encountered by explorers desirous of reaching the falls 
is the obstinate refusal by the Labrador Indians to approach them. 
They believe them to be haunted, and think it impossible to look upon 
them and live. Kennedy was conducted to them by an old Indian 
named Louis-over-the-fire, who, being an Iroquois did not share the 
superstitious belief of the Montagnais and Nascapees. Messrs. Holir.e 
and Duff were principally misled by the erroneous statements and cal- 
culations as to distances contained in Professor Hind's " Labrador," 
the leading authority upon this virtually unknown country. The fails 


TJie American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIV. No. 683. 

are on the Grand or Petchikapou River, which flows into Hamilton in- 
let. They are thirty miles above Lake Waminikapou, a body of water 
which is itself forty miles long, and situated 150 miles inland from the 
mouth of the river. Professor Hind gives this lake as only 100 miles 
from the mouth of the river, so that the expedition of Messrs. Holme 
and Duff has brought to light the fact that the best works heretofore 
published upon this terra incognita contain anything but reliable data. 
They agree, however, with Professor Hind that the elevation of the 
immense tableland which forms the interior of Labrador is about 2,240 
feet. On this height of land are a succession of great lakes, joined by 
broad, placid streams, and when these reach the edge of the tableland 
they commence their wild career to the sea. The Moisie and the Cold- 
water Rivers descend by successive falls, but toward the southeast the 
descent from the elevated tableland is quite sudden. This is particu- 
larly true of the Grand River, which has a drop of over 2,000 feet in 
the thirty miles commencing with the falls and ending at Lake Wamin- 
ikapou. There is a slight rapid below the falls, but none near the lake, 
and everything goes to show that the height of the grand falls is very 
little, if anything, short of 2,000 feet. They are by a great deal the 
highest falls in existence that are composed of any great volume of 
water. There are mere mountain torrents that fall from a greater 
height, and the great fall of the Yosemite Valley measures 2,050 feet, 
but it is broken into three distinct lea|>s. Niagara, on the other hand, 
has a height of 104 feet only. Boston Herald. 

ENGINE FOUNDATIONS. An engine foundation, says the Aije of Steel, 
bears the same relationship to the structure which has afterward to be 
raised upon it as does the carefully laid basis upon which a substantial 
building is to be erected. This being so, too much care cannot be ex- 
ercised in its construction. A good foundation will in many cases 
partially compensate for the. defects of a bad bed, in the case of a fixed 
engine ; but of course the latter ought to be firmly bolted to the founda- 
tion so that the two form one immovable mass. It should be bonded 
and tied in such a manner that no unequal settlement can take place, 
for should it cause this, there will be a danger of springing in the bed, 
and of heating the bearings as a result of these being twisted out of 
parallel. The higher the speed of the engine the more substantial 
should be the foundation, for vibration and tremor ought especially to 
be absent in the settings of a high-speed engine. A good bottom of 
concrete is perhaps the best substance to make a start with, but its size 
ought of course to be determined by the nature of the soil upon which 
it is to rest. If it is a rock bottom the bed can of course be fastened 
directly to it with but a mere pretence for a foundation between ; but 
should it be sandy or wet a concrete surface of large area should be first 
laid. Then should follow the bricks, laid close and jointed with the 
best cement, or if it is proposed to use stone the larger the blocks used 
the better, the bonding of course being particularly studied. Rubble 
work is not to be recommended, as the irregular shape of the stones 
forms a very unreliable bond, and the cement which this kind of work 
requires is not calculated to add to the stability of the foundation. The 
bed or engine frame should never be bolted down until the foundation 
is completed and thoroughly set; when in position and found thorough- 
ly true, the joints may be filled and packed with melted sulphur to in- 
sure rigidity. With a bad foundation no engine can be expected to run 
long without deterioration, and there is no part of the detail of engine 
fixing which is of more importance than the foundation. 

THE ST. Louis BIIIDGE. The beautiful bridge built by Captain 
Eads over the Mississippi River at St. Louis, hold in its design and ex- 
cellent in its execution, is an object of admiration to all who visit it, 
but the impression of its importance would be greatly magnified if the 
part below the surface of the water, which bears the massive towers, 
and which extends to a depth twice as great as the height of the pier 
above the water, could be visible. There are three steel arches, the 
centre one having a span of 520 feet, and each side arch a span of 602 
feet. Each span has four parallel arches or ribs, and each arch is com- 
posed of two cylindrical steel tubes, 18 inches in exterior diameter, one 
acting as the upper and the other as the lower chord of the arch. The 
tubes are in sections, each 12 feet long, and connected by screw joints. 
The thickness of the steel forming the tubes runs from 1 3-16 to 2 1-8 
inches. These upper and lower tubes are parallel and 12 feet apart, 
connected by a single system of diagonal bracing. The double tracks 
of the railroad run through the bridge adjacent to the side arches at 
the elevation of the highest point of the lower tube. The carriage road 
and footpaths extend the full width of the bridge, and are carried, by 
braced vertical posts, at an elevation of 23 feet above the railroad. 
The clear headway is 55 feet above ordinary high water. The 
approaches on each side are masonry viaducts, and the railway con- 
nects with the city station by a tunnel nearly a mile in length. The 
great tubular ribs were built out from each side of a pier, the weight 
on one side acting as a counterpoise for the construction on the other 
side of the pier. They were thus gradually and systematically pro- 
jected over the river, without support from below, till they met at the 
middle of the span, when the last central connecting tube was put in 
place by an ingenious mechanical arrangement, and the arch became 
self-supporting. Scrilmer's Magazine. 

tablet of revenge" should cease to disfigure the walls of a noble build- 
ing which has been erected in the name of charity, which covers a 
multitude of sins, and of humanity, which condones them. Exchange, 

A NEW TOMB FOR THE HAPSBURGS. It has been decided to con- 
struct a new tomb for the Austrian imperial family, the vaults under 
the Church of the Capuchins affording no more room. More than 100 
princely personages are buried in these vaults, which have been the 
burial place of the Hapsburg family since the early part of the seven- 
teenth century. New York Evening Post. 

Galliera, who gave during her Jifetime upwards of 830,000,000 to the 
poor, is to have a statue in her native city of Genoa. Wherever the 
traveller turns he will be shown schools and colleges, infirmaries and 
hospitals, alms-houses and model dwellings founded by the Duchess for 
the benefit of the Genoese. Now that the Duchess is dead no time 
should be lost in removing from the entrance hall of the Galliera 
Hospital the tablet which records " to his eternal shame " the treachery 
of her agent and relative, who decamped with 4,000,000, the money 
paid to his credit by the Duchess for the building of the hospital. The 
poor old general, if rumor does not lie, used the money to save a spend- 
t'.irift son from disaster. At any rate, with the Duchess" death "the 

ONCE more reference must be made to a worn-out topic in order to pick 
up some pointers for trade and business possibilities. Boston and New 
York financiers are just at present discussing and considering railroad- 
building. What lines to build, how much money to invest and, in general, 
how to look after their railroad-building interests for the coming year. 
Witliin sixty days the programme will be completed. There is an anxiety 
among those who have the greatest interests at stake to have all matters 
pertaining to the relation of the railroads to the Government disposed of 
one way or another, right or wrong. If rightfully disposed of, they know that 
there will be plenty of grand opportunities for good investments. If wrong- 
fully disposed of, they can have the satisfaction of knowing what to do and 
what course to pursue till things come right again. There is a strong feel- 
ing iu the public mind that the railroad interests will be put under some sort 
of control, and a more complete control than is now exercised. Our best 
authorities do not believe what so many newspaper authorities assert in 
regard to an over-construction of railroads, on the contrary, they believe 
that there are opportunities as favorable now as there have been at any 
time for years past for great railroad-building enterprise. The work is 
of two kinds: First, the construction of long lines in remote sections of the 
country, as, for instance, in British America, California, Mexico and South 
America; and second, the construction of short lines mainly in the Southern 
States. Financial managers will not indicate in advance what they intend 
to do. Were they to do so, manufacturers of material would at once take 
the cue, and at once hardeu prices. It is to their interest to play a fine 
game, and, if possible, bring about a reduction for all kinds of material 
that they will need. It would look as though there were some concert of 
action in this direction. During the past three months fewer rails have 
been contracted for than during any like period for five years past. Even 
in the matter of cars and locomotives, orders have not been up to the 
apparent large requirements. The same applies to other branches of rail- 
road-building material. The country does not absolutely need more mileage, 
but a great deal more mileage could' be built, and built with safety. There 
are sections of country through which roads could be constructed with 
advantage, because of the appreciation in value of real estate that would 
soon follow. Capitalists do not enter things without a long head. They 
count from five to ten years ahead. They recognize the fact that prnductive- 
capacity will steadily increase. 'J hat emigration will fill up out-of-the-way 
places, and that the markets of the world will call for the product of labor 
of all kinds in increasing supply. For this reason the opinion is enter- 
tained iu some high circles that despite indications to the contrarv we will 
see some five to ten thousand miles of road built during the coming year. 
Much'of it will not be undertaken before midsummer. There is an abund- 
ance of money for railroad work Foreign capital has been organizing 
itself to spread over America, North, South and West. Numerous lines of 
railroad are projected which will probably be built in the coui>e ef the next 
five years, and in less time perhaps. A foreign steel-rail trust is being 
organized in order to profit by this increasing demand. It is for this that 
the foreigners have put their heads together. The iron trade is dull. 
Prices are sinking in all markets South, West and East. 

The lumber trade, considei ing the season of the year, is active. Prices 
are firm in all markets for hard woods. The Southern interests have com- 
bined, and the combination will hold. The Northwestern lumber interests 
expect a heavy demand in the far West for the coming season. If ship- 
ments are not restricted, there will be a greater distribution of Western 
and Southern lumber bevoud the Mississippi than ever before in a single 
year. One reason for this statement is that there is a great deal of money 
being borrowed, and the indications point that as much more will be Bbr- 
rowed in the South to prosecute work of various kinds in the West. The 
agencies that are loaning money on farms report a demand for all the 
money they can secure. In some quarters payments are not being promptly 
made, but investors are learning to select their localities where their 
securities can be best located. The hardware manufacturers throughout 
New England are gettiug down to work, and are now running more regu- 
larly than during the fall to supply stocks for the coming spring and 
summer. The nail-factories East are working less than half-time, and in 
the West are scarcely any better fixed. The makers of wood-working 
machinery are moving along rather slowly, as the capacity in this direction 
is fully up to all the requirements. Plough-makers are short of orders. 
Stove manufacturers are busy; machinery-makers all over the West are 
crowded with work. The boat-yards along. the Lakes will be very busy 
during the coming season. The pipe-makers expect to have all the work 
they can do. Natural-gas companies talk of combination. Electricians are. 
looking after a centralizing of control. Real-estate speculators are making 
large purchases of land iu the neighborhood of the growing commercial 
centres of the West. Every indication is of the healthful sort. Those who 
are watching the financial features are inclined to think that the present 
financial policy will result in an astringeucy at some time during the next 
two or three \ears. Such a probability is to remote to worry over. A con- 
ference of old-time Greenbackers is called to meet at Washington to formu- 
late plans for a renewal of the greenback agitation. 'Ihis step is taken thus 
early because the believers in governmental money anticipate an attack of 
the banking interests upon the legal-tender issues. They argue that the 
need of money is' increasing, and that the supply is diminishing ; that 
more business is being done on credit now than a year or two ago, and 
that the control of money is centring into fewer hands. These allegations 
may or may not be true, but there are signs in business circles of justifying 
the prediction of a more or less astringent condition of the money-market at 
some time in the near future. Real dangers are, however, not often seen 
in advance, and anticipated dangers seldom overtake us The probabilities 
are that the financial question will settle itself, and that the control of the 
currency of the country will not be secured by class interests. 

S. J. PAKKHILL & Co., Printers, Huston. 

JANUARY 2fi, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


or 5hm$fe*. Fences, 

. wlyile Mc are 

or jfeiTis 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 683 



.B*/.reJie/. Ch.y*. CUBA. 


Paine! : Vv|/lf>Vjyaimi . London. S-r 


No. 79. 


No. 680. 



THE advantages of hot-water heating over 
all other methods are 
manifold. It is the 
most healthful system 
known to the scien- 
tific world, the most 
economical in the con- 
sumption of fuel, the 
most durable and the 
only one which is ab- 
solutely safe ; it re- 
quires the least care, 
and in its simplicity 
outranks the plainest 
of aH plain stoves. 

By this system an 
even temperature, soft 
and pleasant and free 
from all poisonous 
gases, is obtained, 
and controlled in all 
parts of the building, 
regardless of the out- 
side temperature. 
There are no draughts 
or blasts of hot or 
cold air so insepara- 
ble with the opera- 
tions of the hot-air 

Heat is obtained 
by the hot-water sys- 
tem as soon as the 
fire is lighted and 
continued until after 
the fire is out and 
the water cold. With 
steam no heat is se- 
cured until the water 
boils, and the fuel con- 
sumed up to that time 
is wasted. With the 
hot-water system the 
heat is controlled at 
the furnace, the fire 
and fuel being di- 
rectly and immedi- 
ately regulated to 
meet the require- 
ments, while with 
steam the valves of 
the radiators are 
made use of and 

the fuel in the furnace frequently consumed 
to no purpose. Numerous tests and years of 
experience prove that a good hot-water sys- 

tem will consume from twenty-five to thirty 
per cent less fuel than the best steam plants, 
and from forty to fifty per cent less fuel than 
a hot-air furnace. 

The hot-water plant is not subjected to the 

wear and tear caused by uneven pressure, ex- 
pansion and contraction of pipes and regu- 
lators that is common to the steam system, 

and properly put in will last throe times as 

long. Its longevity in comparison with hot-air 

furnaces is even greater. 

The hot-water system cannot explode, as 

there is never any pressure except the weight 
of the water, the 
pipes being open to 
the at mo sphere. 
There is absolutely 
no danger from fire, 
as the fire-box is en- 
cased in iron and 
brick, and the pipes 
and radiators cannot 
be heated above 190 
to 200. 

The simplicity of a, 
good hot-water sys- 
tem is one of its chief 
merits. It requires 
less attention than an 
ordinary base-burner 


The fire-pot and 
heater is so con- 
structed that it pos- 
sesses the largest heat- 
ing surface of any 
system now offered 
the public. (See cut). 
It is thereby able to 
heat a larger volume 
of water in a shorter 
period of time than 
any other and is, 
therefore, more eco- 
nomical in the con- 
sumption of f uel . 
This superiority is 
obtained partly by 
using wrought - iron 
tubes instead of east- 
iron, which are thick- 
er and consequently 
require more heat to 
affect the water with- 
in ; partially by the 
vertical arrangement 
of the tubes, whereby 
the water begins to 
circulate with the 
first heat (a news- 
paper furnishing sufficient heat to start the 
water in motion) and partly by the tubes be- 
ing brought into direct contact with the heat 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 680. 

in such a manner that no useless fire-bricks 
intervene]or clinkers can form to absorb any 
portion of the heat. 

In point of durability there is no heater that 
can equal it. In addition to the advantages 
in its construction, above noted, this heater 
possesses a merit not to be found in any other. 
The entire heater is practically one piece, all 
parts being screwed together. There are no 
bolts, no flanges and no packings to leak in it 
fatal defects that are the source of con- 
stant annoyance and frequent repairs in other 
heaters. Only the very best materials and the 
most experienced workmanship are employed 
in its manufacture. 

The cut which shows how the heater is en- 
cased in brick and iron, speaks of its perfect 
safety. Its location (generally in the cellar 
or basement) is further security in this respect. 
The exposed surface of the covering, either at 
top, bottom or sides, does not give forth a 
particle of warmth. A sulphur match left for 
months on the top will not ignite, and wood, 
or even paper, can be left on the exposed 
pipes with perfect impunity. 

The extreme simplicity and cleanliness of 
the heater adds to its superiority over all 
others. Every portion of the heater is plainly 
visible, ready of access, and can therefore be 
cleaned easily. There are no recesses for soot 
to accumulate in. The fire requires less at- 
tention than an ordinary coal stove, a replen- 
ishment of the fuel once in twenty-four hours 
being suflicient during average winter weather, 
and once in twelve hours being necessary only 
in extreme cases. No skill is required in 
firing. Any desired heat can be obtained at 
once, and an equable temperature maintained 
in every room in the house regardless of dis- 
tance from the heater. The heater is entirely 
noiseless in its operations. 

References and further information will be 
cheerfully furnished upon application to the 



OVEII twenty years ago, Mr. E. T. Barnum, 
of Detroit, commenced in a small way the 
manufacture of wire and iron work. By indus- 
try and perseverance the business rapidly in- 
creased, and gradually outgrew the different 
quarters at which it was conducted, finally 
becoming so large that Mr. Barnum found it 
to his advantage to incorporate, although he 
still continued to be the sole manager. 

The business was then pressed with re- 
doubled energy. A large factory, the largest 
in the world, was built and thoroughly equipped 
with the very best machinery then known, 
nearly all of which was especially constructed 
for his work, and an immense fortune seemed 
to be practically within his grasp. 

But one morning Mr. Barnum saw that fac- 
tory, the reward of the persevering diligence 
of years, go up in smoke, leaving only the 
bare, blackened walls. However, with that 
untiring energy which had built up one fortune, 
he commenced again, even before the smould- 
ering ruins were cold. 

This was in 1885. It was a difficult and 
disheartening task to again trudge slowly 
along the financial stairs up which he had 
pressed for so many years, and down which 
he had been so recently and suddenly hurled, 
but lie kept quietly and steadily at work, and 
is now again firmly re-established with new 
works built under his own supervision and for 
his own special use, and equipped with the 
latest improved machinery. 

The present factory is located at Noa. 715, 

717, 719 Grand River Avenue, where every- 
thing in the line of wire and iron work can be 
had, and any special order promptly filled. 

Mr. Barnum sells goods not only in every 
State and Territory in the United States, but 
in Canada, Australia, Brazil, Europe, in fact, 
there is no considerable portion of the civ- 
ilized world but what is more or less familiar 
with his work. 

Mr. Barnum is proud of his second 
success and his course is a good illus- 
tration of the fact that in this country all ob- 
stacles and misfortunes are overcome by 
intelligent, diligent and patient work. 

He has just issued an illustrated catalogue 
which will be mailed upon application. All 
correspondence should be directed to 

P. O. Box 66, DKTROIT, MICH. 


LETTER from Mr. Putnam to the Sanitary 
News, comparing the " Trap- Vent " with the 
" Sanitas " system of plumbing, in reply to 
Mr. Houman : 

BOSTON, MASS., November 23. 

Your correspondent, Mr. Houman, in reply 
to my letters on " Trap-Seal Protection," 
asserts that a simple S-trap, protected against 
siphonage by some form of automatic air- 
supply, is better than an antisiphon or seal- 
retaining trap on the ground of cleanliness. 

Several important considerations affecting 
this question seem to have been overlooked by 
Mr. Houman, which appear to me to be 
sufficient to reverse his conclusions; and, as 
these considerations are founded on very care- 
ful experiments of mine, some of which have 
never as yet been published, I will avail my- 
self of your invitation to contribute our ex- 
periences on the subject, to present them here. 

They may be summarized as follows : 

1. No automatic air-supplv has ever been 
invented, nor probably ever will be, which 
will form a reliable protection against siphon- 
age, although such a form of air-supply, as 
your correspondent recommends, seems to me 
to be much more reliable in many ways than 
the ordinary back-vent pipe. 

The scouring properties of a trap are due 
not to the absolute size of its body, but to its 
elative size as compared with the discharge 
outlet of the fixture it serves. 

I have found a common S-trap used under 
an ordinary small-outlet wash-basin, nearly 
filled with a jelly-like filth, through which the 
waste-water passage left was no larger than a 
man's little finger or than the free outlet of 
the basin, and not more than a tenth of the 
capacity of the trap and pipe when new. 

There are no " greatly enlarged cavities " in 
a scientifically designed (the " Sanitas ") seal- 
retaining trap. When such a trap is used 
under a fixture having an outlet as large as its 
waste-pipe, and the fixture is properly used, 
so as to fill these pipes " full bore," the scour 
will be sufficient to keep all parts of the trap 
lean. When such a trap fouls, the fault is 
in the fixture or in its usage, and not in the 

With improperly formed or used fixtures 
any trap will, and must, necessarily foul in 
time, and an S-trap is no more exempt from 
this law of nature than any other. Even per- 
fectly straight and smooth pipes will foul 
under such circumstances. 

The safe rule to avoid this trouble is to con- 
struct every fixture on the principle of the flush- 
tank, and to use it as such, and it is self- 
evident that no other practice will keep the 
waste passages clear. 

2. Ordinary S-traps, recommended by your 
correspondent, are liable to lose their seals 
through other causes than siphonage, such as 
back-pressure and capillary action, against 
which the automatic air-supply forms no pro- 
tection whatever; whereas, our seal-retaining 
trap is formed with reference to withstanding 
those adverse forces, and, properly set, it 
affords perfect security in these particulars. 
' 3. The volume of water in an ordinary S- 
trap is too small, and the trap is not scien- 
tifically designed with a view to the perfect 
preservation of its seal against evaporation. 
The automatic air-supply is infinitely better 
than the back-venting system in this respect, 
inasmuch as it does not materially increase 
the evaporation of the water-seal ; but the S- 
trap in the combination is at fault. In a well- 
designed seal-retaining trap all danger from 
evaporation is practically avoided. 

4. Accepting, then, as evident (as we must) 
the fact that any pipe or any trap under 
improperly formed or used fixtures will foul 
in time, it becomes clear that the seal-retaining 
trap is safer than a vented S-trap, because 
even a partial clogging of the latter will close 
the mouth of the air-supply, and thereby at 
once destroy the entire value of the device 
without announcing it to the house-owner ; 
whereas, a clogging of the former will simply 
retard the outflow of the waste-water, which 
will at once announce the obstruction and 
lead to its removal. In no case will such 
clogging destroy the ability of the trap to 
resist siphonage, since the relative propor- 
tions of the interior remain the same, and the 
very obstruction which prevented the escape 
of the waste-water also prevents siphonage 
and the escape of sewer-air. Practice has 
shown this theory to be true, after a test of 
five years. 

It is now well known that the mouth of the 
ordinary back - vent pipe becomes quickly 
clogged by grease under kitchen and pantry- 
sinks, and this objection to back-venting is 
no.w considered so serious that many practical 
plumbers are urging its abandonment on this 
ground alone. 

Now, the mouth of the automatic air-supply 
pipe is, in this respect, precisely the same, 
and is clogged in exactly the same manner ; 
hence, it must be condemned on the same 

Your correspondent objects to " enlarged 
cavities" in traps. What is the mouth of the 
automatic air-vent pipe but exactly such a cavity ? 
It is worse than that, since it is a cavity 
placed precisely where it will be first and 
asiest filled with filth, and when filled it will 
never be washed out again since the scour 
does not reach it. Still worse than that, it is 
a cavity which, when once even partially 
Slled, will cause the air-pipe to lose its orig- 
nal protecting power ; and with this loss the 
value of the entire apparatus is destroyed. 

Finally, worst of all, this loss of protecting 
power occurs without the slightest warning 
;o the house-owner. 

The mouth of the air-supply is, and must 
36, placed at the upper side of the trap or its 
outlet-pipe. Grease and those allied matters 
which cause obstructions in the waste pas- 
sages by adhering to them are lighter than 
water, and must float, therefore, to the top. 
Hence, it is evidently exactly there that clog- 
ing must first take place, and cavities placed 
;here, like the mouth of the air-supply pipe, 
must be the first to be clogged, and in prac- 
tice it is found that this is the fact. 

With our seal-retaining trap, on the contrary, 
no such dangerous cavities exist. The water- 

JANUARY 5, 1889. No. 79.] 

Advertisers' Trade Supplement. 

passage is substantially of the same calibre 
throughout, and even should clogging through 
careless usage take place, it could do no harm, 
but would at once announce itself and be re- 

5. The automatic air-supply pipe, in com- 
bination with a trap, forms a somewhat ex- 
pensive and delicate combination, involving 
quite a number of joints throughout its sev- 
eral parts, and the use of delicate moving 
parts and sensitive adjustments and also of 
free mercury. It would also seem as if water 
thrown up by back-pressure into the valve 
and mercury compartment might in time 
easily destroy its operation. 

The seal-retaining trap, on the contrary, is 
simplicity itself, has no moving parts, and is 
of solid and durable construction throughout. 

6. To recapitulate, then, the very argu- 
ments raised by your correspondent in favor 
of the S-trap, with automatic air-supply, are 
really the strongest against it, and are in 
favor of the unvented anti-siphon trap. 

The former (the vented S-trap) is not 
secure against siphonage ; has no resistance 
whatever in itself against back-pressure or 
capillary action ; is not constructed with a 
view to resisting evaporation ; has, as a neces- 
sary part of its construction, an " enlarged 
cavity " placed where it is most easily clogged 
by grease and filth, and where such clogging 
is fatal to its operation and extremely danger- 
ous to the house-owner ; and it is expensive, 
complicated and delicate in construction. 

From all these objections our seal-retaining 
trap is free, and its practical trial for many 
years has amply demonstrated the truth of 
the statement. Respectfully yours, 


THE partnership heretofore existing be- 
tween the undersigned under the firm name 
of Haines, Jones & Cadbury, has this day 
been dissolved by mutual consent. 

November 30, 1888. 

HAVING purchased the plant of the late 
firm of Haines, Jones & Cadbury, we would 
call attention to our facilities for supplying 
all kinds of plumbers' and steam-fitters' sup- 
plies, and solicit a share of your future trade. 



THE scaffolding, which has encumbered the 
Everson and Lynch Blocks, on South Salina 
Street, has been removed, and two handsome 
buildings are presented to view. There is a 
certain similarity in the structures owing to 
the free use of pressed-brick and terra-cotta. 

The Everson Block, which adjoins the 
Weiting Block, is from designs by Messrs. 
Baxter, Buell & Tabor, and is as near fire- 
proof as it is possible to make it, being con- 
structed solely of iron, stone, brick and 
terra-cotta, none of which have very good 
burning qualities. This building is seven 
stories high, and has a frontage on Salina 
Street of forty-four feet, and from cornice to 
sidewalk it is just 100 feet. The ground-floor 
will be taken up with a double store 40 x 137 
feet, divided through the centre by nine mas- 
sive iron columns. The second-story front 
will be finished for occupancy by a bank, and 

will be fitted with stone and steel vaults. The 
front of this building is very attractive, and is 
beyond question the most imposing structure 
on South Salina Street. The piers each side 
of the stores are of Carlisle brown sandstone, 
and the second and third stories are of the 
same material. Above the third floor the 
front is of iron, brick and terra-cotta. No 
wood is used, nothing but iron girders and 
pillars from cellar to roof. The chief attrac- 
tion centres in the terra-cotta work, which is 
of very choice design. It shows what can be 
done with architectural terra-cotta, whether 
used in friezes, window-caps or coping. The 
latter is a work of art in itself, and the New 
York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, of 
No. 38 Park Row, New York City, naturally 
feel proud of their work, as do the architects. 
The iron-work is from the Trenton, N. J., Iron- 
works, which is being erected under the 
supervision of James B. Cornell, of New 
York, while Messrs. O'Brien and Hoolihan, of 
this city, have the contract for the mason- 
work. The Lynch Block adjoining, from 
designs by Architect Russell, shows a magnifi- 
cent front, stone, pressed-brick and terra-cotta 
being the materials employed. There are 
some fine designs in the terra-cotta work, 
which is furnished by the same company as 
above mentioned. This building, which is be- 
ing erected by Messrs. O'Brien and Hoolihan, 
is six stories high, and reflects great credit 
upon its designer. These two blocks, artistic- 
ally considered, are the handsomest structures 
on Salina Street. 

The new Grand Opera-House Block is be- 
ing rapidly pushed. There was a hitch over 
the employment of non-union masons by 
Messrs. Ryan & Rafferty, which was ad- 
justed by Mr. Moore going ahead with the 
work himself. The plans and elevation for 
the block have been perfected by Architect 
Russell, and McElfatrick & Son, the New 
York theatrical architects, will attend to the 
plans for the opera-house proper. The block 
will be four stories high, with an additional 
mansard in the centre of the block. On the 
ground-floor there will be space for six stores, 
running from Genesee to Fayette Streets. 
The opera-house will be located on the second 
floor, as in the old building, and will be 
reached by a twenty-foot lobby from Genesee 
Street. The upper floors of the block fronting 
on Genesee Street, will be devoted to offices 
and halls, and every foot of space will be 
utilized. The building will be constructed of 
Trenton brick and terra-cotta, some of the 
latter showing some very fine carving. This 
work is also furnished by the New York 
Company. The style of architecture belongs 
to no particular school, and may be described 
as " modern." The general arrangement of 
the interior of the opera-house will differ very 
little from the old structure. It will be much 
more elaborate, and will be a model structure 
of its kind, with every precaution for safety 
and means of exit in case of fire. What it 
will cost to erect this new temple of amuse- 
ment, Messrs. Moore and Lynch will know 
when they get through. It is intimated that 
it is contemplated to add another story to this 
structure, which would make it five stories, with 
mansard. Syracuse Real Estate Record, 
December 8, 1888. 


IN our desire to extend our business in the 
sale of Mahogany it occurs to us that if more 
were known regarding this standard wood, its 
adoption and use would become much more 
general. We believe an impression exists 

that it is an expensive wood only to be in- 
dulged in by the few this however is not the 

The facilities for procuring Mahogany in 
its native country and the devices for reducing 
it into lumber have so improved, that its cost 
to-day compares favorably with some of our 
domestic hardwoods, notably Cherry. 

We are prepared to supply Mahogany of 
the best texture and grain as low as fourteen 
to sixteen cents per foot on cars in New York 
the grade known as "seconds" at seven to 
eight cents per foot and a grade between 
the two at ten cents. In measuring these 
grades last mentioned allowance is made for 
faults, and there are very many places where 
for small work these grades prove very advan- 

The cost of working Mahogany is certainly 
not greater than any of the domestic woods 
computing then for any given work, this 
difference in price of the raw material, the cost 
of Mahogany over the domestic hardwoods 
will be found to be small. 

It is universally acknowledged that Mahog- 
any warps less, stands better, and is in every 
way more reliable than any other wood 
known : it is the only wood that grows more 
beautiful with age, all other woods grow dull 
and deteriorate in appearance. Mahogany 
has been called the " king of woods," and it 
imparts to an interior, a tone and richness 
conceded by all. Will not therefore the in- 
trinsic value of a private residence or a public 
building finished in Mahogany warrant the 
use of this wood at a greater difference in cost 
than we have here set forth ? 

Inasmuch as there appears to be a vast 
deal of misinformation regarding Mahogany, 
we are led to place before you the actual facts. 
We are sometimes met with the assertion that 
there is now no Mahogany, that it is all "Bay- 
wood." As well might one argue that there is 
now no Black Walnut from the fact that it is 
no longer supplied (to but a small extent) from 
Ohio and Indiana, but largely from the Indian 
Territory. Thirty years ago Mahogany was 
commercially designated as " St. Domingo " 
(from the Island of St. Domingo) and " Bay- 
wood " or " Bay Mahogany " (from the vicin- 
ity of the Bay of Honduras in Central 
America). The Central American wood was 
rightly condemned as being too soft, of light 
weight, straight-grained, and characterless : 
in later years it has ceased coming to this 
market, but one cargo having arrived at the 
port of New York (now the largest Mahogany 
market in the, world) in six years. St. 
Domingo Mahogany likewise exists, we may 
say, in name only. The original growth of the 
Island of St. Domingo has been long since 
utilized, and the importation of small lots at 
exceedingly long intervals are only of the 
small and stunted second growth, crooked, 
stained and defective, only individual logs of 
good size and quality are now and then to be 
secured. The markets of the world are now 
therefore principally supplied from Mexico. 
The Island of Cuba furnishes considerable 
quantities of a smaller size (more especially 
valuable for small work) which is hard and of 
good texture ; but the great bulk of the 
Mahogany used in later years is supplied from 
the forests of Mexico. This great area of 
country however produces not only our largest 
and most beautiful grades of Mahogany, but 
also some of the softer and less desirable grades, 
somewhat resembling the Baywood or Hon- 
duras Mahogany of olden time, though still 

This we regard as an important fact to be 
noted by architects and others interested in 
the use of Mahogany, for here arises the 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 680. 

difference in opinion on our Mexican Mahogany 
of the present day, some claiming it is soft and 
unlike genuine Mahogany, and others that it is 
hard and beautiful in texture. It is both, as 
we have explained. Let the architect or 
householder specify Frontera Mexican Mahog- 
any or similar, and if the specifications are 
followed the result will be all that can be de- 
sired. Frontera is the shipping point for the 
better grades of Mexican Mahogany. 

In the erection of buildings of all classes, 
there is in general a steady advance toward 
improvement. In recommending the use of 
Mahogany we believe the simple statement of 
facts is sufficient to warrant its adoption, and 
architect and client will derive in its use a 
satisfaction far outweighing the small advance 
in cost. We therefore feel that we are war- 
ranted in calling the attention of architects 
and builders to this subject, and asking their 
influence and co-operation to the end indicated. 
We shall take great pleasure in giving atten- 
tion to any correspondence, and in giving any 
further information in our power. 



THE sales of Babcock & Wilcox boilers 
during October and November, 1888, were as 
follows : Chicago Sugar Refining Co., Chicago, 
111., fourth order, 1,088 horse-power ; Brooklyn 
Sugar Refining Co., Brooklyn, N. Y., fifth 
order, 488 horse-power ; Westinghouse Brake 
Co., Wilmerding, Pa., third order, 480 horse- 
power; Aitken, Mitchell & Co., Gowan, Glas- 
gow, Scotland, 110 horse-power; Societ^ Gen- 
eVale des Monteurs de Boites d'Or, Besan9on, 
France, 35 horse-power ; James Simpson & 
Co., Pimlico, London, sixth order, 414 horse- 
power ; James Miller & Co., Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia, 312 horse-power; R. & J. Salmond, 
Aberdeen, Scotland, 40 horse-power ; A. Ver- 
astegui, Havana, Cuba, 300 horse-power ; 
Singer Mfg. Co., Kilbowie, Scotland, eighth 
order, 93 horse-power; N. K. Fairbanks & 
Co., St. Louis, Mo., 140 horse-power ; John 
Collins, Denny, Scotland, fifth order, 240 
horse-power ; "Brazilian Extract of Meat & 
Hides Factory, Ltd., Parcdas, Porte Alegro, 
Brazil, 1 24 horse-power ; Schwarktzopff Co., 
Berlin, Germany, 82 horse-power ; Kansas 
City Electric Light Co., Kansas City, Mo., 
second order, 276 horse-power; Central Rail- 
road of New Jersey, Jersey City Station, 3G8 
horse-power ; Girard Estate, ^Philadelphia. 
Pa., fifth order, 122 horse-power; Summerlee 
& Mossend Iron & Steel Co., Mossend, Scot- 
land, TOOJiorse-power ;," James Simpson & Co., 
Pimlieo, London, seventh order, 124 horse- 
power ;' Maitland, Phelps & Co., New York 
City, for Luz Electriccita, Oxaca, Mexico, 
eighth order, 61 horse-power; Edison Electric 
Illuminating Co.,^Paterson, N. J., second 
order, 250 horse-power ; Calvart & Co., 
Gothenberg, Sweden, 124 horse-power; Sharp 
& Kent, London, England, 104 horse-power; 
C. Tattersall, Manchester, England, 75 horse- 
power ; Edison Machine Works, Schenectady, 
N. Y., fourth order, 146 horse-power ; Devoux 
Freres & Co., Adrimont, Vorviers, Belgium, 
75 horse-power ; R. E. Crompton & Co., 
Chelmsford, England, 165 horse-power 
Anthony Shaw, Son & Pamphilon, Burslom| 
England, 166 horse-power; Gomex & Pearsall 
New York City, for export, 73 horse-power; 
Decastro & Conner Sugar Refining Co., 

Brooklyn, N. Y., eighth order, 385 horse- 
power; Beau & Bortrand Faillet, Paris, 
France, 120 horse-power; Alexander B. Bary, 
Moscow, Russia, nineteenth order, 73 horse- 
power; Ing'o Jesus Maria, on Sta. Ana, Cuba, 
150 horse-power ; Berliner Machinenbau 
Actien, Gessellschalt, Berlin, 122 horse- 
power ; Prentice Brothers, Stowmarket, Eng., 
105 horse-power ; Agar Cross & Co., Glasgow, 
Scotland, 51 horse-power; American Brake 
Co., St. Louis, Mo., 125 horse-power; West- 
inghouse Electric Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., 328 
horse-power ; Anglo-American Brush Electric 
Light Corporation, Ltd., London, England, 
fifth order, 84 horse-power; Anglo-American 
Brush Electric Lt. Corporation, Ltd., London, 
England, sixth order, 62 horse-power; Joaquin 
Arango, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 35 horse- 
power ; Jonathan Ring & Son, Philadelphia, 
Pa., second order, 104 horse-power; Charles 
McNeil, Jr., Glasgow, Scotland, 126 horse- 
power ; M. M. Mosser & Fils, St. Etienne, 
Loire, France, 45 horse-power; Chavanne 
Brun & Co., St. diamond, France, 248 horse- 
power ; Charles Schlaeber, Paris, France, 20 

horse-power ; Alexander B. Bary, Moscow, 
Russia, twentieth order, 104 horse-power; 
William Beardmore& Co., Parkhead, Glasgow, 
Scotland, 140 horse-power ; Consolidated Elec- 
tric Light Co., New York City, second order, 
250 horse-power; making a total of 9442 

THE Whittier Machine Company have re- 
cently constructed for the United States 
Treasury Department at Washington, D. C., 
an hydraulic freight elevator, operated by 
their Pressure Tank System ; for Mr. John H 
Clark of Amesbury, Mass., one hydraulic 
freight elevator ; for the Continental Bank 
Building, Boston, a steam elevator for their pas- 
senger service ; for Dr. Baker's house, No. 22 
Mount Vernon Street, Boston, an hydraulic 
passenger elevator ; and for the Coy Paper 
Company of West Claremont, N. H., a horizon- 
tal steel boiler, five feet in diameter. 

THE manner in which Messrs. Dexter Bros., 
propose to illustrate their advertisement will 
make it worth while to look at it each week. 

Southwark Foundry and Machine Company, 

f-FTTT . A. -misr .T=-m- A. T= A 














. rJUU-iSFZ: REORGANIZED i6S5 ' nk,f II I I n r 

si Photo-Wand Printing, 

:! IOI \ Kb ^- Li %^y- 

ni3i\ rptvi 4 AI-v Pliolo-Enrnvioff and Zinc MM. 

I PRINTING U> [1,oto-Cakprin% ^ 

^l^l.TremontSUojlon^ ^^ 

rl^Sr^^| Cliromo-ljyiograpliy. 




The best and most reliable 
White-Lead made, 

ind anequaled for 



and Body. 


Atlantic W. Lead & Lin. Oil Co. 

887 Pearl St., NEW YORK. 





Pure Linseed-Oil, 

Raw Refined and Boiled. 

PHILADELPHIA, 56 North 7th St. 

149 Michigan Avo., CHICAGO. 

CINCINNATI, Room 47, Hammond Building. 

A. O. 6OSHORN, Agent. 

A. U. CrClaHLOJ 


124 & 126 South Fifth Ave. NEW YORK, 102 & 104 Thompson St. 

Class Merchants and Importers. 







K>MQ *' r li8fled Plate > bei 6 superior to any other Foreign Sheet Glass OB 

FLATNESS and brilliancy of surface, avoiding the distorting effect of ordinary Window Glass. 

Estimates furnished on Application. 



Copyright, 1889, by TICKNOB & COMPANY, Boston, Mass. 

No. 684, 

FEBRUARY 2, 1889. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Boston aa second-class matter. 


Our New Department. Reporting on the Present Condition 
of the Albany Capitol. The Cost of that Building. A 
Decision against a boycotting Trade Union. Terrestrial Set- 
tlement caused by Salt and Oil Wells. Gas Kates in ling- 
land. The Award of the Bressa Prize. The Spanish 
Exhibition at London. The Liernur Pneumatic System of 
Sewerage. 49 



The Algonquin Club-house, Commonwealth Ave., Boston, 
Mass. Two Street Views in Quebec, Canada. Sugges- 
tions as to the Construction of Slow-burning Houses, 
Churches and Hospitals. House at Rochester, N. Y. . . 54 





Combustible Architecture Again. Superintending Work at a 
Distance. Piping a House for Gas. The Church of 
Gaudalupe, Mexico 59 



WITH tliis number the American Architect opens a new 
department, wliicli it is hoped will prove very useful to 
its readers. For a long time the editors have hud in 
mind the desirability of maintaining a department like that 
which forms an important portion of the French technical 
journals, in wliicli questions involving legal points should be 
answered, and, if of general interest, discussed at some length 
by a thoroughly competent lawyer. Their correspondence with 
their subscribers, both privately and through the columns of 
their journal, has shown them not only how valuable to archi- 
tects and builders timely advice of this sort may often be, hut 
how much more valuable it is if it is always ready, and is to be 
implicitly relied upon. The persons who can furnish such 
advice are by no means numerous, even in the legal profession, 
and the editors consider themselves fortunate in having secured 
the services of a lawyer not only very thoroughly trained, but 
experienced to an unusual degree in building cases, and familiar- 
ized with the technicalities of construction by many building 
operations carried on under his care, either on his own account 
or as trustee for others. His own introductory remarks, to be 
found in another column, will best indicate the character of the 
work which he is to do in the interest of the subscribers to the 
American Architect, and the editors need only add that they 
have reason to believe that the work will be well done, and 
that those who consult the department will receive advice 
which may be depended upon as having been carefully weighed, 
and based upon accurate knowledge of the subject. 

TT RESOLUTION has been introduced in the New York 
f\ Legislature, directing the Supervising Commissioners of 
the Capitol "to make a thorough examination of the 
present condition of the Capitol building; to ascertain the kind 
and quality of materials and labor that, will be required to com- 
plete the same, internally and externally, according to the 
plans and specifications therefor already adopted and now in 
force; and to make as full, accurate and detailed an estimate 
of the cost of such material and labor as they may be able to 
prepare." They are also empowered " to suggest modifications 
or changes in the .plans for the building, or for any part there- 
of, making a detailed statement," with estimates of cost, in 
regard to any such modification, and are directed to "express 
their opinion as to the length of time that will probably be re- 
quired to complete the building according to the plans which 
they may recommend," and to report in full on all those points 
"on or before the fifth day of February next." On the 
twenty-third of January the resolution was still pending in the 
Senate, and, if it passes there, it must go to the Assembly for 
concurrence, so that, supposing other business to be suspended, 
and the resolution pushed through with all possible expedition, 

the Commissioners will have, at the utmost, twelve days in 
which to " make a thorough examination of the building," con- 
coct "modifications or changes in the plans," and prepare 
detailed estimates, not only of the cost of these changes, but of 
all the work remaining to be done under the existing plans and' 
specifications. It ought to be unnecessary to say that any 
plans or estimates prepared under such conditions would be 
perfectly useless and ridiculous, but as the New York Legisla- 
ture has now spent eighteen millions of dollars, in tinkering its 
building, year after year, on just this system, it would seem 
that there are some people who still need to have the lesson 
impressed on their minds that to employ four independent 
architects on the most important structure in the State, to 
accept, without expert advice, designs from each, which, after 
they have been half carried out, the others are employed to 
demolish and replace by something else ; to leave all the archi- 
tects in the dark as to what each is expected to do, and, after 
each has done a great deal of work which turns out to be in 
his colleagues' province, to appoint some one else to execute a 
miscellaneous mangling of the entire assortment of designs; 
and finally, to disgust all the architects by shabby treatment, 
and, finding their zeal chilled, to seek a substitute for it in 
a succession of commissions of all sorts, is not the way to secure 
either rapidity or 'economy in building, whatever other objects 
may be attained. 

IT would hardly be credible that the Albany Capitol, even in 
its present unfinished condition, is by far the most costly 
building of modern times, if we had not the official statement 
of the expenses. The Capitol at Washington, from 1793, 
when its corner-stone was laid, up to 1878, had cost, including 
all expenses of repairs, supervision, furnishing, alterations and 
minor items, less than thirteen millions, and in eighty-five years 
of constant use all the furniture, and much of the structural part, 
must have been several times replaced. The Patent Office has 
now cost nearly as much, but this, we suppose, includes re- 
building after the disastrous fire ; and the Treasury, a more 
expensive design than the Capitol, has cost seven millions. 
On the other side of the ocean, the architectural wonder of the 
century is the Palace of Justice at Brussels, the largest known 
building in the world, which covers two hundred and seventy 
thousand square feet, or nearly twice the area of the Capitol at 
Washington, with a mass of sculptured and polished marble, 
surmounted by a marble tower four hundred feet high. The 
palace stands on the edge of a precipice, so that the foundations 
were enormously expensive, yet the whole was finished com- 
plete for ten million dollars. Undoubtedly, building is some- 
what cheaper in Belgium than in Albany, but the real reason 
why the people of Brussels got at least four times as much as 
those of Albany for about half the money is that they had 
sense enough to select a design carefully, to employ its author 
honorably, to pay him properly for his services, and to let him 
carry out his plan without blundering interference, and without 
upsetting his calculations, and those of the contractors, every 
few months by neglecting to make appropriations, or by letting 
loose upon the work a new set of commissioners with power to 
change everything at their own sweet will. Whenever the 
New York Capitol is finished, it will bo inaugurated, not with 
the rejoicings of King and people, but with the execrations of 
nearly every one who has ever had anything to do with it, in- 
cluding the tax-payers. The various architects, who have 
worked harder, and brought more knowledge to their task, 
than any one else, have suffered most. The late Mr. Richard- 
son, to whom, we may well say, the Capitol owes most of its 
fame, did some of his best work for it after his tiny salary had 
been cut down, by a vote of the Legislature, to a sum which 
would not much more than pay for the paper and ink used for 
the drawings. lie nearly decided, as he told us at the time, to 
resign, but other work came in, from the proceeds of which he 
could pay out of his own pocket the draughtsmen who were 
helping him to endow the State of New York with a structure 
to which Mr. Freeman accords the highest praise that he be- 
stows on any modern building. We can wish for the public 
and the profession, and for architecture in this country, nothing 
better than that such transactions may for the future be im- 
possible in connection with public buildings. There is good 
reason to hope that our architects have nearly done with sub- 
mitting their work, and their fortunes, to the whims of persons 


The American Architect and Building News. [You XXV. No. 684. 

who know, and care, nothing about their art, and when they 
have fully made up their minds in this respect, they will be in 
a position to demand such treatment as their brethren abroad 
receive in return for services no more valuable than their own. 

DECISION has just been rendered in Ohio which will, 
we hope, serve to encourage in the managers of trades' 
unions a little more decency than they have hitherto 
shown in regard to the means which they employ for coercing 
people against whom they have a grudge. A firm of con- 
tractors in Cincinnati happened in some way to offend the 
Bricklayers' Union. This is by no means a difficult thing to 
do with most trades' associations, as the income and influence 
of the leaders is dependent on tlie frequency and ferocity of 
the quarrels between masters and men which they foment, and, 
as usual, a trifling workshop misunderstanding was nursed into 
a struggle which was carried on for ten months, with the help of 
all the cowardly weapons that the modern -'Knights "delight in. 
The first step was to induce non-union men to leave the firm's 
employment, and to threaten those with vengeance who should 
take their places. This was followed by appeals to persons 
who had contracts with the firm to break them, and to dealers 
to refuse to sell materials to them. Notwithstanding all these 
malicious proceedings, the firm prospered, and the Union 
managers then had the usual circular printed and distributed 
broadcast, informing the public that the firm employed unskilled 
men, and did inferior work as contractors. At this point the 
firm thought the matter had gone far enough, and appealed to 
the law. By the time it had heard the testimony, the jury was 
unanimous in favor of a verdict for the plaintiffs ; the only 
question that it considered was the amount of damages that 
should be awarded. Naturally, the actual loss. that a person 
or a firm suffers from such foul attacks is, in most cases, in- 
capable of exact estimate. The law does not allow the jury to 
take a handsome sum from the offender and confer it upon the 
victim, as a consolation for the injury done to his feelings; it 
can only award such a sum as will reimburse him for his actual 
loss of business or reputation ; and it is not surprising that 
one juryman thought that seven hundred dollars would pay for 
all the actual harm that the Union was able to inflict, while 
another thought that fifteen thousand dollars was not too much 
to award. Finally, these diverse views were harmonized, and 
a verdict was brought in for thirty-seven hundred dollars, 
twenty-seven hundred of which the jury thought was a fail- 
estimate of the pecuniary loss caused by the publication of the 
circular, while it considered that one thousand dollars would 
pay for the damage due to the previous proceedings. The 
next thing will be to collect the money. Like private persons, 
unions which have no property can damage other people's busi- 
ness as much as they like, secure in the knowledge that no one 
can make them suffer from their actions, and we fear that after 
execution had been issued the financial condition of a good 
many unions would be found less flourishing than their treas- 
urers' reports indicated. Perhaps a good way would be to 
enact a statute, under which, in the case of such wanton 
mischief as this, the officers of the Union, in default of money 
to make good the damage they had caused, might be sold as 
slaves for a limited period, and the proceeds of the sale applied 
to satisfy the judgment. This method of disposing of the cases 
would have two advantages. Not only would justice be se- 
cured in favor of the person aggrieved, but the union officers 
would have an opportunity for practising useful industry, such 
as they seem to find it difficult to meet with under ordinary cir- 

IIE people who live near oil-wells and salt-works ought to 
take warning from the fate of some villages in England, 
in the county of Cheshire. According to the Builder, the 
property-owners in the town of Nortliwich have petitioned the 
Government to send a Itoyal Commission to see the damage 
which has resulted from the working of the salt-mines in the 
vicinity. The surrounding district, like that about Syracuse, 
in New York State, is filled with wells, from which are pumped 
enormous quantities of brine, containing about twenty-five pet- 
cent of salt, which is recovered by evaporation. About one 
million tons of salt are thus manufactured iu Cheshire every 
year, and sent away to all parts of the world. The removal of 
all this matter from the subsoil causes settlements, which have 
been more serious and extensive this year than ever before. 
In the region about the village of Wiusford more than one 
hundred acres of land have sunk, and are now covered with 
water to a depth of twenty feet. The Wiusford market has 

sunk thirty feet, and one of the houses in the village has gone 
down so far that only the top of the roof is now visible 
above ground. Throughout the entire region, streets, houses, 
bridges, gas and water pipes are moving so rapidly that con- 
tinual rebuilding and repairing is necessary. The memorial 
represents that the owners of the salt-wells pump out and sell 
the salt on which the houses of the citizens rest, and keep the 
money; while the citizens themselves not only have to spend 
large sums in rebuilding their own dwellings, but are taxed to 
repair the highways and other public property ; ami it prays 
that an impost may be laid on the salt trade sufficient to pay 
the damage caused by its prosecution. 

TITHE British Architect gives some figures from the reports of 
J i. the public gas companies in England which are interesting. 
In many cases there the towns own the gas-works, charge 
fair rates, and appropriate the profits to public improvements; 
but there is certainly a surprising difference, either in the cir- 
cumstances under which the gas is distributed, or the economy 
with which the manufacture is carried on, which shows itself in 
a great variation in the profits derived from the business. The 
lowest price charged for gas in 1887 was in Plymouth, a small 
city in Devonshire, where it was sold for forty-two cents per 
thousand feet, and at this price the year's business earned a 
dividend of thirteen and one-quarter per cent on the capital in- 
vested. The highest price charged was a dollar and eighty 
cents a thousand cubic feet. This was at Walton-on-the-Naze, 
and even at this rate no dividend was earned. 

HFIIE Royal Academy of Science of Turin announces that the 
_1 prize founded by the will of Dr. Cesare Alessandro Bressa, 
amounting to twenty-four hundred dollars, and open to 
authors and inventors of all nations, will be awarded at the end 
of December, 18'JO, to that competitor who shall have made 
the most important and useful discovery, or published the most 
valuable work in physical or experimental science, natural 
history, mathematics, chemistry, physiology, or pathology, or 
in geology, history, geography, or statistics. The prize will 
be awarded by the Academy of Turin, and all its members, 
resident or non-resident, are excluded from the competition. 

VISITORS to Europe this summer can entertain themselves 
in London by visiting the Spanish Exhibition, which is to 
open there in April. The President of the Exhibition Com- 
pany is the Duke of Wellington, who ranks as a Spanish noble, 
and the affair promises to be interesting. Among other things, a 
herd of Andalusian bulls is to be imported, together with a 
large number of matadors and other persons, and bull-fights 
will be shown daily. It is said that these will be free from the 
cruelty usually accompanying them, so we suppose the bulls 
will have their horns cut off. A special point will be made of 
the costumes of the various provinces, and natives of Cordova, 
Salamanca, Granada and the Basque provinces will be seen in 
their native villages, engaged in the sports or occupations 
peculiar to them. In manufactures Spain is not particularly 
rich, but Cordova leather, Toledo steel and damascened work, 
laces and cigars, will be exhibited. 

TTR. SANDERS, of St. Petersburg, has revived, in a 
I XI. modified form, the old Liernur pneumatic system of 
sewerage, with improvements that seem to make it 
practically available in many cases where the other is not. 
Under the Liernur system the entrance of water into the 
sewers is avoided as much as possible, and even Dutch 
cleanliness does net suffice to keep the house-drains of Amster- 
dam, exhausted periodically by suction, but not flushed, sweet 
enough for American taste ; but the Sanders system encourages 
the use of water, disposing of the matters with which it deals 
by means of ejectors, which will transfer solid substances to the 
outfall, but work more freely with liquids. It is probable that 
when a severe epidemic of diphtheria shall arouse the public 
again to the importance of sewerage in our inland towns, dis- 
posal by irrigation will be generally preferred. In this case 
there will be many improvements needed in the methods of 
conveying the sewage to the irrigated fields. The pumps, 
settling tanks and stand-pipes which have hitherto been em- 
ployed are cumbrous and expensive, and a good system of 
ejectors, buried far enough underground to be out of reach of 
frost, and operated from a central station, might be less 
troublesome, as well as more efficient, than tanks and stand- 

FEBRUARY 2, 1889.] The American Architect and Building JFews. 

Fig. 2770. Egyptian Wooden Lock. 



f NY one who should 
visit the mediaeval 
museums of Eu 
rope, and should chance 
to see among the curi 
osities of iron - work 
some of the elaborately 
wrought and apparent- 
ly intricate locks of the 
fourteenth, fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries, 
would hardly think ol 
comparing those un- 
weildly and cumber- 
some devices with the locks that are turned out in such 
quantities by our best modern manufactories. And yet, if the 
older contrivances are examined attentively it will be seen that 
the difference between the old and the new is one of finish 
and delicacy, rather than of idea or mechanism; and that, with 
the exception of a few noteworthy inventions for obtaining a 
greater security against picking by an ordinary thief, the locks 
of to-day are exactly the same, in principle and arrangement, 
as those which were made centuries ago. Indeed, it is rather 
strange that with all the inventions which have been made 
during the nineteenth century and especially within the present 
generation, and notwithstanding the inventive genius which 
American industry has brought to bear upon the subject, the 
Yale system should be, after all, very nearly the only invention 
of practical utility which is a direct departure from the older 
methods of lock making. Probably a large proportion of the 
readers of this paper can distinctly remember the time when 
pin locks were almost unheard of. It might be said in expla- 
nation of the seeming fruitlessness of mechanical research upon 
this subject, that there was really very little that could be dis- 
covered or improved upon, as the real principle of a lock is too 
simple and too definite in its nature, not to have been thorough- 
ly appreciated and exhausted long ago ; but the same could 
have been said before Linus Yale brought his Yankee wit to 
work upon the subject, and it would be impossible at present 
to foretell what discoveries may be made or what radical changes 
brought about iii the appliances for locking our doors. Possibly 
our descendants may some day wonder at the locks of the nine- 
teenth century, even as we wonder at the cumbersome pieces 
of mechanism and the ponderous keys "of our great grandfathers. 
At any rate, it will not do to claim that our locks are perfect, 
or that the record of progress is entirely closed. A very few 
years ago the Yale lock was pronounced to be complete ; but 
some very radical improvements have been made in it since 
then, and the opponents of the system claim it has yet many 
defects both in construction and idea. So it would not be 
strange if our best locks should one day become obsolete. 

But if the progress which has been made in the essential, 
mechanical principles of lock manufacture is small, the im- 
provements in finish and the reduction in the cost of the locks 
have been marvelous. Less than a century ago, locks were 
made entirely by hand, and very crude affairs they were, too, 
costing a great many times the price of a better article 
of to-day. At present, good, well-made, well-planned locks 
can be had at prices varying from twenty-five cents to five dol- 
lars, suited to all needs and all conditions ; while the amount 
of real security afforded is of a much more tangible nature. 
And with the improvements in niceness and delicacy of arrange- 
ment, it has been possible to affect a change in the style and 
weight of the keys which the present generation can only 
faintly appreciate. The old-fashioned keys were heavy, cum- 
bersome, and so large that no one ever thought of carrying 
them about the person. Now they are made so small that the 
keys for an entire house can be carried in one's vest pocket. 
Formerly the strength of a lock was judged by its weight, and 
it was considered essential to have heavy bolts or levers, and 
strong springs, requiring considerable force to operate ; while 
now, all the parts are so well adjusted and so light, that a 
touch is sufficient to put the mechanism in operation. 

The fundamental principles forming the basis of all locking 
constructions, include a bolt which is moved by the direct 
action of the key, while secondary bolts or levers drop into 

1 Continued from page 8, No. 680. 

such positions that the lock bolt cannot be forced back except 
by breaking some portion of the mechanism. The secondary 
bolt is usually termed a lever, and either acts by gravity or by 
the aid of a spring usually by both. The key is so made 
as to first raise the levers, and then to shoot the bolt by a 
single turn of the hand. These principles have governed the 
manufacture of locks since the days of Adam, and apply 
equally to the ponderous locks of the Middle Ages and to the 
corrugated-key locks of the Yale & Towne Manufacturing 
Company. Complications have been added to the construction 
of locks in the shape of multiple levers, requiring nicely fitted 
keys, or fancy wards which would allow none but the right key 
to enter ; and there have been special forms devised for bank 
uses, working by combinations of letters, by dials, or by clock- 
work ; but in the locks used about an ordinary house, the prin- 
ciple is always the same that of a key simultaneously lifting 
one or more levers and moving a bolt. 

In order to clearly illustrate the antiquity of the principles 
upon which modern locks are constructed, it may be of interest 
in this connection to refer to a few of the older forms. A rude 
style of lock which has been used in Eastern countries for 
ages, no one can say how- long, but certainly for over two 
thousand years, is approximately shown by Figure 277a. All 
the parts are of wood, including the key. The bolt is chan- 
nelled on the inner edge, and slides through heavy wooden 
staples in which are arranged a number of pegs, of varying 
lengths, fitting into corresponding holes bored through the top 
of the bolt. The key consists of a flat piece of wood somewhat 
smaller than the channel which is cut in the bolt, and in use, 
is inserted lengthwise of the bolt. On the end of the key are 
pins spaced to correspond with the pegs in the staple, "it is 
evident that while the pegs are caught in the bolt itself and in 
the staple, the bolt cannot be moved ; but when the key is in- 
serted, the pins will be directly beneath the holes in the upper 
part of the bolt, and by raising the key, the pins will lift the 
pegs just enough to clear the joint between the bolt and 
the staple, and the bolt can then be moved at will. In this 
lock, the action of the key is almost exactly the same as in the 
Yale lock ; namely, to lift a series of pins of unequal lengths 
so as to bring the bottom of each on the same line, though the 
Yale key has other functions, as will be noted later. 

Figure 278 shows a key which was dug up in Pompeii, 
was evidently intended to operate a warded lock, a 
style which was in almost universal use up to thirty 
years ago. Figure 271) illustrates a fine old Eliza- 
bethan lock. This could be described as a fully- 
developed lever-lock, the springs on the levers be- 
ng arranged in exactly the same manner as the v^^ 
ocks which are sold over the counter to-day. Strip- n g . 278. Key 
led of all the fancy cutting and misleading wards from p m P eii - 
which have nothing to do with the efficiency of the lock, it will 
)e seen that this is really a very simple contrivance, though 
quite complicated in appearance. 

Fig. 279. Elizabethan Lock. 

The number of antiquated examples might be multiplied in- 
lefinitely, but the foregoing will suffice for the purpose, as 
hey may be taken as types of the three most markedly 
[ifferent arrangements for adding to the security of a lock, 
namely with wards, with pins or with spring-levers. 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 684. 

Fig. 280. 

The various parts of a lock will need some definition and 
explanation, in order to prevent any ambiguity in the terms. 
Figure 280 shows the general shape of the ordinary key, in 
which A is called the bow; B, the shank, and C, the bit. 
The difference between the keys of to-day and those of two or 
three generations ago has been already alluded 
to. Many of the hand-made locks are still pro- 
vided with the old-fashioned, heavy brass keys, but 
the "Yale" locks have prejudiced people against 
anything but a flat key, and nearly all manufac- 
turers use them in one form or another. A few 
lock-makers have keys which are arranged to fold 
up like a knife, to be used in connection with rim- 
locks, or with locks requiring a visry long key, but 
generally the key is of steel, nickel-plated, with a 
fiat shank and a thin bit. When the cuts on the 
bit are on the side or edge, as shown by the cut, 
it indicates a tumbler or lever-lock, while cuts on 
the top or bottom show that the lock is fitted with 
wards. Many of the old keys preserved in mu- 
seums are made with very elaborate bits, cut in 
curious and intricate patterns. In some instances the cuts cor- 
respond to equally intricate wardings in the lock, but generally 
they are purely fanciful. When the shank of the key is tubu- 
lar, it indicates a lock which can be operated from one side only, 
such as those used for drawers, etc. All keys for door-locks 
now have solid shanks. 

The bolt which secures the lock, is generally made quite 
heavy where it projects beyond the face-plate, but is thinned 
down inside the lock so as to be as light as possible, and to 
give space for the levers. 
The talon, A, Figure 
281, is the notch in the 
under side of the bolt 
in which the key works. 
The post, B, is the part 
which catches in the lev- 
ers, preventing the bolt Fi ^ 2 si. Bolt. 
from being forced. 

Guide-posts on the case of the lock fit in the slots, C, one of 
the same posts often serving as a pivot for the levers. 

The most primitive form of lock would be one consisting 
simply of a bolt, which is shot back and forth by the key. 
But as any other key or even a wire would answer equally well, 
some obstacle must be interposed to prevent picking. This is 
done by combining with the bolt a series of levers or tumblers 
which permit only the proper key to be used. The two terms 
are used at present synonymously. Figure 282 illustrates a 
typical lever. There are from one to five lerers in an ordinary 
lock, and they are usually placed one over the other, pivoted 

over the guiding-post, and the 
bolt-post is so arranged as to 
fit through one of the cuts, A, 
when the bolt is thrown back, 
and through B when thrown 
out. The connecting gatings, 
C, are cut at different heights, 
so that the levers must be 
lifted unequally in order to 
permit the bolt to move. 
When the key is turned in 
the lock, the bits, which are 
cut to match the levers, bear 
against the bellies, D, lifting the levers simultaneously until 
the gatings are exactly on a line with each other. The key 
then catches in the talon of the bolt, the bolt-post passes 
through the gatings, and the levers drop as the key turns, 
catching behind the bolt^post and effectually preventing the 
bolt from being forced back. This is, generally speaking, the 
function of all lock-levers, though there are many variations 
from the form illustrated. 

The levers, of course, slide one over the other, and in 
common locks they are laid closely together. In the best of 
hand-made work, however, and in a few of the machine-made 
locks, the levers are separated, either by side-wards cast onto 
the thickness of the lever, or by intermediate strips of brass 
which bear on each other and on the levers only at certain 
points, thus reducing greatly the friction between the parts. 

A somewhat different form has been much used in English 
locks, which is shown by Figure 283. In this case the levers 

Fig. 282. Lever. 

are beneath the bolt. On each is a post which works in slots 
and through gatings cut through the bolt. Price, in his 
" Treatise on Locks," 1 which is a very valuable and interesting 
work on the subject, as it was understood up to I860, makes 

Fig. 283. English Lever. 

the distinction between levers and tumblers, applying the 
latter term to the device shown by Figure 283, and the former 
to that illustrated by Figure 282. His distinction seems to be 
a fair one, though seldom made in this country, where what he 
calls tumblers are little used. 

A little reflection will cause one to comprehend the number 
of changes possible in a lever-lock. The levers may be 
transposed, and within certain limits the heights of the gatings 
may be varied, so that with six levers there can be as many as 
7,770,000 changes, no two of which can be operated by the 
same key. Simple transposition, without any variation in the 
heights of the gatings, will give 720 changes. 

A device has been used in some makes of locks, intended 
not only to increase the difficulty of picking but also to show if 
the lock has been tampered with. It consists of a spring so 
arranged that when one of the levers is lifted too high, as 
would naturally be done by any one attempting to pick the 
lock, it is caught and held in such a position that the bolt-post 
cannot possibly pass through the gatings. The spring is 
released by using the right key and turning the bolt out more, 
but no key can unlock the mechanism until the detector spring 
is released. This is a very ingenious arrangement, and at one 
time was considered absolutely burglar-proof, though it is now 
very seldom met with in the market. 3 

The wards of a lock are fixed obstructions which are 
attached to the inside of the lock-case, so arranged that none 
but the proper key can pass and reach the levers. Formerly 
the confidence in warded locks was so great that levers and 
tumblers was used very little, but that feeling has entirely 
passed away. Modern locksmiths use wards very sparingly, 
and limit themselves to small shoulders or ridges, cast on the 
inside of the upper and lower case-plates, which require 
corresponding cuts on the upper and lower edge of the key- 
bit. They do not add in the least to the burglar-proof quali- 
ties of a lock. At one time, however, locks were constructed 
with very elaborate wardings. Figure 284 illustrates the 
wards of a French lock about one hundred and fifty years old. 

The wards consist of two thin 
plates, one each side of the key- 
hole, with a series of ridges 
forming a semicircle on each, 
the ridges being star-shaped in 
section. The key-bit is cut 

Fig. 284. Wards of an old French Lock. out w j tn a gtar pattern which 

has to exactly fit the wardings. 

This is one of the simpler forms which the ingenuity of French 
locksmiths at one time delighted in, and though seemingly 
proof against intrusion, can be opened with very little trouble, 
by a judicious use of a few stout wires. 

" There is a great difference in the quality and arrangement 
of springs used in connection with a lock. In regard to 
material, the best is, undoubtedly, phosphor-bronze ; but 
springs of this material require to be so large in order to have 
the desired stiffness, that their use is not always practicable, 
especially as they can be used to advantage only in the shape 
of flat-bands. The springs which hold the levers in place 
against the bolt-post are usually made of round steel or brass 
wire, and are attached directly to the heel of the lever, as 
shown by Figure 282. A separate spring is necessary for each 
lever. It is sometimes desirable to attach the spring to a 
secondary lever acting directly on the top of the main lever, 
Figure 285, as in a case where the levers move up and down in 
the lock instead of being pivoted together. With such an 
arrangement "the edge of the secondary lever should be grooved 
so as to fit over the top of the primary lever, thus obviating 

'This work is entirely oat of print, but can be found In most of the large 
public libraries. It is complete and thoroughly Illustrated. 

* The detector-spring was an important feature of the celebrated " CUubbs " 
(English) locks. 

FEBRUARY 2, J889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


any difficulty of the levers slipping by each other, or of the 
wrong springs acting on the levers. 

The latch is a feature of the modern lock which our 
ancestors did not enjoy. Except in the case of store-doors, all 
door-locks are now made with some form of spring-latch. 
There are three distinct kinds of latches commonly used, the 
simple spring-latch, anti-friction latch and front-door latch. 
The cheapest form of ordinary spring-latch consists of a 
bevelled head, projecting from the face-plate of the lock, with 
a shank inside the lock, about which is coiled a strong spiral 
spring, keeping the latch pressed out. The inner end of the 
latch-shank is forked and hooks under each side of what is 
termed the follow, through which passes the spindle of the 
door-knob. Turning the knob either way draws back the latch. 
The objection to this arrangement is that while only a very 
slight spring is really necessary to keep the latch in position, 
a pretty strong spring is required so that the knob shall not 
turn too easily ; otherwise, every time the door-knobs were 
touched the latch would be opened. Consequently in the 
better class of work a door-latch is usually fitted with two 
springs, one of which is operated when the latch is pushed 
back bv the door being closed, while both springs are acted 
upon when the knob is turned. 
In this way the requisite 

resistance can be obtained ^ To 

for the knob, and, at the 
same time, the latch will close 
easily. A latch so arranged 

Fig. 285. Compound Lever, 

Fig. 286. Anti-friction Strike. 
E. Robinson. 

is termed an easy spring-latch. There are several methods of 
attaching the two springs. Ordinarily, spiral brass springs are 
employed. Hopkins & Dickinson and, we believe, a few others, 
are able to introduce into their locks springs made of phosphor- 
bronze, which, it is claimed, will keep its elasticity much longer 
than steel or brass. The different methods by which the springs 
are attached and the knob operated will be made clear when 
the various makes of locks are described, later on. 

The ordinary form of latch is made with a V-shaped bevel, 
the long side of the bevel striking against the jam-plate. 
Enoch Robinson, of Boston, was, it is believed, the first to 
patent an anti-friction strike, as it is called. Figure 286 illus- 
trates the construction of his device, which is incorporated into 
all of the locks which he makes. It is simply an application 
of the principle of the old bell-levei crank. The action of the 
anti-friction strike is to raise the latch-bolt from the bed of the 
lock and carry it back without friction 
on the sides. Actual tests have been 
made proving that it requires less force, 
acting directly on the side of the anti- 
friction strike, to force the lever back, 
than is required to push back the latch 
bv straight pressure against the apex of v^ 

,- , ^, /TJt 

the bevel. 

Figure 287 shows a form of anti- 
friction strike used by several other man- LOCK c ^ e 
ufacturers. There is no difference in Fig. 287. Anti-friction 
principle between this and the '' Robin- 
son " make, though the appearance is a little different, the 
" Robinson " strike being in the centre of the bolt, while the 

others are on one side, also in " Robinson's " strike the pin is 
on the latch and the slot in the strike, while in the other anti- 
friction strike they are exactly the reverse. Figure 288 shows 

Fig. 288. Anti-friction Rocker Strike. 

a form which is made by a few manufacturers, being listed 
in the catalogue of both J. B. Johnston and the Nashua 
Lock Company. It consists simply of a steel rocker at- 
tached by swivel pins to the bolt, the lower pin passing 
underneath the shank of the bolt. When the door is 
closed the latch, instead of moving straight back, swings 
on the lower edge of the rocker, being lifted from the lock- 
frame, and thus reducing the friction. The gain by this 
device is, of course, less than by the others previously de- 
scribed. Yet another form of so-called anti-friction strike is 
made. Figure 289 shows the pattern adopted by Hall, of 
Boston, for his spring-latches. It consists, essentially, of an 

adaptation of the well-known 
car-door latch, the latch-strike 
being hinged at the base and 
attached by a loose-pin to the 
latch-shank at the top, while 
the face of the latch-strike is 
curved slightly. This device 
makes really a very efficient 
anti-friction strike. The only 
objection to it is that the wide 
plate necessitated by it cuts the 
door a great deal, and many 
persons do not like it on that 

The custom in regard to 
latches varies in New York and 
Boston. In New York the 
Fig.289. Anti-friction strike. H.M. onteide knob is generally fixed 

firmly so as not to move at all, while in Boston the knobs 
are arranged with a swivel spindle permitting either to be 
turned without acting upon the other, and the mechanism in- 
side of the lock is so devised that by pushing a button or a 
slide the outer knob can be held fast. In cheaper forms of 
front-door locks, the knob-spindle is made without a swivel, 
and security is obtained by a bolt on the inside. 

Locks are designated as being either right or left hand, 
though the distinction is one which is confined entirely to the 
latch. A left-hand lock belongs to a door fitted with left- 
hand hinges, as has been previously explained, the term right 
or left being decided by whether the door turns on the hinges 

Fig. 290. Right nd Left Hand Locks. 

when opening either in the direction of the hands of a clock or 
the reverse. Locks are also designated as being either left 
or right hand reverse bevel, the reverse bevel applying to a 
door which swings out instead of swinging in. That is to say, 
in the case of a front door, for instance, if it swings out the 
night latch would be on the outside, but the latch bolt would 
be just the reverse in arrangement from what it would be, 
relatively, on an ordinary front door swinging in. 

Figure 290, will fix this distinction clearly in mind. The 
figure is taken from the catalogue of the Yale & Towue Manu- 
facturing Company. It is believed that the distinction between 
right and left, and reverse bevels is seldom appreciated by 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 684. 

It is very often desirable to have a latch which can be re- 
versed so that if any mistake is made in ordering, the lock will 
not be useless. Reversible latches are made in several ways 
the latch shank being generally of such shape as to permit 
its being turned over and worked in the opposite direction, 
without interfering with the action of the lock. 

Locks wear out not so much by actual failure or breaking 
of the parts, but by the lever and key wards being 
worn so that the key will not lift the levers and permit the 
bolt to pass. Key-wards are the slight projections which are 
cast on the inner face of the lock-plates to form an additional 
obstruction to the passage of strange keys. Of themselves 
they affect the value of a lock but little, as the key will operate 
as well without as with them, so that the only part which 
actually wears out is the edge of the levers against which the 
key acts. The constant striking and turning, when a lock is 
used continually, will in time wear off the surface of the lever 
so that it will not rise quite sufficiently to allow the bolt-post 
to pass. The springs, also, sometimes become brittle, and the 
follows operating the latch will wear so as to work loose and 
rattle, but a little tinkering can remedy any of these difficulties. 
It costs but a trifle to have a new key made which will fit a 
partiallv worn-out set of levers. New springs are inserted at a 
trifling cost, and if the latch-spring is lengthened a trifle the 
rattling of the follows can be obviated ; so, there is, really, no 
reason why a fairly good lock should not last indefinitely. It 
is, also, a very simple thing to make a new combination of the 
levers when they cease to work smoothly, and renewed life 
can thus be imparted to an apparently worn-out set of works. 

In judging of the intrinsic worth of a lock, therefore, the 
following conditions should be carefully observed. 

First : Good material for the use to which it is put. 

Second : Careful adjustment, so that the parts will work 
easily and will stand any possible strain in use. 

Third : The whole secret of the value of a lock is in the 
levers, which should be so made as to ensure a minimum of 
friction, of material not easily corroded nor easily worn away ; 
and they should be adjusted to secure the greatest amount of 
security against picking, with springs not too easy, nor so hard 
as to bring undue wear on the levers. 

A very good test of the workmanship of a lock can easily be 
made by shooting out the bolt, removing the cap to the lock 
case, and then pressing in strongly on the bolt, at the same 
time lifting the levers, one by one. If the gatings are ac- 
curately fitted they should all bear equally against the bolt- 
post, so that the gating of no one lever would catch on the post 
as it is lifted by. Few of the ordinary locks will stand this 
test successfully. i 

Intricate combinations, made ostensibly to prevent the lock 
from being picked, add very little to its value for ordinary 
house work. It may be safely stated that any lock can be 
picked which is operated by a key, so that a good three-lever 
lock affords all the intricacy and gives one all the protection 
that could be desired. A lock has a personality of its own, 
and so much of its value depends on the maker that it is wise 
in purchasing to always get the best ; keeping in view sim- 
plicity, and the points previously noted. A cheap, but well- 
made lock is better than an expensive one which is put together 
in a careless and indifferent manner. 

[To be continued.l 

[Contributors are requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of cost.'] 

YORK, N. Y. 

[Oelatine print, issued only with the Imperial Edition. 1 


SEE paper on " Quebec " elsewhere in this issue. 


FOR explanations see the following article. 




N order to meet the frequent calls for 
plans for the safe or slow-burning con- 
struction of office-buildings, dwelling- 
houses, and other buildings auxiliary to the 
factories which come under the supervis- 
ion of the Mutual Companies (such de- 
msinrls having more than once been made 
for plans of slow-burning churches and 
hospitals), certain studies are herewith 
presented which may be a good basis for 
suggestion and for further improvement. 

These plans, even if they prove to be 
crude and imperfect, will certainly assure 

greater safety than can be expected when offices, houses, churches, 
and hospitals are built according to the common practice of com- 
bustible architecture. 

The ordinary method of building a wooden dwelling, hospital, or 
other similar structure may be called the cellular system of construc- 
tion. The floors consist of a series of wooden cells ; the walls con- 
stitute another series; the roof is the worst and most dangerous 
series of all ; each cell in each series being connected in some more 
or less open way with all the rest. 

Provision is made in many contracts for cutting off the communi- 
cation between the cells of the main floor and the vertical cells in 
the walls, either by laying bricks between the studs upon the sill or 
by some other suitable method ; the intention of these safeguards 
being to prevent either vermin or fire passing from the cellar 
through the cells in the first floor to the cells in the walls, and thence 
throughout all the floors and partitions to the roof. These provisions 
of. the contract are excellent on paper, but, when left to the average 
supervision of the architect and of the contractor, they are very apt 
to fail : the mice almost always find a way through the smaller cracks, 
and the rats follow ; the fire also finds its way everywhere through 
all the cracks with the utmost facility. The writer knows from 
personal experience that even if the most careful provision be made 
in the contract, and even if the work be supervised day by day by 
the owner himself, all the customary devices may utterly fail to keep 
rats and mice out of hollow walls in a wooden house. 

But even if the common contract precautions thould suffice to 
keep vermin from infesting the house, yet the customary plan of con- 
struction utterly fails to prevent the passage of fire from cell to cell, 
and through the same cracks by which the fire may pass there is a 
constant circulation of air. This circulation of air, although it may 
be slow and somewhat obstructed, yet practically destroys the value 
of the air-spaces in the walls, which walls are assumed to be non- 
heat-conducting because of this air-space. It is admitted that, if air 
be encased in a substantially tight cell free from circulation, it may 
be one of the very best non-conductors of heat and cold ; but the air- 
spaces in the walls of a wooden building, as ordinarily constructed, 
are nothing but a fraud ; there are small open-air ducts connected by 
cracks and crevices everywhere. 

It is generally assumed that an air-space is in the nature of things 
one of the best of non-conductors, without much resrard as to how 
the air is encased ; but the error of this assumption was disclosed by 
the experiments made at the instance of the factory underwriters a 
few years ago for the purpose of determining the conditions most 
favorable for preventing a loss of heat by radiation from steam-pipes. 
In the course of this work, which was of the most thorough nature 
both as to the methods employed and the extent and variety of 
materials tried, it was found that an air-space was a very good con- 
ductor of beat by reason of circulation by convection, which resulted 
and effected a very rapid transfer of heat ; on thu other hand, the 
non-conducting property of many substances which proved to be 
most efficient was undoubtedly due to the small, isolated cells of en- 
trapped air which they contained. In our tests, a given material, 
when placed in a loose or porous condition about a pipe, proved to 
be an effective non-conductor ; yet, when pressed to an extent which 
closed up the air-spaces or pores, the same material served as an 
effective conductor of heat. 

It may be interesting to cite the fact that an air-space would 
transmit a quantity of heat represented by the number 1302, the 
radiation of heat through wool under similar conditions being repre- 
sented by the numbers 301 to 237, according to the amount of 
pressure applied to it. Charcoal was found to be subject to about 
the same rule as wool. The application of these results to the con- 
struction of buildings leads to the conclusion that the most effective 
non-conduction of heat may be attained by cutting up air-spaces in 
such a manner as to prevent circulation by convection, or by the 
connection of one air-space with another. 

Au effort has, therefore, been made to make framing-plans and 
specifications, which are submitted herewith as studies of the question, 
for the construction of the class of buildings under consideration, in 
which the timbers shall be so arranged that the builder will be 
obliged to go out of his way and to work on an entirely different 
framing-plan, in order to connect one cell either in the floor or wall 
with any other cell in any other part of the building. The motive 

'A Circular iesued by the Boston Manufacturers Mutual Insurance Company. 

!. -_itn -. 
Ic oi l-ju[dire 
i -nil <it M|II;>I 

*** ')' 

'JO JO eajil 
1BT1/5 Oti 

' no 

OT 8A 



of %f sfu[_.' eon be laic/ on mortar if desired 


Hdittype PrmtifgCo.Bo 

WvS, ^EB. 2 1559 


Associated Mutual Insurance Cos. 
Plan fora Slow Burning'Brick Hospital or Dwelling" 

' ' t T 1 T i T i t 


Section of Chimney 

If the bulletin y tsof consiSeruMe Size, 

Os r,rt*e itomf ahaulcl i vtf on 7i-<vi Flcitet 

fl half inch air- <y>c<- rtntsi e lefii at bo&i fides of en 
bc^rtt far r'e,,rtlajion.. This tvt'U render- one i'aeara.l 

otti 9M9H nefcff story, -tv av'jr.' an/at^-c of&n *r- sfycet i r/ie tii-ac plariTc over Ke t net of T earn to 
ft- mice. 

Hoi-izoi"fl Section <\t AB 

i Printing 


I889BYTirX>TOR8, : 

FEB. 2 loof). 



Tlje flnjericau Tlrctytect ai?d Building I}ews, February 2, 1559. IJo. 654. 

Copyright, 1889, by TICKNOK & Co. 







F O 

5 c: 

3 W 

- m 

3 - 


5 8 

^ o 

I > 







copTerem less BY TICKKOR A c 


QVK.&EO , O, 

Titlisypt Printing & Btattn. 

6V k. . ts.fe-OW/1 ^'R- . 



-<! ft,JBC--* 

-^1 '"' ' 



Associated Mutual Insurance Cos. 
Pltm for BuiMmg*a Slow Burning* Dwelling House. 

r i 





' : I [ 

^ <'A'\r-/ M ,,,,* 1^_L 

tin' Vfynit f 



Sdiatype friatiagCo.Boston 

FEBRUARY 2, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


is to compel the builder to do his work well in this particular, even 
if lie docs not care to do so, or might not know how. 

On this motive the framing-plan of a church has been made by a 
student of architecture (sketch No. 1), and a framing-plan and method 
of plastering for a dwelling-house have been devised under my own 
direction (sketch No. 2). In respect to both dwelling-house and 
church, it is suggested that there is no reason why there should be 
any cells in the main floor, such as will be made if the basement- 
ceiling is either sheathed or plastered on the underside of the 
timbers. So far as this floor is concerned either in a dwelling-house 
or a church, there may be no objection to the downward passage of 
sound ; therefore, the money commonly expended in sheathing or 
plastering had much better be put into the substance of the floor, 
and the open-timber or mill-construction may be adopted on this 
story in any and every case. If this floor is made of two-inch plank 
grooved and splined, covered with three-fourths-inch mortar, good 
sheathing-paper, and then finished with a good, hard top-floor, birch 
preferred, the cold air of winter may be permitted to circulate freely 
through the cellar or basement without any danger of passing up 
through this solid floor, to the discomfort of those who occupy the 
stories above, and the upward passage of sound will be very slight. 
If the heat required in the main floor or story be brought in near 
the centre of each room a little below the ceiling, with right provi- 
sion for ventilation, the floor will be well warmed at any and all 
times ; while, on the contrary, if the heat be brought in through 
registers in the floor, it will rise and accumulate near the ceiling, 
while the cold air from the windows, which either comes in by the 
cracks or through the glass, will fall and spread itself over the floor, 
to the great discomfort of all the occupants. May it not be that 
people bake their heads and bodies, burn the air as it comes through 
the furnace, catch colds or get catarrh from vitiated air, in a vain 
attempt to keep their feet warm? Even in this they may fail, unless 
bottom circulation is induced by bringing the heat in at the top or 

Under the common conditions of bringing the heat in through 
registers in the floor, there will be nearly stationary planes of different 
degrees of heat, to the discomfort of the occupants, cold in the lower 
plane, and very hot in the upper one, while by the overhead system 
there may be a very free circulation ; even basements with stone floors, 
which have been of no use in factories when the steam-heating pipes 
have been placed, in the usual way at the sides of the room, near the 
floors, having been converted into useful rooms, with warm floors, by 
merely changing the position of the same heating-pipes from the 
side-walls to points near the ceiling, ten or twelve feet from the 

To return to construction : even if the mill construction is con- 
sidered too expensive for the whole house, and if it is thought that 
the downward passage of sound through the upper floors cannot be 
sufliciently prevented, then the motive of the architect may well be 
to make use of about the same quantities of timber and board which 
are now required in ordinary framing, but so disposed and so con- 
solidated that, without requiring much more material, the cells in 
walls, partitions, floors and roof may be absolutely separated each 
from the other; the frame being at the same time made stiffer and 
better in every way ; the substance of the roof also made thick 
enough to save the attic or upper story from being an oven in 
summer and a refrigerator in winter. To this end the plans of the 
dwelling-house are submitted. They speak for themselves. Posts 
and floor-beams may be 10 x 6 inches; studs, 4x6 inches, placed 
five feet on centres. These sizes may be substituted for the 
ordinary construction of 2 x 4 inch planks, posts and studs, with 
little or no increase in the quantity of material required in the lower 
story ; the second story is drawn in the ordinary way. 

The method of constructing the foundation, placing the sill 
thereon, and the method of adjusting the girders and plate, are so 
devised that even the most uniustructed builder cannot connect any 
number of cells anywhere without using more ingenuity than he 
customarily applies to the ordinary conditions of framing in making 
such connections. The diagonal furring and lathing convert the 
wall into a truss, strengthening the building, and this system of 
plastering on the plank, as drawn in the lower story, also lends itself 
to the separation of the cells in the best manner. 

If the second story should be built of 2 x 4 studs, boarded and not 
planked, one special provision will be called for to cut off the second- 
floor spaces from the wall-spaces in the second story, to wit : solid 
blocks between the studs; but even if this were neglected, little 
harm would come from it, because there is no open way from the 
first to the second floor. 

It may be suggested that a cheap method of making small wooden 
dwelling-houses much saf.r from fire, and also warmer in winter as 
well as cooler in summer is to fill-in between the studs behind the 
plastering and inside the boarding with sifted coal ashes mixed with 
mortar, just enough mortar being used to bind the material. 

In this way many buildings of bad construction have been made 
suitable for mutual insurance to the great satisfaction of the owners, 
who have discovered after the spaces between the studs set up inside 
of brick walls with a view to the supposed non-conduction of an air- 
space, that their buildings have been made much warmer in winter, 
cooler in summer, and safer in every way, after the ashes and plaster 
had been poured from the top into these spaces between the s;uds, 
than they were before this precaution had been taken. 

These plans and specifications are submitted as primary studies 

only, subject to suggestion and to improvement. The came problem 
needs to be solved for the construction of brick dwelling-houses and 
hospitals, as well as those built of wood. The Building Act of 
Boston and the customary forms of contract call for incombustible 
stops at every floor, behind the furring or mop-board. 

Do these provisions suffice? In what proportion of the houses, 
hospitals, or asylums constructed under the present system are there 
not a number of more or less open ways, by which vermin or fire 
may pass from basement to roof? Cannot some framing or floor- 
plan be devised by which the ignorance, stupidity, or carelessness 
of workmen or contractors may be rendered incapable of opening a 
way for fire, except at an increase of the cost or of the work? 

At the suggestion of the writer sketch No. 3 has been made, in 
which a plan is submitted for cutting off the connection between the 
air-spaces or cells of each floor from the air-spaces in the walls of a 
brick hospital or dwelling-house furred in the usual way, and for 
separating the latter at each story. It is admitted that if specifica- 
tions like those of the present Building Act of Boston are completely 
carried out, there would be no need of any further provisions for 
fire-stops; but the carrying out of the provisions of the Building Act 
for placing stops at each floor calls for some additional work on the 
part of the builder, which may be omitted, neglected, or shammed. 
The motive of the suggestion submitted in sketch No. 3 is to build 
the walls themselves in such a way that, when the floors and the 
furrings are placed in position, the projections from the brick wall 
and chimneys will be interposed between the air-spaces, thus making 
the necessary stops without requiring any additional or special work 
to be done. 

In order to stop the air-spaces which are of necessity left between 
the brickwork of chimneys and the studs which support the lathing 
around them, it is proposed to corbel the brickwork on the sides and 
the hack of the chimneys as well as on the front. 

The studs at the sides and on the back of the chimneys may be 
placed in position supported by brickwork, which will cut off any 
possible connection with the air-spaces in the stories below or above. 
A horizontal wooden support to the studs is placed over the brick- 
work (which timber should be laid on a thick bed of mortar between 
it and the bricks), in order to provide for the same shrinkage that 
may occur in the floor-timbers. 

This plan may make safety consistent : 

1. With economy. 

2. Even with the riile-of-thumb methods of carrying out plans and 
specifications the motives of which the builders may not themselves 
understand, so that the faults in the present methods of construction 
will be cured without the extra work of putting special stops at each 
floor. It is in this way that the mutual underwriters have made it 
for the interest of every manufacturer to adopt their plans and 
methods; because, even taking no cognizance of the greater s-afety 
from fire, their plans and methods of construction have been con- 
clusively proved to be the least costly ways in which buildings can 
be erected, which will be most suitable for the occupations upon 
which they take risks. 

In the case of the hospital or asylum, again, if the mill floor and 
open timber construction are objected to above the main floor over 
the basement or cellar, the common cellular floors may be adopted ; 
but, according to the plans submitted, there may be no direct com- 
munication between these cells and of one story with those of another. 

It is assumed that when such attention is given to the slow-burning 
construction of a hospital or asylum as would be implied by giving 
attention to this suggestion, the same reasoning would forbid any of 
the common bad forms of roof, especially of the "crazy order," 
which now render so many of this class of buildings costly, dangerous 
and unsuitable. The solid deck-roof of plank, not less than three 
inches thick, would become a necessary element in this plan of con- 

The basement floor had also better be of plank, laid over a pro- 
perly prepared concrete, in such manner that it may not decay and 
without any open space beneath in which fne or vermin can exist. 
Of such plans for basement floors we have more than one which have 
stood the test of time. Kespectfully submitted, 


President Boston Manufacturers Mulual Fire Insurance Company. 
Boston, January, 1889. 

LONDON'S WATER-SUPPLY. A somewhat alarming view of the con- 
dition of the water-supply of London is taken by Major-General Scott 
in his official report published in the annual volume of the Local Gov- 
ernment Board. "On a general view of the whole circumstances," he 
says, " it seems evident that the question of the water-supply of the 
north and east of London has entered a critical stage, and it may be 
said that the restriction in the supply found necessary by the East 
London Company during the past summer [1887] was a premonitory 
symptom of difficulties which in future seasons of scanty rainfall will be 
more severely felt." The Board also remark " that at no very distant 
period the margin between supply and demand may become perilously 
small ; and that, at any rate, in the case of some of the companies, the 
question how the existing sources can be supplemented from others out- 
side the watersheds of the Thames and Lea, is one of which the consid- 
eration cannot be long deferred." Pall Mull Gazette. 

TJie American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 684. 



On Flavian St. 


F, in the course of the de- 
scriptive sketch which I 
have ventured to bring to 
your notice this evening, I di- 
verge too much from the 
beaten paths in which an 
architect is supposed to tread, 
I ought to say, in explanation, 
that these observations on 
Quebec are chiefly the result 
of a brief holiday tour, and 
not the outcome of any serious 
study ; and, if I become too 
discursive, I must plead the 
holiday attitude or present 
thep'ei of ''general inteiest ' 
allowable by our rules regard- 
topics whose relation- 
to architecture and the 
fine arts is not apparent. 

When the heat of summer 
makes us long to leave the 
dusty city and our routine 
work, a sail to northern 
climes, to mingle for a time 
with a foreign race and hear another language spoken than our 
own to sojourn in a country whose life and aspect is a perfect con- 
trast to our own gives rest and healthful change. 

Nowhere will the sportsman find a better field for rod and gun than 
round about Quebec ; and to the lover of the picturesque, to the 
artist in painting, poetry or romance this northern city gives themes 
of surpassing interest. 

The scenery in the surrounding country is delightful. Other 
landscapes may be grander, more sublime, but none more interesting 
from the human existence and association wrought for three centuries 
into the very soil. It has what Matthew Arnold called "the charm 
of beauty which comes from ancientness and permanence of rural life." 
The inroads of modern progress and the effects of increasing com- 
merce have touched this northern capital but lightly. The con- 
servatism of its religions life has left the spirit of a bygone century in 
every stone. In some aspects it is still mediaeval. The habitants, 
from the country round, gin her now in quaint groups in the market- 
place, just as they did a hundred years ago. They bring their 
flowers and fruit full many a mile. Their quiet horses stand in rows 
beside the wagons looking as much domesticated as the house cat. 

Priests and nuns move in groups along the narrow streets or walk 
in procession on saint days as in the days of the old regime, and on 
every hand there is some landmark, some old building to remind us 
of stirring events in the life of the old colony New France. 

As in the case of the ancient capital of Scotland, so here. Nature 
has bestowed a site of incomparable grandeur. Abruptly from the 

%Ui ! rvW..j . ff:' 

Xl^UlM "f^tt-jf 

Soul Le Cap. 

noble river rises the roek round whose base clusters the lower town, 
while higher up the churches, monasteries, towers, terraces and ram- 
parts spi ing, until we reach the citadel which crowns the lofty summit. 

A brief study of the topography of the place shows us at once a 
natural fortress. From the geologist we learn that the land on 
which the city stands was once an island, for at Cap Rouge, about 
eight miles above Quebec, the formation of the rocks distinctly show 
that a channel of the St. Lawrence forked northwards, and probablv 
followed the present course of the Charles River. From Quebec to 
Cap Rouge the bank is formed by towering rocky headlands, the 
slope on the northern side to the valley, in many places, being almost 
as steep. 

From the terrace called Durham, on a summer's evening as we 
stand more than two hundred feet above the river, a truly magnificent 
panorama lies before us. So steeply does the cliff fall away from the 
terrace that we look down on the chimneys and roofs of the lower 
town, and wonder how the people there live under the snowdrifts of 
winter's long reign. The broad, sombre river flows northwards and 
eastwards from the Isle of Orleans. On the northern shore the eye 

' A paper by Mr. Robert Brown read before the Boston Society of Architects 
Friday, Feb. 1, 1S8!>. 

follows a winding road, along which straggle little cottages, each 
with a ribbon-like strip of farm-land, and here and there a church 
the village heart. Beauport lies nearest Quebec, then Montmorenci, 
L'Ange Gardien, Chateau Kichter and Ste. Anne (La Bonne Ste. 
Anne, as the villagers lovingly call it), until in the blue gray distance 
Cape Tourmente, forty miles away, closes the vista. The scene 
looked peaceful and beautiful in the deepening color of the setting 
sun, changing from green to purple the Lawrentian range of moun- 
tains which bound the view to the northward. 

In the valley to our left, the narrow Charles River flows on its 
sinuous way to join the St. Lawrence. It was on this river near 
where a little stream, the " Lairet," joins it, that Jacques Cartier, of 
St. Malo, wintered in 1535, and the remains of the fortification built 
there by him, three hundred and fifty-three years ago, can still be 

In 1608, Champlain landed at Stadacona, which was the Algonquin 
name of the place where Quebec now stands, the word meaning the 
narrowing of the waters, for the St. Lawrence is, at this point, less 
than a mile wide. Champlain and his followers founded the city, 
and he was the first governor. From that time, down to 1 759, one 
governor followed another, each appointed by the ruling powers of 

The city has been besieged no less than five times, and often been 
the prey of extensive conflagrations. The last great siege of 1759 
must have laid in ruins the greater number of its buildings; yet, 
considering these devastations, it is surprising to find so many 
structures with the stamp of age. As the French people, after 
Canada had passed into the hands of the British, were left with 
entire religious liberty and their existing institutions, untouched, we 
may presume, that, with their conservative instincts, they rebuilt 
and restored on the old lines, or in the same spirit. 

The wall on the western side of the city still stands, but, within the 
past half century, the last of the old gateways was taken down. The 

Ste. Famille St. 

old archways were found too narrow for the increasing traffic, ami, 
instead of diverting the road to one side and piercing the wall with 
another archway as might have been done, the old gateway with its 
guard-room over loopholed for firing on the enemy, was also 
demolished. The modern gateways are prosaic-looking, and without 
interest to us. Quaint and picturesque as this gray old capital is 
now, how much more so must it have been in the middle of last 
century. Let us hope the Quebec Historical Society, so far as its 
influence can go, will carefully preserve all that is left, and save the 
city from further acts of vandalism. 

The churches and chapels are, perhaps, the most interesting of the 
buildings in Quebec. Chief amongst them is the French Cathedral 
consecrated in 1666 by Monseigneur De Laval, the first bishop of the 
colony. The style of the present interior is that of the time of Louis 
XIV, and this style pervades the interiors of the other churches as 
well. There is much gilding and white paint. The church is of 
good proportions, with a lofty nave, covered by an elliptical vault 
under a high pitched roof. The windows are "semicircular-headed, 
without stained-glass and divided into small panes. There are two 
sets of sashes, the outer being flush with the outside face of the wall. 

We are accustomed to associate the style of Louis XIV with ball- 
rooms and apartments devoted to festive purposes, and one might 
suppose in a church such a style would not lend itself to the devo- 
tional spirit, but, to my surprise, it seemed quite otherwise. 

I stood near the entrance, far back, and took in the whole picture. 
One by one the worshippers came in, dipping their fingers as they 
passed into the holy-water near the door, then kneeling in the fore- 
ground or by some side altar. The brilliant high-altar and the large 
paintings which adorned the walls ; the richness of the gilded 
ornament, the scarlet capes and gold lace of the vergers, the organ 
in the western gallery and the foreign look of the congregation, made 
up a most impressive picture. It brought to mind stage-scenes of 
Irving's, and, but for the costumes of the people, might have been 
part of the seventeenth century. 

I was given a seat near the pulpit in the nave; the singers sang 
out right lustily, attracting a young lady in front of me who turned 
around and cast piercing upward glances towards them through a 
pair of eyeglasses, which at once suggested Boston. Excepting this 
slight interruption, I felt as though I must be in Europe, so dis- 
tinctively foreign were my surroundings, and when tlie warden came 

FEBRUARY 2, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


around with his collection-box, guarded and shadowed by the verger 
resplendent in scarlet and gold, and carrying his insignia of office 
aloft, I never dropped a coin more willingly. The priest at the 
altar robed in gorgeously embroidered vestments, the acolytes in 
attendance, the wafting of fragrant incense from burning censers, 
swung first towards the altar, then to the choristers and lastly to us, 
the unworthy of the congregation, all heightened the general effect. 
To me the climax came near the close of the service, when the 
organist, a consummate artist, played slowly and softly, what to my 
astonished ears was nothing more or less than the old familiar air : 

" What's this dull toun to me, 
Robin Adair ? " 

Laval University, which is near the cathedral, contains a large 
museum. In one room there is a collection of one hundred and thirty- 
three paintings, several of which, it is said, were sent to Canada by 
Abbe' Uesjardin, priest of the foreign missions in Paris, who resided 
a few years in Canada during the French Revolution. He bought 
these paintings from some of the old nobility who were then leaving 
France, and sent them to Canada. Among the collection are three 
by David Teniers, two by Salvator Rosa and one by Tintoretto. 

T - * v - seminary chapel which adjoins tin \*,.~*\t,, . 

In the 

university, were a 

Sous Le Fort. 

number of valuable paintings by celebrated masters, all unfortunately 
destroyed by fire on New Year's Day of last year. Some writers in 
referring to these paintings in Quebec, have been quite sceptical as to 

their genuineness. I cannot 
speak from the standpoint of 
an expert in this branch of 
fine arts, but my impression 
was that many of these paint- 
ings had all the characteris- 
tics of the several old masters 
whose names are attached to 
them, and with reference 
generally to the large paint- 
ings which are framed and 
hung on the walls of the 
various chapels and churches, 
it is immaterial, when we 
consider their decorative 
value in the interiors. 

After the cathedral, the 
most interesting chapels are 
those of the Ursnline Convent 
and the Hotel Dieu. At the 
former convent you talk with 
a nun, invisible behind a metal 
plate, at a barred opening in 
the hall, and a servant is sent 
to show you the chapel. The 
convent was founded in 1641 by Madame De la Peltrie, and after- 
wards rebuilt in 1686. A monument to the memory of Moutcalm is 
in the chapel, and here lie his remains. 

Quebec is a city of contrasts. On a Sunday afternoon I entered 
the town by the place where once stood the Palace Gate, through 
which Montcalm rode in hot haste to defend the town. Sounds of 
primitive music came from a building up the street : the Salvation 
Army had taken possession. I turned down a narrower street, to the 
left, and heard a softer strain of music coming from the convent 
walls. I opened a door and entered an outer garden from which, 
bevond another wall, I saw through the open windows of a side 
chapel the veiled figures of the nuns rising and falling as they sang 
the sacred chants. In the chapel, to which visitors are admitted, 
were a few worshippers ; the arched opening to the side chapel was 
filled with a metal grating which hid the nuns from view. 

The early history of Canada, when Jesuit priests went out to 
Christianize the Indians, is filled with many a martyr's story. There 
is nothing in all the annals of the early Christian martyrs to com- 
pare with the terrible fate that befel Jean de Brebceuf, a man of noble 
lineage. It would horrify you were I to relate his torture, yet 
never did man die more bravely or heroically. " His family sent 
from France a silver bust of their martyred kinsman, in the base of 
which was a recess to contain his skull, and to this day these are 
preserved with pious care by the nuns of the Hotel Dieu." 

One of the most delightful excursions from Quebec is that to the 
village of Ste. Anne de Beaupr^, about eighteen miles down the St. 
Lawrence. The journey may be performed by either road or river, 
but the tourist would do well to include both. It will well repay 
him. A little steamer leaves the wharf at the lower town, about six 
o'clock in the morning. We sail past the Falls of Montmorenci, a 
body of water leaping down a sheer precipice full two hundred feet 
in height. There are saw-mills along the shore near it driven by 
water-power, and the same force has been ingeniously utilized to 
generate the electric current which lights Quebec eight miles distant. 
The spot is memorable, too, as being the scene of Wolfe's first attack 
on the French, when he had to retreat with a loss of over four 
hundred men. We sail past groups of quaint-looking farm-houses 
which form the sleepy villages, stopping now and then at landings by 
the flats on the river side, until about eight o'clock we step ashore 
under the lee of steep hills. 

At the suggestion of mv travelling companions, two French Cana- 
dians from Quebec, we repaired, with sharpened appetites, to the 

Convent of the Sisters of Charity for breakfast. This institution 
partakes of the character of an hostelry, providing in the refectory 
plain, substantial fare for the wayfarer and pilgrim. The rates and 
other particulars about boarding, which are printed in French and 
English, are hung in the hall. The novelty of the situation led us 
to think of staying all night, but a chat later on in the day with the 
girl who sat knitting in the hall and acting as doorkeeper, revealed 
the fact not explained in the rules and regulations aforesaid, that the 
regular boarders must be of the gentler sex. 

There are hotels enough in the village, one-half of them called 
" Hotel de la Bonne" Ste. Anne." They are not so picturesque as 
one would like, for most of them are modern ; but, in spite of this, 
one is again and again here reminded of French country-life. A 
girl hay-making in a field comes down the road when she leaves her 
work, looking the very counterpart of her Normandy cousin, or as 
if she had stepped bodily from one of Millet's peasant pictures. In 
this pleasant village, under the shelter of a hill called Petite Cap, 
the pious Governor Aillebout, in 1658, began a church with his own 
hands; and here I must quote the historian: "Louis Grumont, a 
habitant of Beaupre, sorely afflicted with rheumatism, came, grinning 
with pain, to lay three stones in the foundation, in honor, probably, 
of Ste. Anne, St. Joachim, and their daughter, the Virgin. Instantlv 
he was cured. It was but the beginning of a long course of miracles, 
continued more than two centuries, and continuing still." .Every 
year, pilgrims came from all parts of Canada and the United 
States, numbering hundreds of thousands annually. There were 
cures reported in the newspapers while I was in Quebec, but no 
miracles were wrought on the day I visited the church, perhaps 
because it was a Friday, an inauspicious day. Lest any one should 
doubt the reality of these marvellous works, there stand inside at 
the western end of the church two circular wooden stagings, about 
four feet diameter at the base, and from thirty to forty feet high, on 
which hang many an old stave and crutch, left behind by those who 
have been cured at the shrine of Ste. Anne. 

To the antiquarian, it is a matter of deep regret that the old 
church was taken down. In 1871 it was still standing, but in a ruin- 
ous condition. About two years later a new church, on a much larger 
scale, was begun, and in due course finished. The old church, to 
judge from the photographs of it, must have been a quaint and inter- 
esting structure. On the site where it once stood a chapel was built, 
and the picturesque double bell-tower of the old church, shown in this 
sketch, surmounts it. The old stones were used to build the walls, 
and some of the old parts of the interior were used in the new chapel. 
It is thus not destitute of the interesting element, especially as it 
contains some highly-prized relics, but the big new church across 
the road, like all the modern work in and around Quebec, very 
grandiose in its way, has little, if any, artistic merit. 

A study of the history of the country leads one to suppose that 
the building and decorative arts never attained to any marked ex- 
cellence, nor could this be otherwise. The people were too much 
under the surveillance of their religious teachers, and their time, too 
much taken up with, religious work and exercises ; or else th y were 
engaged in war with the Indians, and latterly with their neighbors, 
the British colonists, whilst the resources of the country, the harvests 
of the land and sea, were but half developed. 

The historian tells us that in the seventeenth century the nuns of 
the Hotel Dieu made artificial flowers for alt irs and shrines, and 
the boys of Laval's Industrial School, at the seminary, were taught 
to make carvings in wood for the decoration of churches. Pierre, 
son of Le Ber, a Montreal merchant, had a turn for painting, and 
made religious pictures, described as very indifferent. His sister 
Jeanne, an enthusiastic devotee and recluse, made embroideries for 
vestments and altars, and her work was much admired and greatly 
in demand. 

There were repeated complaints from the governors and intend- 
ants as to the dearth of skilled workmen. The demand was greater 
than the supply, so it would seem that the priests in charge of the 
schools were more successful in making good Catholics than good 
carpenters, masons, blacksmiths, and weavers. 

As far as I rambled, there was hardly a moulding or bit of detail 
worth sketching for furt'ier study, but it is possible that I did not 
explore thoroughly enough. Once, while rambling through the blank 
corridors of Laval University, I came upon a wooden chimney-piece 
which reminded me strongly of those still to be found in our old 
colonial houses. In one of the pencil-sketches you will see what 
might be called a bit of New England in New France. This was a 
house of some importance in its day, being occupied by the French 
governors, but it is now all gone to rack and ruin. 

One cause of gratitude we have towards these Northern French- 
men is that stone was their chief building material. It gives at once 
a sense of solidity and depth, even when covered, as it often is in 
many of the older buildings, with a whitewashed coat of plaster. The 
heavy chimneys, high gable walls, and deep reveals help the effect. 
Not uncommonly we see the exposed gable-end, and even the 
chimneys of a cottage, covered, as an additional protection, with 
wood outside the masonry. 

You will notice in this sketch at Point Levis, across the river 
from Quebec, three different types of wooden houses : first, the 
oldest, with solid timbers laid horizontally, and dovetailed at the 
angles, the joints being filled-in with mortar ; next, a later type 
shows the exterior covered with upright planks or boards, even the 
Cables and chimneys being similarly covered; and lastly, the latest 


The American Architect and Building News. [.VOL. XXV. No. 68 1. 

type of all shows a wide projection of the eaves, sometimes extend- 
ing about a yard from the wall. This is a particularly effective 
feature, giving a bold shadow, and protecting the upper part of the 
wall from the weather. 

I observed on the country-road to Montmorenci, that the fronts of 
the cottages were not always placed parallel with the road, being 
very often at angles with it, when the road changed direction. The 
simple explanation of this was that the cottages were built with the 
gable-end towards that quarter of the compass from which the stormy 
winds would blow, but it is needless to add that, besides the uses of 
this expedient, it tended greatly to the general picturesqueness 

Point Letts. 

The barns in the rear of these cottages were quaint-looking and 
admirable in color. At the apex of many of the gable-ends the roof 
projected, as in sketch, forming a kind of hood. In the city many 
odd-looking dormers are to be seen with similar projecting roofs. 
A telescope form of chimney, such as appears in another sketch, is 
another feature occasionally found. 

From a study of roofs, one soon notices that ladders are left there 
all the year around, which would seem to indicate that repairs are 
frequently needed, owing probably to the frequent use of unpainted 
tin shingles. And yet, in spite oif its drawbacks as a roof-covering, 
this material has to a stranger that is, to the artistic stranger 
a very charming effect. It soon, by exposure to the weather, assumes 
a steel gray and gray-green appearance, and those portions which 
turn rusty have the color of burnt sienna. The effect in the distance 
is to relieve masses of dull gray by a glistening sheen, like gold, on 
the rustier roofs. I saw, on the way to Montreal, an old windmill 
that was almost black, covered with a dome-shaped roof, which shone 
like burnished gold. It seemed hard to believe that it was simply 
rusty tin. In the design of the belfries, you will observe that the 
lower tier of arched openings is almost invariably repeated above on 
a smaller scale. These belfries often have finials and crosses of 
wrought-iron, generally light in appearance, as at the Ursuline Con- 
vent. There are also iron crosses by the roadside, on the way to 
Ste. Anne, which doubtless came from France. 

In the early days, when the ships sailed only once, or twice in the 
year to the old country, the governors and intendants were much 
given to writing what might be termed long-winded epistles to the 
ministers at home ; and, as the home government was remarkably 
considerate of the young colony's claims, it is more than likely that 
much of the church interior furnishings, such as paintings, metal- 
work, and embroidery, came from France. 

Glancing into the wayside cottages as we passed, we could often 
see an old chair or -a table, plain and simple in form, but undoubt- 
edly ancient. It seemed, therefore, that the town would not be com- 
plete without an old curiosity-shop, and when we found it, this, too, 
was satisfying. It partook very much of the character of a museum, 
and must be a perfect mine to the archaeologist and the antiquarian. 
It was a rare and varied collection : swords, muskets, and bayonets 
picked up on the field of battle; bullets and cannon-shot; a piece of 
the chain that moored one of Jacques Cartier's ships ; old Indian 
curiosities, geological specimens, coins, furniture, silver plate, metal 
and china ware filling in all three large rooms. Of old French 
art there did not seem to be much; but no doubt the curio-hunter 
has long before this ransacked the country and borne away such 
booty. Other things seemed to suggest the departed glory of English 
families, who have probably either gone back to the old country or 
come to grief in this. 

And now a few words about Quebec as a field for the artist. 
Some of you, in your rambles round about Boston, have perhaps 
lost many an hour hunting for a subject to sketch. We all know 
what that means something interesting, picturesque, and good in 
composition. I dare say you have found that Nature is not always 
pictorial. In and around Quebec you will find subjects plentiful, 
without much need to change or modify, the whole composing hap- 
pily. It may be a view in the rear of a house, with an odd group- 
ing of various accessories in the back-yard ; a few chimneys and 
old roofs ; a large azalea in flower amid ruin and decay ; or an old 
tannery with orange-russet color in the bark on the ground, and 
dark umber color OB the barns and roofs the hides hanging on a 
line. Again, there are old boats, stranded on the river-bank old 
wharves going to decay, grown gray, green, and umber in color. 

Many painters in France represent green fields with a color which 
any one at all familiar with the work of different schools would 
recognize as distinctively French. Now, around Quebec, I saw more 
than once in the fields just such a color of green. Was it merely 
imagination, or had the landscape become susceptible to French 
influence, and thus resembled the mother-country? I should be glad 
to know, from those who have been in both Old and New France, 
whether this theory has any basis of fact. 

From what I have already remarked about the rural districts, it is 
almost needless to add that the figure-painter, also, finds charming sub- 
jects here. In a word, it is a painter's paradise, and some of our Bos- 
ton artists have found this to their profit. The majority of us, who 
are but amateur dabblers in landscape-painting, and even those who 
have no talent for sketching, may benefit largely from the quiet study 
of such scenes as these. To enlarge our horizon, to rest and drink 
in^the silent influences of the time and place by the very contrast 
this makes with our work-a-day world will surely bring freshened 
and original thoughts. 

Before seeing this country you should know its history well, and, 
if you read Francis Parkman on this subject, you will be astonished 
to find how much of an outline your school-history has become. It 
will afford you, at the same time, a glimpse of this country in the 
early colonial days, and you will feel grateful to the historian for his 
able work, doubly enhancing, as it will, the enjoyment of your tour. 

With much that is romantic in the annals of New France, we 
have here also an historical study of peculiar interest. How, on the 
one hanJ, the British colonies, peopled for the most part with a race 
trained in habits of self-reliance, grew strong and independent ; on 
the other, this colony of New France, of earlier birth, but always 
under paternal leading-strings, reflecting in its later life some of the 
corrupting influences at work in the mother-country precursory to 
the French Revolution; and when the end drew near the gathering 
of the army to defend Quebec, the story of that long summer's siege, 
the splendid strategy of the gallant Wolfe, his death in the hour of 
victory, and the brave Montcahn in the hour of defeat all reads 
like a page of some grandly written drama. Wreathed with such 
thrilling historic associations as these, this hoary old town must ever 
remain a delightful Mecca to all thoughtful and observant pilgrims. 

TITHE aim of this department will be to answer such questions of. 
> 1 1" law arising out of building transactions, and of general interest 
to the profession, as may be sent in to the editors by subscribers 
or others, and also from time to time to discuss in a more general 
way the various legal questions which are continually arising between 
architect, contractor, and client. The principles of law applicable 
to building disputes will be presented, so far as practicable, in the 
language of the layman, rather than in the technical garb of the 
lawyer's brief, and as concisely as possible. If correspondents desire 
further or more detailed answers than the scope of this department 
and the space at its disposal will permit, they can be accommodated 
on special application to the editors. 

The solution of questions involving a knowledge of local regula- 
tions can with the exception of the building laws of the city of 
Boston hardly be attempted, owing to the difficulty of obtaining 
the ordinances. The questions that interest architects, however, and 
the disputes they are called upon to settle, usually involve merely a 
correct application of the general principles of the Common Law ; 
jeing seldom controlled by the statute laws of the several States, 
and more rarely still by city ordinances. 

A greater diversity of service is expected of the modern architect 
;han of any other class of professional men. He must not only be 
skilled in construction and design ; he must look after the financial 
nterests of his client; he must act as arbitrator in disputes between 
the latter and the contractor ; and he is expected to pass on every 
question of law that arises during his employment. All this wealth 
of learning, skill and business keenness is expected to be at his 
client's disposal without extra compensation ; and it is not strange 
;hat oftentimes the architect gets weary and the client dissatisfied. 

Probably none of the manv problems which the nature of his call- 
ng and the oftentimes unreasonably exacting demands of his client 
throw upon the architect give him more trouble than the legal diffi- 
culties which surround all building operations. From the selection 
of the site and the drawing of the contracts and specifications to the 
payment of the last bill, or the termination of the last law-suit, 
questions are continually arising which demand some knowledge of 
;he law. These cannot generally be referred to a lawyer, partly 
Because the owner will not stand the expense, and partly because an 
accurate and ready answer to many of them would demand a more 
thorough familiarity with building methods than most lawyers possess. 
An acquaintance, therefore, with the rules of law applicable to build- 
ng transactions is essential to the architect ; but it is not such an 
easy thing to acquire. The law-books devoted to the subject are 
r ew in number, and totally inadequate in substance from the stand- 
joint of both architect and lawyer ; study of the building cases in 
,he law-reports is laborious in the extreme, and altogether unlikely 

FEBRUARY 2, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


to load a layman to correct conclusions. Practically, therefore, the 
usual road to accurate knowledge of the law for builders, architects, 
and owners is the vexatious path of litigation. 

It is not that the rules of law applicable to building operations are 
complicated or uncertain : they are, on the contrary, few and simple ; 
but for this very reason, and because of their general character, they 
are usually taken for granted in the cases and books on building. 
It is, therefore) the more general works, the books on agency, on 
real property and on contracts, that the layman in search of building 
law must digest, and that is generally a task for which he has not 

The characteristic feature of the English common law as distin- 
guished from the jurisprudence of continental Europe, founded 
mainly on principles inherited from the days of the Roman law, is 
its freedom from special branches and special rules applicable to par- 
ticular subjects only. The fundamental principles of the common 
law are extremely few, and they are of general application. There 
is, for instance, no '-building law," strictly speaking; that if, there 
is no set of rules of special and peculiar application to buildings. 
There is no special law of party-walls, there being no such thing in 
our system of jurisprudence as a " party-wall," considered as a 
distinct species of property with special legal attributes. There is 
no law peculiar to architects as such ; they have with us no definite 
legal status, as in France and other countries. An architect has, in 
our law, no authority whatever as such, and all his legal relations with 
his client are to be determined pimply by the general rules of agency 
and contract. Thus the questions commonly put by architects to 
lawyers: "Can the architect do so and so?" " Has the architect 
authority to order such and such things ? " are in that form incapable 
of being answered, for the extent of the architect's authority depends 
in every case upon the instructions which he has, in fact, received 
from his client. 

A full appreciation of the fact that we have no special " building 
law," that the term itself, strictly speaking, is a misnomer, being 
simply a convenient designation for the group of cases in which the 
general rules of law have been applied to building contracts and 
kindred questions, is the first thing to be grasped by every one 
whose calling makes it important for him to become familiar with 
the principles of law which govern these matters. 

An attempt will be made in this department, to present in a concise 
form the legal principles which it is important for architects to 
know, and which, for the reasons given above, it is difficult for them 
to ascertain. It is hoped that this work, supplemented by answers 
to correspondents and by some discussion from the legal standpoint 
of other matters of general interest to architects, will meet with the 
approbation of our readers and of the profession generally. 


BOSTON, MASS., January 22, 1889. 

Dear Sim, Under the title of "Church Vestry Destroyed," the 
Boston Herald, under the date of Monday, January 21, gives an 
account of the destruction of the vestry belonging to the old Cam- 
bridge Baptist Church, which was a large and expensive structure, 
purporting to be built of stone. The firemen on reaching the fire 
" found the whole roof of the vestry blazing," and with great difliculty 
the fire was prevented from penetrating the hollow roof and the 
hollow walls of the main church, which was barely saved. 

The cause of the fire is said to have been a defective flue : 
this may be a very good guess, but one who has studied the frequent 
combustion of this class of buildings may venture to guess that 
during the variable weather of last week the furnace was lighted 
when the church was very cold, and when the outer air became 
warm, back action may have taken place through the furnace air- 
box, probably made of wood, setting the floor and hollow wall of the 
vestry on fire; the fire being immediately communicated to the roof, 
where there was a space of four feet between the ceiling and the 
roof proper. 

A loss of twenty thousand dollars and four firemen injured is the 
price paid for this example of combustible architecture. I think 
this is the third instance of similar fires in Cambridgeport in recent 
years. In the previous case, a second church upon the same spot 
where the previous one had been burned, having been destroyed in 
the same way, I ventured to recommend, under the name of "Ignis 
Fatuus," that the Building Committee should advertise for a safer 
method of combustible architecture, which should ensure the very 
prompt combustion of the church itself without exposing the firemen 
to danger. Whether or not this plan was followed in the building of 
the church for the third time I am not informed. 

I venture at this time, in the light of the fire, to send you three 
studies for slow-burning churches, houses and hospitals which may 
serve a useful purpose in calling the attention of the public to the 
usual faults in construction of thfe kind. These buildings are out of 
our customary line, but since we have been obliged to refuse to 
insure a Memorial Church, belonging to the owners of some very 

large cotton factories which we d'vl insure owing to its faulty con- 
struction we thought it might not be inconsistent to give our 
members some hints, so that they might construct safe memorial 
churches, or other buildings appurtenant to their factories. We 
submit these sketches merely as studies, for what they are worth. 
Yours very truly, EDWARD ATKINSON. 


SEATTLE, W. T., January 18, 1889. 


Dear Sirs, I have a work to design and superintend, to cost 
$200,000. It is located at Seattle, W. T., while my home and 
business is in New York. I cannot give it personal supervision, 
and must leave the superintendence to a deputy. There is one of 
tried experience who offers his services at $2,400, a year. The 
price is moderate ; he surely should be worth that if he is efficient 
for the service, while the payment if so large a building is as long 
in construction as usual will probably more than eat up the entire 
commission allowed me for supervision. This 1 should not at all 
object to, but here enters another feature: as my representative, I 
am responsible, minus all compensation for responsibility for him, and 
if as in the case of a hotel at Kansas City, where I understand a truss 
at the top of the building slipped and lauded in the cellar, casin<* 
several thousand dollars loss, and where combined with the con'- 
tractor, the architects though their plans were faultless, were 
held for the mishap because they were the superintendents' if, I 
say, such troubles should arise in my work, where would I stand? 
And what safeguard, if there is any, could I provide to eliminate 
this unjust element of risk? 

It has seemed to me that the owners have a distinct right to look 
to me to perform for them all the duties of an architect ; but ou^ht 
not I also to have some provision by which I can sleep in security 
while my work is going forward? 

Any suggestion that can help me to adjust this business on a proper 
and if possible, a safe professional basis, will be greatly appreciated 
by, Yours respectfully, VITKUVIUS. 

[WE should sny that "subscriber's" best way would be to furnish draw- 
ings and specifications for the building, receiving for them the usual 
commission for such limited service of tinee nnd one-hnlf per cent, and have 
it understood that his responsibility ends then and there, the owner pro- 
viding as he may see lit for the carrying out and supervision of the work. 
If the owner wishes to have the architect superintend the building, the only 
fair way would be to pay him for the time, as well as the money', expended 
in travelling to and from .New York, tlie frais <le cle'plucemi'nt, as the 
Fienuh law calls it. To expect the architect to keep a deputy on 
the ground, committing his fortune and his professional reputation abso- 
lutely to a stranger, simply because the owner does not wish to pay the 
reasonable cost of having the architect himself see to the work in w hicii he 
has so heavy a responsibility, may seem right to an owner, but it hardly 
will to any one else ; and an architect who would take so grave a lisle 
deserves no sympathy from the profession. Eus. AMKIUCAN AUCHITKCT.] 


NEW YOEK, January 20, 1889. 

Dear Sirs, The complaint of "Sinex" is most interesting, and 
we hope it will provoke discussion. No part of the construction of 
a building, of equal expense, is more important, and none so univer- 
sally neglected by both owners and architects, as the gas-fitting. 
During an experience of more than twenty-five years' gas-fitting, light- 
ing many thousands of country buildings of all classes, we have hardly 
ever seen specifications furnished by either architect or owner which 
would furnish reasonable direction to the gas-fitter, or afford any 
protection to the owner. 

We have men employed nearly all the time in taking out pipinf 
from houses imperfectly piped, and doing what may be done to 
rectify inferior work. During the last thirty days we have found 
three buildings in the suburbs of New York in such a condition that 
it was dangerous to turn the gas into them. Removing, at great 
expense and annoyance to the owner, oak floors and wainscoting, 
tearing off decorations, and in some instances removing clapboards 
from the outside of houses, we have found every rule "of tbe trade 
violated split pipe, fittings full of sand-holes, joints so loosely put 
together that they may be swung around by hand, pipe of insufficient 
capacity, drops taken out from the bottom of running lines, bracket- 
lights run from overhead instead of from below, and drips carrying 
a condensation into fixtures, instead of into risers and out of the 

How may these difficulties be avoided ? 

First, let. " Sinex " pay what the work is worth. 

It is safe to say that no house to which even the smallest gas- 
machine made would be attached can be honestly piped for thirty 
dollars. No gas-fitter ought to consent to pipe any house for less 
than fifty dollars. In a matter of so much importance, and where 
the cost is so trifling, why should not the owner, selecting tradesmen 
of financial responsibility and known skill, order the gas-fitting done 
by the day ? Why invite dishonest work by asking, in a general 
way, for bids from anybody and everybody, without providing, first, 
suitable specifications for the work, and, second, insisting on a cer- 
tificate signed by an inspector known to be competent? We have 
furnished printed directions and specifications in detail for the piping 


TJie American Architect and Building News. [VoL. XXIV. No. 684. 

of suburban buildings suitable for gasolene-gas for many years, and 
have distributed thousands of them to architects and owners without 
charge, but have never in a single instance seen one of them used. 

So long as owners and architects are so singularly and conspicu- 
ously indifferent to the character of work done, how can gas-fitters 
and plumbers be expected to care. 

Probably " Sinex " got more than thirty dollars' worth of work in 
the case he complains of. 



HARTFORD. Coys., January 22, 1889. 

Dear Sirs, Some of your readers may be interested to know that 
the massive frame surrounding the ' miraculous " picture of the 
Virgin in the centre of the high altar of the church at Guadalupe, 
published in last issue, is of solid gold, and was given by a wealthy 
merchant who had been, it is alleged, benefited by the Virgin's in- 
terposition in his affairs. 

The double balustrading reaching down from the altar to the 
organ in middle of nave is of solid silver. 

The frame, I am not able to vouch for, but, while I was at the 
church a few months ago, the organ was undergoing partial removal 
and I inspected the railing, and found it cast hollow, with a shell 
one-quarter inch thick, apparently of pure silver throughout. 

Silver js not dear in Mexico, and in the thin, dry air preserves its 
brilliant lustre a long time without rcpolishing. 

In this church of Guadalupc are hung numerous effigies in silver 
of portions of human bodies which have been healed by the Virgin's 
miraculous powers. Yours very respectfully, 


shocks upon the teeth of the gear, and in that way acted as a buffer 
preventing the gears from committing a mechanical suicide. A steam 
engine, used to operate the dynamos for lighting an insurance building 
in New York, gave a great deal of annoyance to the occupants by the 
jar which was transmitted throughout the building. It is supposed 
that the motion of the engine was in rhythm with the key-note of the 
building. The makers of several engines tried to solve the problem, 
which was at last achieved by one firm, who bolted the beil of their 
engine to a timber raft which rested upon a layer of hair felt such as 
is used for non-conducting coverings for steam pipes and boilers, but 
fourteen inches thick. This felt was placed upon the masonry founda- 
tion recently prepared for the engine, and surrounded by a heavy 
timber box which prevented its spreading. An engine, used to operate 
the electric-light plant in one of the principal hotels in New York City, 
gave annoyance to the guests because, when it was in operation, beats 
could be heard all over the building, notwithstanding that the engine 
was situated in a tightly-closed room in the basement. After various 
other expedients had failed, the doors to this room were taken down 
and replaced by double thicknesses of carpet fixed upon the frame- 
work. This served to break up the rhythm in such a way that the 
sound was not heard throughout the building. Sawdust has been used 
for foundations in many instances, and there are numerous towns in 
the United States which have been built up from small villages origin- 
ally around a sawmill, and the sawdust from the mill has been used to 
fill up low places which have afterwards served as building lots. In 
course of time such filling becomes very compact, and does not appear 
to waste by decay. Engineering* 

A "CLOSE CALL." One of the worst frightened men in Fall Kiver, 
Mass. , recently, was Alderman Durfee. He happened to be standing 
on a ledge of rock from which building stone was being quarried. 
Everything was quiet, but he finally noticed a man crawling towards 
him cautiously on his hands and knees. The alderman naturally in- 
quired why this was being done, and was informed that for the past ten 
minutes lie had been standing on top of a dynamite cartridge, and that 
the crawler had been trying to set it off by means of an electric wire. 
The alderman's heel was upon the wire and had grounded it, and that 
was the only reason why the blast did not go off. Fire and Water. 

BRICK FOUNDATIONS. Mr. II. Leonard, M. I. C. E., the late chief 
engineer to the Bengal 1'ublic Works Department, gives in Indian 
Ettghieering an interesting account of experiments carried out by him 
at Akra with a view to determining the proper proportions of brick 
foundations in alluvial soil. The experiments were made on a large 
scale, the piers being of a size such as might be used in real work, and 
the indications obtained are correspondingly valuable. First, with re- 
gard to the pressure permissible, Mr. Leonard found that with a 
ptessure of one ton per square foot on the soil there was practically no 
sinking, whilst with two tons the sinking was decided, and sufficient to 
cause bad cracks. If one part of a building were built with a pressure 

THK combination of electric-light interests which has been Ions: under dis- 
cns.-ion, has been finally partially effected by the United States and the 
Westiiisslioiise uniting. These companies will control some 7<'0 patents and 
represent a capital of $10,000,001). The manufacturing capacity at present 
is 15.000 lamps per day. and new works will be erected at New York and 
Pittsburgh to expand production to any desired limit. This unification of 
interests is significant in many respects. It means, among other thinsrs, 
that a good many patents that ha\e heretofore been unused will hereafter 
j be developed, and that a great deal of work will be prosecuted w inch it was 
to the individual interest of the companies to hold in {-heck. While this is 
in the form of a monopoly, it is one of those combinations which will 
naturally result in much good. It is probable that the cost of tlei trie 
lighting w-ill decline rather than inctease. The reports from the leading 
companies all over the United States all speak of an unusually active 
condition of business. During the past ninety days more business for 
electric-light conveniences have been received and ordcrf d, it is stated, than 
during any previous twelve months. Manufacturers of machinery of all 
sorts of equipments and supplies are now crowded with work, and this 
conditions of things is not likely to be changed by any decadence of demand 
for an indefinite period. The demand for elect ric-li^ht goods from all 
sections of the country, from small towns in the far West and Southwest, 
as well as from the larger cities, is large. The activity in electrical circles is 
a fair sample of what is uoing on in many other directions. The projectors 
and promotors of industrial enterprises arc entering upon their new work 
for the coming season. A resume of the extensive operations projected 
during the past thirty days may be, presented in the compass covering 
almost every kind of manufacturing enterprise. Throughout the South, 
cotton-mills, agricultural implement-works, wagon-factories, rolling-mills, 
blast-furnaces, besides innumerable small manufacturing establishments, 
are all projected for construction as soon as material can be luid. Louis- 
ville will become quite a manufacturing city if all the schemes that are pro- 
jected aro carried out. Mississippi has already made wonderful progress, 
and several large companies ate now preparing to operate in that State, in 
railroad construction, in the establishment of ship lines, in cotton-mills, 
in lumbering operations and in many others. A great, deal of money will 
be invested in Northern Alaska this year, and four or five long Hues will be 

,.,.,,. ., , uc uiieBbcu 01 i^ui LIII ii miii*n>i im> icnr, it 

of two tons per square loot on the foundations, and another part with coll . t ,.,,cted, the others of fifty miles in leu 
one ton only, the unequal settlement would be, he considers, quite 
sufficient to cause bad cracks ; hence the load on the foundations 
should be under one ton per square foot, or if over should be equal on 
all the piers. Experiments were next made on the proper depth for 
the foundations. Trials were made with foundations at two feet, six 
inches, or just below the usually disturbed soil, at four feet where the 
true alluv al deposit was undisturbed, at eight feet where a different 
though not better soil was touched, and at eleven feet where the soil 
was soft and wet. The foundations at two feet six inches were found 
to be affected by heavy rains, whilst those at eleven feet sank more 
than those at four feet and eight feet, and Mr. Leonard finally con- 
cludes that in undisturbed alluvial soil the foundations of important 
buildings should be laid at a depth of between four feet and six feet. 
The third point examined was the proper spread to give the brickwork 
in such soil, and from these experiments he concludes that for a press- 
ure of one ton to the square foot in Bengal soil the thickness at the toe 
of the slope should not be less than one foot six inches and the step- 
ping at an angle of not more than forty-five degrees. Engineering. 

FLEXIBLE FOUNDATION'S. The ordinary conception of a foundation 
is that its virtue is in exact proportion to its rigidity, and that the more 
unyielding it is, the better it serves its purpose. And while this as- 
sumption may be true in supporting a heavy load, yet where questions 
of impact enter, the " soft answer will turn away wrath," as well in 
dynamics as in polemics. At a factory in the United States some 
bevelled gears which were used to change the direction of main shaft- 
ing from one mill to another, were at the end of very heavy shafts, 
which ran in pillow blocks, simply bolted to an outcropping ledge, which 
was dressed to a level for the purpose of sustaining the foundations. 
Some of the teeth of these bevelled gears would break from time to 
time, and in a most unaccountable manner. The accident might be de- 
ferred for three months, or it might occur at any moment. Various 
expedients were tried, and finally that of taking up the pillar blocks 
and placing them on seats of raw hide which had been soaked in oil ; 
these gave the bearings enough elasticity to prevent a concentration of 

Along the Atlantic coast numerous enterprises are talked of, most of 
them the property of Northern capitalists. Late advices from Kansas City, 
Omaha and Minnesota show that indications from these centres can be re- 
lied upon as general that there will be larger building operations nudettaken 
tins year than last. One reason is that last year's investments have been 
unusually profitable, another is that the country is rilling these localities 
and that the country is bein^ developed. Omaha is becoming a very im- 
portant commercial centre and important railroad schemes will make that a 
sort of centre. Basides this, numerous small manufacturing enterprises 
are springing up in Montana, Colorado and Utah and they are drawing 
capital and enterprise in their wake. In Minnesota, St. 1'atil, Duliith and that 
region of conn try, those, who will make investments as the railmad situation 
clears are waiting. The solution of the railroad question will erase a great 
many difficulties in the way of farmers, miners, lumbermen, and the copper- 
mining interests as well as the agricultural and commercial interests and 
the paper interests of this wonderful section. Not one single branch is 
threatened with restriction. Enlarging operations will probably be reported 
within ninety days in every branch. The leading lumber antb.nities are 
predicting on improvinz trade and are intending to prepare for it when it 
coniRs. In New York City there is a growing accumulation of money. The 
surplus there is now in excess of -520,000,000. This is an encourngtnjt thTng 
just now. Financiers are pleased at the manner in which borrowers are re- 
paying their loans everywhere. Very few failures are taking place. The 
great bulk of obligations are being promptly met. Bankers find but little 
demand for money, yet it must be remembered that there is an increase in 
the amount of business that is being done by the use of negotiable paper. 
Business men are interested in keeping as near to the cash system as possi- 
ble. Bankers themselves nre disposed to favor an increased supply of 
money to meet the enlarging business, operations, but they are not willing 
that it should be issued otherwise than under the supervision of banking 
interests whose business it is to measure the requirements of the country, so 
far as money is concerned and to meet that demand. The railiorid que'-tinn 
is generally gliding toward a quiet solution. Two or three meetings have 
been held within ten days and the serious obstacles which then taxed the 
patience and ingenuity of the most experienced railway managers for years 
past are now likely to be adjusted. f 

S. J. PARKHILL & Co., Printers, Boston. 

FEBRUARY 2, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 



rK CKEosoTr.5Hific:LE3TAiHs 

) L l _ l . l , M 

The American Architect and Building News. [Voi,. XXV. No. 684. 








Copyright, 1889, by TICKNOK & COMPANY, Boston, Maes. 

No. 685, 

FEBRUARY 9, 1889. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Boston as second-class matter. 


The Massachusetts State- House Extension Competition. The 
Award of the Prizes. A Case of Architects' Responsibility. 

Architects and Heat Contractors. The Guaranty given 

by Makers of Heating Appliances ,61 




House of Charles Pruyn, Esq., Albany, N. Y. Competitive 
Design for the World Building, New York, N. Y. House 
for M. S. Severance, Esq., Los Angeles, Cal. The Place of 

Arms, Santiago, Chili 66 






The Harlequin Gorgeousness of Greek Architecture. Books. 

The Fire on the Hearth Stove 71 



HE history of the competition for the extension of the 
Boston State-House, which has now apparently closed, is 
a curious one. According to the Boston newspapers, the 
reason why the Commissioners who had the matter in charge 
allotted seven weeks for making designs for a building to cost 
perhaps two million dollars was that the Governor, who was 
one of the Commissioners, was ill for several months, so that 
the commencement of the affair was put off until his recovery, 
while its conclusion was fixed by the Legislature at a date 
which could not be changed without new legislative action. 
When a large number of the best-known architects of the State 
united in protesting against the shortness of the time, as well 
as the other objectionable conditions of a programme which fell 
very far short of the standard acceptable to the profession, the 
Commissioners frankly acknowledged that there was some 
reason for the protest, and informally supported a resolution, 
which passed unanimously through the committee stage in the 
Legislature, to the effect that the time for submitting drawings 
should be extended to the end of March ; that a larger sum 
should be awarded in money-premiums ; that the execution of 
the work should be promised to the author of the best design, 
and that expert assistance should be employed in making the 
awards. The Commissioners evidently supposed that the reso- 
lution would be adopted by the Legislature without hesitation, 
and sent out circulars to architects, giving the text of the pend- 
ing resolution, and extending the time meanwhile, on their own 
responsibility, to the twenty-eighth of January, the latest date 
that they could set under the authority given them by the 
statute under which they acted. When the new resolution was 
reported from the committee to the House of Representa- 
tives for action, the sentiment of the members is said to have 
been so generally favorable to it that there appeared to be no 
doubt of its immediate passage until a member rose and ex- 
plained that, even if they passed it, they would still be legally 
bound to pay the premiums that had been promised to plans 
submitted in January, as, if any one chose to comply with the 
terms already announced, he would have an implied contract 
with the State, and could require the State to fulfil its part of 
the contract and award the premiums in conformity with the 
stipulations first published. It is hardly likely that a com- 
petitor who thought his design was good for anything would, 
if it happened to be ready in January, go to law to compel the 
State to take it then, and pay a small money-prize for it, 
instead of keeping it two mouths and then presenting it, with 
the chance of securing either the execution of the work or a 
money-prize twice as large as the old conditions promised, but 
there was certainly a chance that some trickster, after the field 
had been temporarily cleared of the respectable architects by 
the extension of the time and the remodelling of the programme, 
might present an apology for a sketch, and demand the stakes 
that the State had incautiously pledged. 

TITHE chance of this catastrophe, by which the State might 
A possibly have to pay out thirty-five hundred dollars in 
prizes for worthless designs, besides what it would have to 
pay later for properly studied ones, would not greatly alarm a 
private person, who would consider a sacrifice of one-fifth or 
one-sixth of one per cent on the cost of a proposed building not 
too great a price to pay for the privilege of cancelling hasty 
and injudicious engagements, and setting himself free to con- 
clude more satisfactory arrangements for the administration of 
his investment ; but it frightened the legislators, who decided 
that their thirty-five hundred dollars must be saved at all 
hazards, and rejected the resolution. The Commissioners, with 
consistent courtesy, immediately sent out another circular to 
architects, informing them of the action of the Legislature, and 
pointing out that under the circumstances nothing was left to 
those who wished to compete but to hand in their drawings on 
or before January 28. When that day arrived, ten designs 
were found to have been submitted. Two accomplished archi- 
tects, one of whom had already studied the problem thoroughly 
as professional adviser to the Legislative Committee on the 
State-House, while the negotiations for the site were in progress, 
were called in as experts, and an award made and reported to 
the Legislature on the appointed day. Bv this award, the first 
premium, of fifteen hundred dollars, was awarded to Messrs. 
Brigham & Spofford ; the second, of twelve hundred dollars, 
to Mr. John Lyman Faxon ; and the third, of nine hundred 
dollars, to Mr. H. S. McKay, all of Boston ; and Messrs. 
Brigham & Spofford's plan was, in the report of the Commis- 
sioners, recommended for adoption, with modifications. We 
sincerely hope that this may be the end of the matter, and that 
the design will be carried out by its authors with satisfaction 
to all concerned. In justice to their design, it should be men- 
tioned that they were employed by the State, some time ago, 
to make complete measured drawings of the present State- 
House, and of the plans and levels of the site for the extension. 
In doing this work, which was admirably executed, it would 
have been strange if the knowledge of the conditions so gained 
had not shaped itself, as their work proceeded, into some idea 
of the best plan for satisfying them, so that their design may 
fairly be regarded as having had, perhaps, several months of 
study before the other architects knew anything about the matter. 
Possessing this advantage, it may have been fortunate for them 
that the decision was made before the other architects who chose 
to compete had had time to make a similar study of the 
problem, and we need hardly point out how fortunate it cer- 
tainly was for the great majority of the Massachusetts archi- 
tects that they withdrew in time from a contest which, as it 
turns out, would have been so unequal, even if it had been un- 
exceptionable in other respects. 

CASE involving a principle of great importance to archi- 
tects was recently decided in the Court of Common Pleas 
in New York. A well-known architect, Mr. Hubert, 
brought suit to recover the value of his services from a client 
for whom he had built an apartment-house. The client, Mr. 
Aitkeu, claimed an offset of one thousand dollars from the bill, 
on the ground that " the area of the flue provided in the 
chimney was inadequate for the service of the boiler, so that 
the proper consumption of the coal could not be secured," and 
that he would, in consequence, be obliged to build a new 
chimney-flue on the outside of the building, the " necessary cost 
and expense " of which would be a thousand dollars, as claimed. 
It was proved that the architect asked the contractor for the 
steam-heating about the size of the flue he needed, and that the 
flue was built according to his instructions, but the court held 
that the architect, not the steam-heating contractor, was re- 
sponsible for the failure of the latter to know his own business, 
and that the architect must pay the thousand dollars claimed. 
We presume, from a somewhat extended acquaintance with 
such cases, that there is not the slightest probability of the 
new chimney being built, and that the owner, after he gets 
through chuckling over the ingenious device by which he trans- 
ferred a thousand dollars from an architect's pocket to his own, 
will find that the old flue really answew very well, and that it 
is hardly worth while to annoy his tenants by making any 
changes, and so on. The fact is, as every architect who has 
studied the subject knows, that not one flue in five hundred 
for boilers devoted principally to heating is made of the dimen- 
sions required for the "proper," that is, the economical con- 


TJie American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 684. 













Copyright, 1889, by TICKSOB & COMPANY, Boston, Mass. 

No. 685. 

FEBRUARY 9, 1889. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Boston as second-class matter. 


The Massachusetts State-House Extension Competition. The 
Award of the Prizes. A Case of Architects' Responsibility. 

Architects and Heat Contractors. The Guaranty given 

by Makers of Heating Appliances .61 




House of Charles Pruyn, Esq., Albany, N. Y. Competitive 
Design for the World Building, New York, N. Y. House 
for M. S. Severance, Esq., Los Angeles, Cal. The Place of 

Arms, Santiago, Chili 66 






The Harlequin Gorgeousness of Greek Architecture. Books. 

The Fire on the Hearth Stove 71 



HE history of the competition for the extension of the 
Boston State-House, which has now apparently closed, is 
a curious one. According to the Boston newspapers, the 
reason why the Commissioners who had the matter in charge 
allotted seven weeks for making designs for a building to cost 
perhaps two million dollars was that the Governor, who was 
one of the Commissioners, was ill for several months, so that 
the commencement of the affair was put off until his recovery, 
while its conclusion was fixed by the Legislature at a date 
which could not be changed without new legislative action. 
When a large number of the best-known architects of the State 
united in protesting against the shortness of the time, as well 
as the other objectionable conditions of a programme which fell 
very far short of the standard acceptable to the profession, the 
Commissioners frankly acknowledged that there was some 
reason for the protest, and informally supported a resolution, 
which passed unanimously through the committee stage in the 
Legislature, to the effect that the time for submitting drawings 
should be extended to the end of March ; that a larger sum 
should be awarded in money-premiums ; that the execution of 
the work should be promised to the author of the best design, 
and that expert assistance should be employed in making the 
awards. The Commissioners evidently supposed that the reso- 
lution would be adopted by the Legislature without hesitation, 
and sent out circulars to architects, giving the text of the pend- 
ing resolution, and extending the time meanwhile, on their own 
responsibility, to the twenty-eighth of January, the latest date 
that they could set under the authority given them by the 
statute under which they acted. When the new resolution was 
reported from the committee to the House of Representa- 
tives for action, the sentiment of the members is said to have 
been so generally favorable to it that there appeared to be no 
doubt of its immediate passage until a member rose and ex- 
plained that, even if they passed it, they would still be legally 
bound to pay the premiums that had been promised to plans 
submitted in January, as, if any one chose to comply with the 
terms already announced, he would have an implied contract 
with the State, and could require the State to fulfil its part of 
the contract and award the premiums in conformity with the 
stipulations first published. It is hardly likely that a com- 
petitor who thought his design was good for anything would, 
if it happened to be ready in January, go to law to compel the 
State to take it then, and pay a small money-prize for it, 
instead of keeping it two months and then presenting it, with 
the chance of securing either the execution of the work or a 
money-prize twice as large as the old conditions promised, but 
there was certainly a chance that some trickster, after the field 
had been temporarily cleared of the respectable architects by 
the extension of the time and the remodelling of the programme, 
might present an apology for a sketch, and demand the stakes 
that the State had incautiously pledged. 

TITHE chance of this catastrophe, by which the State might 
A possibly have to pay out thirty-five hundred dollars in 
prizes for worthless designs, besides what it would have to 
pay later for properly studied ones, would not greatly alarm a 
private person, who would consider a sacrifice of one-fifth or 
one-sixth of one per cent on the cost of a proposed building not 
too great a price to pay for the privilege of cancelling hasty 
and injudicious engagements, and setting himself free to con- 
clude more satisfactory arrangements for the administration of 
his investment ; but it frightened the legislators, who decided 
that their thirty-five hundred dollars must be saved at all 
hazards, and rejected the resolution. The Commissioners, with 
consistent courtesy, immediately sent out another circular to 
architects, informing them of the action of the Legislature, and 
pointing out that under the circumstances nothing was left to 
those who wished to compete but to hand in their drawings on 
or before January 28. When that day arrived, ten designs 
were found to have been submitted. Two accomplished archi- 
tects, one of whom had already studied the problem thoroughly 
as professional adviser to the Legislative Committee on the 
State-House, while the negotiations for the site were in progress, 
were called in as experts, and an award made and reported to 
the Legislature on the appointed day. Bv this award, the first 
premium, of fifteen hundred dollars, was awarded to Messrs. 
Brighatn & Spofford ; the second, of twelve hundred dollars, 
to Mr. John Lyman Faxon ; and the third, of nine hundred 
dollars, to Mr. H. S. McKay, all of Boston ; and Messrs. 
Brigham & Spofford's plan was, in the report of the Commis- 
sioners, recommended for adoption, with modifications. We 
sincerely hope that this may be the end of the matter, and that 
the design will be carried out by its authors with satisfaction 
to all concerned. In justice to their design, it should be men- 
tioned that they were employed by the State, some time ago, 
to make complete measured drawings of the present State- 
House, and of the plans and levels of the site for the extension. 
In doing this work, which was admirably executed, it would 
have been strange if the knowledge of the conditions so gained 
had not shaped itself, as their work proceeded, into some idea 
of the best plan for satisfying them, so that their design may 
fairly be regarded as having had, perhaps, several months of 
study before the other architects knew anything about the matter. 
Possessing this advantage, it may have been fortunate for them 
that the decision was made before the other architects who chose 
to compete had had time to make a similar study of the 
problem, and we need hardly point out how fortunate it cer- 
tainly was for the great majority of the Massachusetts archi- 
tects that they withdrew in time from a contest which, as it 
turns out, would have been so unequal, even if it had been un- 
exceptionable in other respects. 

CASE involving a principle of great importance to archi- 
tects was recently decided in the Court of Common Pleas 
in New York. A well-known architect, Mr. Hubert, 
brought suit to recover the value of his services from a client 
for whom he had built an apartment-house. The client, Mr. 
Aitkeu, claimed an offset of one thousand dollars from the bill, 
on the ground that " the area of the flue provided in the 
chimney was inadequate for the service of the boiler, so that 
the proper consumption of the coal could not be secured," and 
that he would, in consequence, be obliged to build a new 
chimney-flue on the outside of the building, the " necessary cost 
and expense " of which would be a thousand dollars, as claimed. 
It was proved that the architect asked the contractor for the 
steam-heating about the size of the flue he needed, and that the 
flue was built according to his instructions, but the court held 
that the architect, not the steam-heating contractor, was re- 
sponsible for the failure of the latter to know his own business, 
and that the architect must pay the thousand dollars claimed. 
We presume, from a somewhat extended acquaintance with 
such cases, that there is not the slightest probability of the 
new chimney being built, and that the owner, after he gets 
through chuckling over the ingenious device by which he trans- 
ferred a thousand dollars from an architect's pocket to his own, 
will find that the old flue really answer* very well, and that it 
is hardly worth while to annoy his tenants by making any 
changes, and so on. The fact is, as every architect who has 
studied the subject knows, that not one flue in five hundred 
for boilers devoted principally to heating is made of the dimen- 
sions required for the " proper," that is, the economical con- 



The American Architect and Building News. [You XXV. No. 685. 

sumption of coal. The obvious reason for this is that, if the 
dimensions of the flue are calculated by the rules of proportion 
to grate-surface used in designing the chimneys for power- 
plants, where economy of coal is of the utmost importance, the 
owner, when he sees the plans, is horror-stricken at its size. 
To his mind, it appears to block up most of the rentable portion 
of his building, and he flies to a steam-heating contractor, who 
soothingly assures him that a twelve by sixteen flue, or even 
an eight by twelve, in case of need, will do very well, and, as 
is probably true, that he has often utilized the latter for boilers 
where nothing better was to be had. Nothing is said then by 
either party about the " proper consumption of the coal," and 
the indignant owner, after relieving his feelings by going about 
among his friends and denouncing his architect as a " crank on 
the subject of flues," and warning them to have nothing to do 
with him, comes back to the office and requests that the matter 
may be left entirely to the judgment of the heating-contractor, 
who "guarantees the results." In most cases this ends the 
matter ; the boiler works as well as house-heating boilers 
generally do, and the owner congratulates himself ever after 
on his good fortune in having headed off the architect in time 
to prevent him from spoiling the building with his huge 
chimney. In the five hundredth instance; perhaps, the owner, 
aroused, as many persons are, by the presentation of a bill to 
an inquiry after pretexts for not paying it, bethinks himself of 
his chimney-flue, and the unfortunate architect then h'nds that 
the law, at least in New York, does not allow him " to shelter 
himself behind the heating-contractor," although it gives the 
heating-contractor admirable facilities for hiding behind him, 
and that he must pay not only for a new chimney, but for the 
consequences of any other error of judgment that the heating- 
contractor may fall into in regard to his own guaranteed work. 

IF this doctrine, as we deduce it from the report which the 
Engineering and Building Record gives of the case, were 
often acted upon, the practice of architecture would soon 
be abandoned, and owners and steam-heaters would have to 
grapple with each other directly, instead of both healing the 
wounds that each chose to fancy the other had inflicted by 
helping themselves to balm out of the common reservoir, the 
architect's pocket ; but even the possibility that an occasional 
individual may try to take advantage of it acts as a continual 
menace to the profession. We shall leave comment upon the 
legal aspects of the case to other hands, but, from the point-of- 
view of practising architects, we cannot help feeling how 
serious a misfortune it is that such a case as this could not have 
been taken up by a powerful protective association and carried, 
if necessary, to the Supreme Court of the United States, so 
that the law might be settled, once for all, and the professional 
conduct of such matters shaped accordingly by unanimous 
action. As we all know, most steam-heating contracts include 
a guaranty that the work, if carried out according to the pro- 
posal made, shall be efficient and satisfactory. As this guar- 
anty is a serious matter for the contractors, they usually seize 
any interference or direction of the architect as a pretext for 
withdrawing it, reserving their right to complete the contract 
without it. It is needless to say that work done on a heating- 
contract under guaranty seldom fulfils the guaranty when 
first completed, and is only brought to conformity with it after 
several successive struggles, while work done on such a con- 
tract after the guaranty had been withdrawn might safely be 
warranted not to do anything that was required of it ; so that 
architects are very careful to avoid giving any advice or in- 
structions that might be tortured into an interference with the 
contract. In the light of this decision, however, it appears it is 
the architect who furnishes the guaranty in all cases, while 
the steam-heater gets the money. If the architect meddles in 
any way with the latter's method of carrying out his contract, 
the guaranty clause of the contract is immediately withdrawn, 
the work, when completed, proves inefficient, and the owner 
pays the contractor in full, and requires the architect to put in 
new heating-apparatus at his own expense as a penalty for in- 
terfering with the contractor's operations. If, on the other 
hand, the architect refrains from giving any directions, so that 
he may be sure of being able to enforce the guaranty clause 
of the contract, the owner, if his heart is tender toward steam- 
heaters, or he gets tired of waiting for the guaranty to be ful- 
filled, has only to pay the contractor in full and lay hands on 
the architect, who will be informed by the court that " Respon- 
sibility cannot be shifted in that way," and will be compelled, 
as before, to put in new heating-apparatus at his own expense 

as a penalty for not interfering with the contractor's operations. 
It may be that this is the law, 'which, according to the highest 
authority in England, is quite a different affair from justice, 
but we are willing to entertain a doubt on the subject. 

WHILE we are considering the subject of heating contracts, 
and the sort of guaranty that the manufacturers of 
heating apparatus are supposed to give with their goods, 
we may draw a lesson from a letter addressed to the law 
editor of La Construction Moderne. The writer of the letter, 
an architect, says that one of his clients, who had just opened 
an ice-cream saloon in a new building, began to think, on the 
approach of winter, of means for warming his room. He 
wrote to an establishment in Paris for suitable apparatus, and 
the Parisian firm sent a representative, who examined the 
chimney fine, and, on the arrival of the heating apparatus, set 
it up, ready for use, and left it. The new owner, however, 
found, on taking possession of it, that it would not heat the 
room, and that a fire would hardly burn at all iii it. He com- 
plained to the Paris manufacturers, who altered and lengthened 
the chimney, until, as they said, everything was in proper 
order. The new arrangement proved no better than the old, 
but it was hardly possible to make any change in the middle of 
winter, so the proprietor endured the cold, as best he might, 
until spring. He then went to the manufacturers, and 
described his condition at length. They offered to take back 
the original stove, and put in a larger one ; and the proprietor 
agreed to this, but, on returning home, he reflected that the 
new stove, which would be six feet high, and nearly a yard iq 
diameter, would be anything but an ornament to his room, and 
he telegraphed back the same day to the manufacturers, de- 
clining the proposed arrangement, on the ground that he had 
concluded to have a furnace put in the cellar by a local con- 
tractor. The Paris firm replied, offering to take back the 
unsatisfactory stove, on condition that they were employed to 
build the new furnace; but the saloon-keeper thought he had 
had enough of their goods, and went on with the local furnace- 
man, who put in a perfectly satisfactory apparatus. Mean- 
while, the original stove had been shipped back to the 
manufacturers, who simply acknowledged the receipt of it, 
mentioning that they had put it in storage. All this part of 
the transaction took place in May, and the saloon-keeper, who 
had paid forty dollars on account for the unsatisfactory stove, 
probably thought that he had paid dear for a disagreeable ex- 
perience. Seven months later, however, in December, the 
Parisian manufacturers sent a demand for the balance of the 
price of the rejected stove, amounting to forty-four dollars, to- 
gether with a bill for storage, and another bill for the price of. 
the larger stove which they had agreed to furnish in place 
of the unsatisfactory one, but which had been countermanded 
by telegraph, less an allowance for its return. 

THE saloon-keeper, who thought in paying half the price of 
a guaranteed apparatus, which had turned out perfectly 
useless to him, and had been returned in good order to the- 
makers, to be sold to some one else, he had done all that could 
be expected of him, applied to his architect for advice in 
regard to the new demand, and the architect applied to the 
law-contributor of the journal, M. Ravon, who replies un- 
hesitatingly that the Parisian manufacturers are technically in 
the right, and that the saloon-keeper will have to pay the bill. 
In France, as here, although a furnace-maker is presumed to 
guaranty the proper working of an apparatus which he sets up. 
he must be allowed all reasonable opportunity for making good 
his guaranty, and the fact that the apparatus fails to do what 
it was warranted to do must be clearly established before 
expert and impartial witnesses. In this case the proprietor 
had refused to allow the manufacturers to make good the 
deficiency in their apparatus by substituting another, and he 
had not called in experts to establish its defects, but had taken 
the law into his own hands by sending back the stove with 
nothing but his own assertion that it was useless to him. The 
manufacturers, on the other hand, had proceeded cautiously and 
legally. On being notified that the stove was unsatisfactory, 
they had twice offered to replace it, first by a new stove, and,, 
secondly by allowing its price toward that of a furnace. On 
the rejection of these offers, and the return of the stove, they 
had promptly given notice that it was received only as the 
saloon-keeper's property, to be stored at his expense, and like 
most people who prefer legality to abstract justice, they had 
come out of the affair with all the winning cards in their hands. 

FEBRUARY 9, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 



IT has not been the in- 
tention to consider in 

detail any articles of 
hardware which are not 
in actual daily use at 
the present time ; but 
there are a few styles 
of locks which are en- 
tirely obsolete so far as 
the American trade is 
concerned, but which 
should be included in 
any study of the subject, 
if one wishes to thor- 
oughly understand the 
principles of modem 
lock-making, and the 
processes of elimination 
and survival of the fit- 
test which have brought 
the manufacture to its 
present state in this 

Figures 291 and 292 
illustrate the old " Eng- 
lish Bramah" lock. 
This consists of a revolv- 

Fig. 291. Tn. Bramah Lock. j n g cylinder in which IS 

disposed radially a series- of flat sliders working up and down 
through slots in a fixed horizontal plate. The sliders have 
notches on the outer edges, cut at different heights, so that the 
cylinder can revolve only when the notches on the sliders are 
on a line and level with the plate. The sliders are forced 
outward by a single central coiled spring. The key consists of 
a tube, on the sides of which are straight grooves corresponding 
to the desired depression of the slides, with a shoulder to turn the 
cylinder. The locking-bolt is moved by an eccentric attached 
to the cylinder. The notches on the sliders are disposed as 
irregularly as possible, and false notches are added, with cor- 
responding false widenings of slots in the plate. All of the 
sliders can be pushed in farther than is needed to bring the 
notches on a line with the plate, so that the lock is picked with 
great difficulty. 

" CotterilPs " lock, Figures 293, 294 and 295, is another 
example of English ingenuity. The portion which is acted 
upon by the key consists of a rotating flat disk or cylinder con- 
taining ten or more slides moving in radial grooves and pressed 

Fig. 292. The Locking-plate of the 
Bramah Lock. 

Fig. 293. Plan of Cotterill's Lock. 

towards the centre by springs. A fixed ring or plate is fitted 
to a circular groove on the face of the disk, and has slots cor- 
responding in position to the radial slides. There are also 
grooves cut on the edge of the slides, so that when the key is 
in place the slots 011 the slides coincide with the circular 
groove on the disk, permitting the whole to be revolved. 
When the key is withdrawn the slides are forced in different 
degrees towards the centre, so that the solid portions intercept 
the groove in the disk, in which position it is held fast by the 
fixed ring. It is believed that this lock never has been picked. 
A lock which in its time was a strong competitor with 
" Bramah " and " Cotterill's " locks, and was equally im- 
pregnable, is " Day and Newells " Parautopic bank-lock, an 
American invention which was in great demand at one time, 
but has long since ceased to be manufactured. It has the 
curious property that the key, which is made with movable bits, 

1 Continued from page 54, No. 684. 

can be changed at will, so that the lock can be opened only by 
the key which was last used to shoot the bolt. The lock has 
never been picked. Figure 296, which is taken from Price, 
is too complicated to fully illustrate the workings. Figure 
29 6 b, while not exactly like the lock, embodies the same 
arrangement and will serve to make the construction under- 
stood. The letters refer to both figures. There are three dis- 
tinct sets of levers, A, B and C, each admitting of a sliding or 

Fig. 295. Locking-plate. 

Fig. 294. Section. 

lifting motion up and down, the levers A having springs which 
keep them pressed down, D, and the levers C being constantly 
forced up by a spring of lesser strength E, so that the levers G 
will always move up and down exactly as A are raised or 
lowered, the tops of G bearing against the bottom of exten- 
sions to A. The levers B have no springs, and slide up and 
down between studs attached to a wing of the bolt-tail, so that 
when the bolt is shot, the levers B move with it. F is a dog 

Fig. 296. Parautopic Lock. 

Fig. 2966. Parautopic Lock. 

or lever, which is hinged to a stud on the bolt at the top, ai d 
hinged with a bent elbow attached to the lock-case at the 
bottom. On this dog, F, is a tooth, and on the edge of each 
of the tumblers B are notches corresponding in mutual dis- 
tance with the difference in lengths of the movable bits of the 
key. Furthermore, the levers A are each made with an arm 
G which fits into a corresponding notch in the levers B, and 
the levers B have each an arm Jf which exactly fits between 
two arms on each of the levers G. Figure 296 shows the lock 
with the bolt thrown, and Figure 2966, shows it drawn back. 
When the key is turned in the lock, the bits, no matter in what 
order they may be arranged, lift the levers A. These, by 
means of the arms G and H, lift the other sets of levers in 
exactly the same proportion. The key then forces out the 
bolt, and the levers B are withdrawn from the arms G and H, 
but before the arms /Tare entirely free from the arms on the 


The American Architect and Building News.' [VOL. XXV. No. 685. 

levers C, the notches on B are caught on the tooth of the dog 
f, the le-,ers B being then held at exactly the relative heights 
to which they were raised by the action of the key on levers A. 
The key, continuing to turn, then allows levers A and G to 
drop to their original position, and the bolt is then locked. It 
is evident that only the proper key will answer to unlock the 
combination, as unless the levers A and (7 are raised in 
exactly the proportion they were when the bolt was shot, the 
arms //cannot enter between the arms on .levers G, and the 
bolt cannot be moved. There are several other features of 
the lock, such as detector plates, wards, etc., which need not 
be noticed here. A circular curtain protects the keyhole, and 
a solid partition entirely prevents access to the levers, while if 
any attempt is made to discover the combination by applying 
pressure to the bolt and tentatively rising the levers A, the 
arms on the levers B and G which have notches on the ends 
will catch on each other and be immovable as long as the 
pressure remains on the bolt. With an eight-lever lock and 
eight-bitted key, over 5,000 different combinations can be made. 
A very ingenious idea which seems not to have survived the 
the test of years was embodied in another English device 
" Parnell's " Defiance lock. The peculiarity here is in the key, 
which is made with expanding bits. When out of the lock it 
has the appearance of a key-blank. Eccentrics in the lock 
force out the proper bits to act on the levers, and the keyhole 
is guarded in such a manner that a key which could enter and 
was without expanding bits, would simply turn without 'affect- 
ing the lock ; whereas a key with fixed bits which would be 
right to move the levers could not enter the keyhole. 

As previously stated, none of the foregoing are now used in 
this country, but from them several of our best locks have been 
derived. Prior to 1851 all of the best locks used here were 
of English make, but from causes which will be explained in a 
a subsequent chapter, American locks came to the front about 
that time, and to-day an English lock would be looked upon 
as a curiosity in our hardware trade. 

Turning then to our own current manufactures, there are 
several varieties of locks which are commonlv found-in' the 
market. The "dead-lock" consists simply of a bolt thrown by 
the action of the key on the levers, but does not include any 
knob or latch. A "mortise lock" is one which is mortised into 
the frame of the door, and always includes, as commonly 
understood, both bolt and latch. A mortise lock, is generally 
operated from either side. A "rim-lock" is one that is planted 
on the face of the door. It is generally made with a nicer- 
looking case than the mortise locks, and requires longer keys 
and a little different adjustment of the knob-spindles. A dead- 
bolt may be either mortise or rim, but, generally speaking, rim- 
locks are understood to have both latch and bolt. A " rebated 
lock" is one which is mortised into the door-frame like an 
ordinary mortise lock, but the face-plate is rebated so as to fit 
the rebates of the door to which it is attached. This form of 
lock is used only for front double-doors. In the East it is 
customary not to rebate the front doors, but, we believe, 
generally speaking, in the West such locks are necessary. 
Special locks are usually made for front and vestibule doors. 
The lock for the front door includes a dead-bolt and a latch 
operated by a knob from within, and worked by a key from 
without. The vestibule lock consists simply of a latch worked 
by a knob from the inside and a key outside, the same night- 
key answering for the latches of both front and vestibule 
doors. Hotel locks are understood to be those which are so 
arranged that they can be opened from either the inside or the 
outside, but when locked from the inside cannot be unlocked 
from the outside. There are many varieties of hotel locks. 
Generally they are made in sets of fifty, one hundred, two 
hundred, or more, as desired, and are master-keyed, that is to 
say, the tumblers are so arranged that one key will unlock the 
whole series, though the individual keys of the different locks 
will not unlock each other. Again, they are sometimes made 
so that the lock can be locked from the inside with one key, 
and an exactly similar one can unlock it from the outside, but 
the master-key cannot unlock it after the bolt has been thrown 
from the inside, and after the bolt has been thrown twice from 
the inside nothing can open it from the outside. Such locks 
are intended to be used where two persons room together, but 
do not come in at the same hour, each wishing to be secure 
against intrusion, and yet leave the lock so it can be opened 
by his comrade. 

Locks are made both by hand and by machinery. Boston, 
at present, seems to lead the country in lines of hand-made 

locks. Indeed, it is doubtful if in any other city such an in- 
dustry could so long survive the extended application of 
machinery to labor which has so strongly marked this century. 
But in Boston the old ideas are slow to go, and the people are 
loath to give up a thing once tried and proved, merely because 
there is something else in the market, even though the some- 
thing else may be cheaper. There is no question but that a 
hand-made lock, if the manufacturer is thoroughly conscientious, 
is better than one made by machinery, especially as the hand- 
made lock manufacturers, thus far, never have catered to a 
cheap trade, and have always kept their goods up to the very 
highest mark. In the hand-made locks the levers are care- 
fully adjusted, nearly all the interior fittings are made of brass, 
and, while in some respects hand goods may be inferior in fine- 
ness of polish and smoothness of exterior appearance, no one 
ever denies their excellence. But, on the other hand, the cost 
of hand-made goods is so much higher than those made by 
machinery that the former are gradually being driven- out of 
the market, especially since some of the best of the machine- 
lock manufacturers have succeeded in turning out such admir- 
able goods. To the uninitiated the best of the machine-made 
locks are quite as good as any that are turned out by hand, 
while the progress of machinery has been so great that it is 
possible to obtain almost any desired accuracy of adjustment. 
Of course, the best of locks, even those which are nominally 
machine-made are fitted by hand. Only in the cheapest forms 
are locks left as they come from the machine. 

In regard to price, machine-made locks may be divided 
generally into six classes. This division, of course, -is not 
absolute. Locks are made in all grades, and are of all prices. 
Some very good locks are made in cheap form, and some very 
poorly designed locks are listed at a high price ; but for general 
comparison this division will be satisfactory: 

First, the cheapest form of lock made, with iron face and 
bolts, steel springpitnd a single lever : P. & F. Corbin have a 
lock of this description which sells in the market for a $1.50 
a dozen. 

Second, a lock with brass face and bolts, all the rest of the 
construction iron, one lever ; average price $4.00 to $4.50 a 

Third, brass face and bolts, all the rest iron, with two 
levers ; $7.00, or with three levers $8.00 per dozen. 

Fourth, anti-friction latch, brass face and bolts, three levers, 
$17.00 per dozen. 

Fifth, front door lock and latch, $1.50 to $4.50 each. 

Sixth, hotel locks, $2.50 to $5.00 each. 

Hand-made locks may be divided according to cost into five 
classes : 

First, single lever with brass face and bolts, $1.50 each. 

Second, three levers, brass face and bolts, $2.50 each. 

Third, anti-friction strike, three levers, brass face and bolts, 
$3.00 each. 

Fourth, anti-friction strike, all brass-work, $5.00 each. 

Fifth, front door locks from $8.00 up. 

The foregoing classification of machine and hand-made locks 
according to price does not imply two classes in regard to 
either efficiency in working or nicety of plan. The machine 
and hand-made locks are designed on exactly the same princi- 
ples, and the differences are but slight. Still the hand-made 
locks are, throughout, better than a relatively corresponding 
grade of machine-made locks. 

[To be continued.] 

DCTY PAID ON A PHARAOH. An absurd instance of the length to 
which the policy of protection is carried out by French douaniers was 
told the other day by M. Maspe'ro to some friends. He had brought 
back from Egypt a royal mummy. Of course the case had to be 
opened at Marseilles. Being told it contained a Pharaoh, the officer 
looked up "Pharaoh" in the tariff; but, as it was not to be found, he 
decided that Pharaohs, being an article of which there was no mention, 
should be taxed according to the highest scale. So M. Maspro was 
made to pay as for dried fish. For years an English mustard had been 
imported and the ordinary duty on mustard charged. However, the 
French customs one day decided that the mustard contained flour and 
should be charged a higher duty. On a further analysis a homoeopathic 
quantity of an ingredient not in the tariff was found, and so the 
mustard was held to fall under the heading of unspecified spices," and 
accordingly a duty of 24s. a hundredweight is now payable on thirty- 
shilling mustard. Pickles are called in the French tariff "conserves au 
vinaigre." Last year, however, it was discovered that pickles mostly 
contained ginger or cloves or cayenne paper, and pickles were forth- 
with subjected to an extra duty. London Daily Netcs. 

FEBRUARY 9, 1889.] The American Architect and Building News. 



" Ugolin." A.Rodin, Sculptor. 

FREE once more from the repulsive relationship of ignorant and 
troublesome employers, in (inn possession of that insight which 
directed him to the simplest and purest expression of sculpture, 
and a facility of hand that made the clay an unobstructive obstacle, 
Rodin started upon the execution of the statue that was eventually to 
place him among the greatest sculptors of his country. 

But the sailor at Antwerp lay uneasy on his mind. The studios 
of the past eighteen years were demanding some definite order and 
classification, some tangible point of departure. The visions of the 
compositions of the Renaissance Colossus, had a nearer and more 
forcible effect, and Rodin set out for Italy to study them in their 
original surroundings. 

of - 

mean as 

his works because they are living and I could find in them what I 
wanted. After lookin'g at these figures long and well, I returned to 
my room at the hotel and began making sketches, to test the depth 
of my own capacity of composition and of the impressions I had 
received ; and 1 found that I could do nothing like my sailor, unless 
1 copied Michael Angelo. I made no end of sketches, always with 
the same result. During my journey to Rome, Naples, Sienna and 
Venice, I continued drawingj in the hope of discovering the principles 
upon which the compositions of Michael Angelo's figures were 
founded. I was, at the same time, struck with the idea that these 
principles were not original with him, but the result of discoveries 
made by those who had preceded him. I also had my doubts about 
his being conscious of these principles, or that he was the consum- 
mate artist and man that many think he is. He seems to me to have 
worked little from nature ; that he had one figure, or type, that he 
reproduced everywhere and constantly, and that he took entire 
figures from Donatello, besides using a certain movement of the 
w'rist and foot, common to the latter. I think Michael Angelo 
simply completed, in movement and general scheme, the figures 
whose natural principles of composition were discovered by those 
who went before him." Rodin returned to Brussels and continued 
his investigations of the principles of composition upon which 
Michael Angelo's figures are founded. At last, he solved the 
problem, and the mystery became clear. With its solution also 
came the key of the principles inherent in his own nature, and by 
which he has been guided in all of his subsequent works. He does 
not feel certain that he would have found them had he not first 
studied Michael Angelo and discovered the principles by which he 
was guided. Of them all, he says : " They are found in nature, or she 
verifies them, if you look carefully enough. They are so simple, that 
they can be taught in six months to any student of average in- 
telligence, so that he can exemplify them, as facts, almost as well as 
J can myself. In a word, Nature tells the whole story." The work 
on " The Age of Brass," also went on, and for eighteen months the 
sculptor gave it his best efforts, never for a moment feeling that he 
should arrive at any satisfactory result. "I was in the deepest 
despair with that figure," he observes, " and I worked so intensely 
on it, trying to get what I wanted, that there are at least four 
figures in it." When it was completed he exhibited it in January, 
1S77, in the Circle Artistique, in Brussels, where it was generally 
received with derision, pronounced a reproduction from moulds made 
on the living model, and criticised because it did not stand well. 

But .a writer on one of the city papers, L'Echo du Parlement, 
recognized its surprising qualities, and spoke of them with deserved 
words of praise. "The statue," he says, "has made a sensation 
among artists, and will, no doubt, attract much attention in the 
Paris Salon. Wholly taken up as the artist has been and as every 
true artist is who makes his art his chief aim with the question ol 
style and execution, he has only forgotten one thing, and that is tc 
explain his subject. This lack has awakened much criticism, and 
caused many questions to be asked. Why are the eyes half closed 
and that hand lifted up ? Is it the statue of a somnambulist ? But 
let us be reassured ; all is clearly and logically explained by thi 

' All rights reserved. Continued from page 45, No. 683. 

title, 'The Vanquisher,' and it suffices to add that the raised hand 
ought to hold two spears. From a pure art point-of-view, the work is 
very beautiful, and, above all, very original. It is realism that 
which proceeds directly from the Greeks ; it is their modelling, in 
large planes, their accentuation, sober and firm, their learned anatomy 
but profoundly living, indicated as it is in nature, with movements 
that change and are sometimes hidden ; anatomy studied in the exer- 
cises of the gymnasium, and not, like that of the Florentines of the 
sixteenth century, from a skinned anatomical figure. This realism is 
not only a striking truth, it is, at the same time, a great selection and 
a grand style. If M. Rodin ever had a master, he was certainly not 
one of the realists of these days, who confine themselves so often to 
sefvile copying of plaster casts. The statue is inspired by the 
powerful metopes of the Parthenon, or the supple and robust 
Illyssus, by Alcamene." 

Among the large studies made by the sculptor in Brussels, in the 
development of his principles of composition, was a group called 
' Ugolin," but he was not satisfied with it, and destroyed all save the 
body of the principal figure. This is one of the best examples of 
his large style of modelling. He also found time, before he began 
' The Age of Brass," to make a number of heads and figures in 
terra-cotta, which he could not sell in Brussels, but which were 
bought by a Mr. Gammon, an English art-buyer, who afterwards sold 
them at Albert Hall in London. Rodin did not set any artistic value 
upon these things, but Dalou, an eminent French sculptor, who saw 
hem in London, affirms that they possessed great merit. 

Rodin had one, not very satisfactory, transaction with the 
Anonyme des Bronzes Company. He sold them a very beautiful 
narble bust which he called "La Petite Manon," for the small price 
of one hundred dollars. The company, appreciating the commercial 
?alue of the work, bought of the sculptor for twenty dollars more 
Jus right to reproduce it in bronze. Thinking they had a mine in 
iodin which they could work for their exclusive profit, they wished 
to buy more of his things, but his suspicions were aroused at their 
readiness to purchase at a low price, and feeling that they had taken 
advantage of him in the first transaction, he would not let them have 
anything else. 

To a considerable extent Rodin's professional life in Belgium had 
jeen satisfactory. For the first time he had been his own master, 
and engaged upon work that suited his temperament, large composi- 
tions of many figures. From first to last he had had his own way. 
With his genius it was a sublime obstinacy the obstinacy of all 
;reat men. In six years his eyes had become open to the art around 
lim, and he saw it from a different point-of-view. " Up to 1871," he 
remarks, " I lived in the old idea that sculpture was making progress 
.n France. But it was not true. I had changed during my life in 
Belgium, and when I came back to Paris my idols had fallen in the 
dust. I saw that we had no successors to Puget, and that we were 
really going down hill. The statues that I adored before I went 
away, 1 could not bear after I had returned. I do not like sculpture 
made from plaster casts, it has no life." It is difficult to measure, 
with any degree of exactness, the amount or character of Rodin's 
progress while in Belgium. The work he did for public buildings, 
except in the matter of composition, would hardly be a fair test, and 
we must rely upon "The Age of Brass" as the consummated result, 
or, rather the best outcome of what he did in Belgium, at least so 
far as modelling goes. The result of his study of the principles of 
figure composition showed itself later on. 

" The Broken Nose," made, it will be remembered, when he was 
about twentv-two years of age, remains the tremendous witness of 
the power of his earlier efforts, and his own judgment in regard to 
the merits of the many figures he had executed in the following ten 
years, some of which he feels sure were as good as " The Age of 
Brass," must stand good. This being true, his progress was on the 
side of deeper insight into the subtile secrets of composition, the more 
exact formulation of his own temperament, greater familiarity with, 
and better judgment of, fine works of art, and a more correct ob- 
servation of nature. His own world of art had begun to take in 
the world around him. 

Rodin's individual life in Belgium had been so much more agree- 
able than it was in Paris, that both himself and Mme. Rodin look 
back upon it as "the most beautiful and happy days of our lives." 
In Brussels, they lived in Rue Bourgeneist, quite on the outskirts 
of the city, practically in the country. They occupied one room, 
hired of a florist, whose gardens surrounded them, for which they 
paid twenty-two dollars a year rent. With it they had a garden, 
twice the size of their room, which contained one tree a forest to 
them and under which in summer they ate their meals, drank 
French wine, reposed themselves- and rejoiced in sylvan happiness. 
For company, they had a dog, a goat, a cat and some rabbits. 
Mme. Rodin cultivated her plants and flowers, while her husband lay 
on the grass and gazed at the merciless firmament above him. Both 
loved tranquility and the country, and out of it they drank unceasing 
deli"ht. As Brussels was surrounded by endless fields and fine 
roads, and both were fond of walking, they made long journeys of 
many miles, without regard to where they were going, or when or 
how they would return. In Antwerp their life was the same. 
There was neither nook, corner, or object of interest that they did 
not see or explore. Rodin saw all the art there was to be seen. 
With Rubens he was in love, and copied, from memory, in his room 
many of the great painter's pictures. Of the art, he says, that ' It 
is all in the paintings, with the exception of Fiammingo's infants. In 

The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 685. 

sculpture, there is nothing else great, though some of it is excellent 
in execution." 

It was in Brussels, in 1872, that Rodin exhibited "The Broken 
Nose," in the Artistic Circle, and received, for the first time, words 
of commendation for it. They came from Biot, the engraver, and 
Baure", a sculptor. The mask was generally admired and helped to 
make him friends. Among them was M. Jules Petit, a French 
singer, whose bust Rodin made in terra-cotta. An especially 
interesting friend was I)r. Thiriar, now a very prominent mem- 
ber of his profession, whom Rodin came to know in this way : 
He was taken suddenly ill, from overwork, and Mme. Rodin ran for 
the nearest physician, who proved to be lame. He came, examined 
his patient, performed an operation and made a number of successive 
visits. " When I asked him for his bill," relates Rodin, '| the 
doctor seeing, no doubt, that we were not rich, said, very timidly, 
that he thought that a dollar and twenty-five cents would not be too 
much. I was so charmed with his conduct that I went soon after to 
see him, and told him that I should be happy to make his bust as an 
acknowledgment of my appreciation of his kindness. He hesitated 
at first, but soon afterwards, consented, and I made it in terra-cotta. 
I learned, later on, that he consulted some of his friends and made 
some inquiries in regard to my capacity. Another bust that I 
enjoyed making, and one of the best I ever executed was of an 
apothecary, named Vanberkaeler. J made it in marble, though I was 
not paid for it. He had a remarkable head, of pure Flemish type, 
with a slight touch of Greek in it." These busts were exhibhed, 
and very highly and justly spoken of by the Brussels papers. The 
apothecary's bust especially, was praised for its powerful character, 
and largeness and nobility of style. " A veritable bit of the antique, 
did not its coat reveal its time and place." The bust of " La Petite 
Alsacienne," which Rodin had made in Strasbourg, was also shown 
in Brussels and greatly admired. 

Although he had fairly good friends in that city, they could do but 
little or nothing for him. To all intents and purposes he was quite 
as isolated as he had been in Paris. Society did not attract him. 
His home and his studio were his heavens. His general want of 
close friends, or even interested acquaintances, was often the cause 
of serious trouble, as the following incident will illustrate : When he 
went to Brussels he left in his studio, in the Rue llermel, a large 
number of precious sketches, a quantity of valuable plaster casts and 
a clay figure, larger than life, upon which he had worked for two 
years, had cared for through the war with great difficulty, and upon 
which he set a high value. All at once, the owner of the studio, one 
Robinet, took the fancy that he wanted it, and without even inform- 
ing Rodin of his wish, sold its contents at auction. Nor had Rodin 
a friend in Paris who cared enough for his interests to either inform 
him of this shameful transaction, or try to protect his property. 
When Rodin returned to Paris, instead of finding his studio safe and 
sound, ready for his occupancy, he discovered that his possessions 
were scattered to the four winds, and his clay figure, broken to 
pieces for the purpose of getting the iron that supported it, to sell to 
a junk dealer. It was truly, as he mournfully says, one of the 
cruelest events of his life. 

As a whole, Rodin's experience in Brussels was like that of all 
artists everywhere who are entirely given up to their work. The 
world cares little for them or their art ; it only cares for those who 
care for it. Art, pure and simple, has never won for its creator any 
particular personal attention, nor is there any reason why it should. 
Occasionally the artist and man of the world are joined together in 
one person, as in the case of Rubens. Rodin's groups, bas-reliefs 
and busts, were forgotten as soon as made, and as things go, there 
was no reason why their author should be longer remembered. 


[ Contributors are requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of cost.] 


[Gelatine print, issued only with the Imperial Edition.l 






HE object of this paper is to 
call attention to certain previ- 
ously unknown or insufficiently 
developed facts, relating to the in- 
fluence of the lotus on Greek orna- 
ment which it is hoped may prove 
of interest, not only from a profes- 
sional, but also from a popular 

As introductory topic I have 
chosen the subject of the Ionic 
capital, a hitherto unrecognized con- 
ventional lotus form. This topic 
will be found to lead over to that of 
the anthemion, in other words to the 
one all-important typical form of 
Greek ornament, in its various 
modifications the most universally 
recurrent feature of modern deco- 
ration. The anthemion is a hith- 
erto unrecognized conventional 
development of lotus decoration, 
and in its early history that of the 
later Greek spirals and scrolls is also involved. In the demonstra- 
tion to be offered on this head, the " rosette " is included as another 
hitherto unrecognized lotus motive. The most apparently improba- 
ble, yet, most easily demonstrated case of lotus decoration in Greek 
art is that of the " egg-and-dart " moulding. Its association with 
the Ionic capital and other Ionic details, is an interesting point con- 
nected with the lotiform origin of the latter. 

The suggestion that the " egg-and-dart " moulding is derived from 
an Egyptian lotus border has been previously made by Owen Jones 
but his interpretation of the evolution is unsatisfactory. I was not, 
however, aware of his suggestion when my own conclusions were 
formed. The sungestion that the Ionic capital is a lotus form has 
also been previously published but without attracting conviction or 
attention. In this case also the interpretations hitherto given of the 
evolution are insufficient and in this case, also, my own observations 
were made without knowledge of the anticipations as regards publi- 
cation. As publication is universally admitted to be the te!t of preced- 
ence, I only mention the fact that the entire series of observations was 
made independently, because they have all been based on the study 
of lotus forms found on Cypriote vases, and because the clue offered 
by these vases is in my own conviction the only correct one the 
only starting-point that will compel from experts in history, in 
archoeology and in decorative art a recognition of the facts asserted. 
This has not been hitherto accorded the suggestions of a lotiform 
origin for the Ionic capital and the " egg-and-dart " moulding by 
any standard authority, nor has the slightest notice been hitherto 
taken of the isolated suggestions which were correct intuitions of 
most important facts. 

As regards the anthemion, the rosette, and the Assyrian pal- 
mette (to be mentioned presently) I believe that both my observa- 
tions and demonstration are unanticipated, as the demonstration is 
in all cases. From the observations bearing on the Ionic capital 
and the anthemion, the Corinthian capital will prove to be a later 
and remote phase of the same initial motives. 

The now generally accepted theory of the Ionic capital and the 
universally accepted theory of the rosette and anthemion, is that 
the Greeks obtained them from Assyrian ornament, by Phoenician 
transmission and by way of Asia Minor. This theory will prove to 
be no longer tenable and the Assyrian " palmette " itself, hitherto 
considered the first form of the anthemion, will be proved an Egyp- 
tian lotus motive, not a conventional palm-tree as hitherto supposed. 
That the Greek spirals and Greek frets are of Egyptian derivation 
is already obvious from recent publications. 1 Mr. Joseph Thacher 
Clarke has offered convincing proof on the long-debated subject of 
the Egyptian origin of the Doric shaft in a recent number of the 
American Journal of Archoeology (Vol. II, No. 3). Similar proofs 
have also been lately published on the head of the Doric Triglyphs. 2 
The discoveries at Naucratis, the most important and ultimately the 
only Greek Colony of the Nile Delta, of which the Boston Museum 
of Fine Arts offers such interesting specimens, have -also given an 
impetus in various ways to the disposition to connect the origins of 
Greek art with influences from Egypt. 

Thus the demonstration to be offered for the lotiform origin of the 
Ionic capital, of the anthemion, of the rosette and of the egg-and- 
dart moulding, will, if it proves satisfactory, only substantiate and 
widen a point of view for the history of Greek art in general, which 
has already been acknowledged probable or clear in important particu- 
lars. In 1873 when the Cypriote pottery of the Cesnola collections was 
first exhibited in New York, I called the attention of friends whose 
testimony is still available to certain cases of lotus decoration, such as 
appear on the vase in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, herewith ' 

1 Prisse d' Avennes's " Hietoire de I' Art Egyptien ; " Schliemanu's " Myccnte," 
!' Orchomfiws." and " Tiri/ns." 

"Aner ln"Ztittchrift.fiir" Dildentle KKnst" 18SO (colored illustrations at the 
close of Dunn's " Batkunst tier Griechen.") 

Ho. 685. |[MEi\iG^NMH6HiTEGT aND BUILDING llEws, FEB. 9 1559 


Competitive I 


World H 

I II ri"Bm! I' 1| l~ll M.J1 II II il li il 

Elevation on Frankfort Street: 

Scale- 'ain.-IFool: 

ii BUILDING HEWS, FEB. 9 1559 

*! TICKIIOR S. .-. 

II IllrliS 
111 I 

EleVation on Chatham Street: 

'/iDQerican ^rctfitect an.d Building Dews, February 9, 1359. 

Copyright, 1889, *>v TICKNOR & Co. 

Do. 635. 














S a 







o. 635. 

FEBRTJAKY: 9, 1889.] Tfie American Architect ana; Building News. 


figured, with enlarged details from similar vases (Figures 1, 2, 3,) 
which seemed to me to argue a lotiform derivation for the Ionic 

The lotiform derivation of the Ionic capital was first suggested, 
hut on other, and 1 think it will appear on less satisfactory grounds, 
by French students in 1875 and 1885. In 1875 Georges Colonna- 
Cecci'ldi (since deceased) published an article in the Revue Archeo- 
logique on a Cypriote sarcopagus now in the New York Museum and 
known as the sarcopagus of Athience, in which he also published 
one of two tombstones found with it and also now in the New York 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

Fig. 5. 

Museum. One of these is figured at 4. He asserted this stele to be 
a conventional representation of the lotus in which the triangle be- 
tween the volutes figured the ovary of the flower. The volutes 
themselves were interpreted as petals curled over and the introrsi 
scrolls above were supposed to represent the stamens. It will be 
subsequently shown that the details of this interpretation are all 
erroneous but it will also appear that the intuition regarding the en- 
tire form was correct. As the lotus is an Egyptian symbol of the 
Resurrection, the suggestion in this sense was extremely apt although 
this point was not made by Colonna-Ceccaldi. 

In 1885, Mr. Dieulafoy, the distinguished explorer of the ruins of 
Susa, announced the lotiform origin of the Ionic capital in his 
"Monuments Antiques de la Perse." His starting-point was a form 
of Egyptian capital found in relief representation at Karnak 
(eighteenth dynasty) : figured at 5. He interprets the scrolls as 
representing lotus petals conceived as curling downward under press- 
ure and the object between them as a representation of the ovary. 
It will appear later that this interpretation which corresponds 
essentially to the earlier one by Colonna-Ceccaldi, is also incorrect in 
detail but correct as to result. 

In 1886, a summary of the literature of the Ionic capital up to 
date, was published in the American Journal of Archaeology (Vol. II, 
No. I 1 ), by Mr. Joseph Thacher Clarke which did not include the 
suggestion of its lotiform derivation. This led me to examine the 
New York Cypriote vases more closely and to connect the lotus 
motives on them with others, to be subsequently illustrated, in such a 
way that I believe the fact may now be asserted delinitely and con- 
clusively that the Ionic capital is derived from a conventional form 
of lotus flower and that it is of Egyptian origin. My view has been 
adopted hy Prof. Allan Marquand, of Princeton, in a recent number 
of the American Journal of Archaeology, (Vol. IV, No. 1). It has 
been considered with much interest and I believe with approval by 
Prof. A. L. Frothingham, Jr., of Princeton, the editor of the Journal 
and has otherwise met the approbation of experts. The observa- 
tions on the Ionic capital led me to those on the anthemion or 
palmette, a more important, because a more universally employed 
decoration and there seems to me, to be no escape from admitting 
that they are a necessary consequence of the demonstration for the 
Ionic form. 

The interest of the related observations is considerably enhanced 
by the recent successful efforts to naturalize in this country the 
various water-lilies, commonly known by the one name of " lotus " 
and by the opportunities to observe the natural flower which many 
of us have thus recently enjoyed. Mr. E. D. Sturtevant, of Borden- 
town, N. J., and Mr. Benjamin Grey, of Maiden, Mass., are florists 
who have been especially prominent in this connection. From the 
lily-ponds of the former the fountain basins of the various parks in 
New York have, for instance, been very generally stocked with lotus- 
plants of all three kinds known to the ancient Egyptians. 

The cut numbered 6 shows a selection of details from these plants, 
combined from sketches made in Union Square, New York. 

The plant most generally quoted as a " lotus " is now extinct in 
Egypt and Africa, but still grows in Asia. It bears the flower so 
well known in Oriental art and decoration as the emblem of Buddha. 
According to botanical terminology, this nelumbium speciosum is not 
a lotus. It is distinguished by the peculiar seed-pod seen on the left 
of the cut, shaped like the spout of a watering-pot and containing 
seeds about the size of small filberts, by a bulbous, tulip-like shape 
of bud, by much larger petals than belong to the lotus proper, and 
by the fact that its leaves grow by the centre in bell-shaped form on 
erect stems rising above the water. Botanically speaking, the word 
" lotus " is confined to the large white water-lily, nymphcea lotus, and 
large blue water-lily, nymphcea cerulea, but the flowers of all three 

1 " A Proto-Ionic capital from the site of Neandreia." 

kinds of plants are closely allied in appearance, aside from distinc- 
tions of color. All resemble the common pond-lily, although superior 
to it in vigor, beauty, and size. Unlike the pond-lily, the flowers of 
all three plants rise high above the water on erect stems. The 
leaves of the white and blue lotus float on the water. 

The pond-lily occasionally exhibits a phenomenon as regards the 
calyx leaves, which can be more distinctly observed in the Egyptian 
water-lilies, because they are larger and stand so high above the 
water. In the Egyptian varieties of the lotus the calyx leaves 
forming the outer coarse-green envelope of the bud and partly-opened 
flower frequently or occasionally curl over and downwards after the 
flower opens, as seen in the cut, and as represented in the flowers of 
certain Cypriote vases above referred to (Figs. 1, 2, and 3). This 
downward curl of the calyx leaves appears to have been the 
starting-point of a lotus motive with exterior volutes, ultimately de- 
veloped into spirals, which, for decorative reasons, finally became, as 
far as the Ionic capital is concerned, the one remnant of the orio-mal 
floral form. 

The suggestion of Colonna-Ceccaldi and Dieulafoy that the Tonic 
volutes represent curling lotus-petals is not supported by any related 
appearance of the natural flower, as the petals never curl downward 

Fig. 6. 

or outward. When the lotiform origin of the Ionic capital has been 
universally conceded, the details of the interpretation would not be 
a matter of vital importance. As long as these intuitions of the true 
origin of the Ionic capital have not been quoted or mentioned by a 
single authority, it is important to present an interpretation which 
compels acceptance. The first step in this direction is to insist on 
the point that the lotus-flower occasionally exhibits a phenomenon, 
which was observed by ancient decorators in a manner to which the 
Ionic volutes fairly correspond. 

The different lotus-varieties, as above described, are occasionally 
distinguished by naturalistic coloring in Egyptian design, the blue 
lotus especially, but more frequently only the form of the flower is 
indicated in a variety of color combinations of purely conventional 
character. It does not appear that the rose-lotus, nelumbium speci- 
osum, had a more distinctly sacred character in Egypt than the 
white and blu water-lilies, although this has been sometimes sup- 
posed. Egyptologists simply speak of the "lotus," without distinc- 
tion as to its varieties in the information given as to its sacred sig- 

The opinion of Wilkinson, expressed in his "Ancient Egyptians," 
that the lotus had no sacred significance must be abandoned, in 
view of the numerous opinions of later authorities. It was a symbol 
of the Resurrection, according to Pierret (" Pantheon Eyyptien" p. 
62). It was the flower sacred to Osiris, the God of the Resurrec- 
tion, and usually crowned the altars of offerings to him. The four 

Genii of Amenti," i. e., of the world of departed spirits, are for this 
reason sometimes represented in Egyptian pictures of the " Last 
Judgment " and otherwise as standing on the lotus. Bouquets of 
lotus-flowers were presented to the guests at Egyptian funerals, un- 
doubtedly for this same reason. 2 According to Maspero, the lotus 
was one of the mystic forms or habitations of the departed spirit. 
According to Prisse d'Avennes, the lotus was an emblem of life and 
of immortality. 

The association of the lotus with Osiris explains that with Horus, 
the child of Osiris and Isis. The infant Horus appears frequently 
in Egyptian temple-reliefs seated on the lotus, or rising from it. In 
his various guises of hawk, of hawk-headed human being, or human- 
lieaded hawk, the lotus constantly appears as his attribute, as it is 
also that of Isis. The identity of Horus with the sun and with the 
solar-winged disk (Pierret) so constantly represented on the Egyptian 
monuments thus explains, also, an association of the lotus with solar 
worship, and involves the fact that the lotus was a symbol of the sun, 
which can, moreover, be abundantly demonstrated from monuments 
to be subsequently quoted. Finally, the flower is known to have 
}een a generative emblem. For this significance, the association 
with Osiris in his generative and reproductive character is sufficient 
demonstration. The association of the lotus with Phallic represen- 
tations of the Egyptian divinities is very common. As the Apis 

Osbnrn's. " Monumental instory of Egypt," Vol. I, p. 43. 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 685. 

Bull was considered an incarnation of Osiris, the association of the 
lotus with Apis is also a frequent appearance on the monuments. 
The third member of the Egyptian Trinity was Isis, the spouse of 
Osiris, mother of Horus, and Moon-Goddess. To her, also, the 
lotus was consequently sacred. 

In the decorative motives of the Egyptian tomb pictures, borders, 
panels, friezes, etc., the lotus is the most constant and almost ex- 
clusively dominant form. In the temple architecture it forms the 
basis for all capitals antedating the Ptolemaic period (see Reber's 
" History of Ancient Art"). The Egyptian words for lotus and for 
the capital of a column are interchangable as appears from transla- 
tions of Maspero in his ' Historie des Peuples Anciens de I' Orient." 
Although the papyrus has been frequently considered as having sug- 
gested the motive for the campaniform capital the contrary can be 
conclusively demonstrated. Other confusions of lotus-forms with 
that of a supposed papyrus can be also shown to have been made 
and increase the admittedly overwhelming prepondence of the lotus 
and its derivatives in Egyptian decoration to a maximum which is 
almost exclusive of other forms as regards surface ornament. 

The preponderance of lotus motives in Egyptian art and decora- 
tion, being sufficiently explained by the dominance of the Osiris and 
Horus cult and by the well-known hieratic and symbolic character 
of all Egyptian art, we have no difficulty in recognizing the source 
and raison d'etre of the lotus motives so constantly found in the 
decorative art of the Phoenicians and on the vases of Cyprus. 

The solar cult was a dominant one among the Phoenicians and their 
adoption of Horus worship, of the winged solar disk and of various 
forms of lotus decoration from the Egyptians, is one of the most pal- 
pable illustrations of their well-known dependence on Egyptian in- 
fluences, Kenan speaks of Phoenicia as a "province of Egypt " in 
matters of religion (Mission de P/tenicie). The myth of the death 
and resurrection of Osiris is distinctly connected with localities on 
the Syrian coast, and the worship of Osiris is known to have been es- 
pecially affected at Byblus, of which seaport the earliest Phoenician 
colonists of Cyprus were native. It is also recorded to have been the 
distinctive cult of Amathus, one of the oldest Phoenician settlements in 
Cyprus. Such special points are not as important as the general 
one, that Phoenician decoration exhibits a preponderance of lotus 
forms and derivatives, similar to that found in Egyptian art and 
explained by it. The close and early relations between Phoenicia 
and Egypt are made especially vivid by the fact that the cedar oil 
on which the Egyptians were absolutely dependent for their most 
generally practised method of embalmment (the second in the scale of 
costliness and pomp) was entirely supplied by Phoenician commerce 
and manufacture. 

The dependence of early Cypriote art on the Phoenicians of Syria, 
and the general dependence of the Phoenicians on Egypt for many 
mythological conceptions, and for the symbolisms, 
forms and motives of their own hieratic art, thus 
justifies a treatment of Cypriote decorative art from 
a standpoint which regards it as a unit in the matter 
of its lotus motives, and which justifies the search 
for analogies between decorative motives of Cypriote 
capitals and steles and those found on its pottery. 
The steles in question were tombstones. The pot- 
tery has been, without exception, found in tombs, 
and as the lotus was the Egyptian symbol of the 
Resurrection, and also of a solar Horus worship 
especially affected by the Phoenicians, the associa- 
tion is palpably significant. The worship of the 
moon and of a moon-goddess, cither Isis herself or 
one assimilated to her, or both, is well-known to 
have been a prominent Phoenician cult. Hence 
the associations of the lotus with Isis worship above 
explained are also in point. 

As for Phoenician capitals, which are known by a 
number of reliefs to have especially favored the 
Ionic form, we may, without insisting in all cases on 
a symbolical significance, which can be shown to 
have existed in spine cases, simply point to the 
general fact that Phoenician architectural decora- 
tion was especially derived from Egyptian sources, 
and that lotus Ionic forms can be demonstrated to 
have existed in Egypt near the eighteenth century 
B. c. (beginning of the eighteenth dynasty). One 
indication of this fact is offered by the painted imi- 
tations of architectural capitals in wood or metal, 
of which an illustration is offered at Fig. 7, from a 
tomb at Thebx's of the time of Menephtah, son of 
Ramses II. The Ionic form appears distinctly in the upper member 
of this capital. 

As regards the pottery of Cyprus, it is not necessary to assume 
that the decorators of the vases had invariably preserved a conscious- 
ness of the symbolical significance of the lotus decorations so univer- 
sally found on them. The Greek colonists of Cyprus borrowed the 
Phoenician art before the dawn of recorded Greek history, and before 
there was an independent art in Greece; but, with a conservatism 
otherwise attested for the Cypriote Greeks, and otherwise unknown 
to Greek art, they perpetuated these Phoenician forms down to the 
time of Alexander the Great and later. In the demonstration to be 
subsequently offered we are thus freed at the same time from diffi- 
culties regarding the question of dates, and from the suspicion calcu- 

Fig. 7. 

lated to fall on those who look for symbolical meanings in Greek 
decoration. The lotus motives were traditional, and had been con- 
ventionalized to an extreme degree in their symbolical stage, and 
the art of Cyprus was so conservative that the most expert students 
are unable to distinguish between the pottery of Cypriote Greeks 
and that of Cypriote Phoenicians, or to specify distinctions in style 
dependent on succession of time in either case. " Vases demonstrably 
of the second century B. <;., resembling Fig. 7, belong to types, and 
show lotus motives which are demonstrably as early as the fifteenth 
century B. c. 

The same conservative character in Cypriote art also saves us 
from the uncertainty regarding dates in the matter of the Cypriote 
proto-Ionic steles and capitals to be illustrated and considered. 
These may be individually of relatively late date (Figure 4 is 
certainly not earlier than ,00 B. c.), but there is no doubt that they 
represent types of sufficient antiquity to serve as links in a chain of 
demonstration affecting the Greek Ionic forms. A glance at the 
geographical position of Cyprus, the only spot on which Greeks and 
Orientals met and amalgamated from the earliest to the latest dates 
of Greek history without interruption and without national feuds or 
animosity (before the time of the Persians), gives sufficient explana- 
tion how and why connecting linns of all kinds for the relations of 
Greek and Oriental art, as well in sculpture as in architecture, 
should be found on this particular island. The peculiar conservatism 
of the Cypriote Greeks is undoubtedly explained by the same Oriental 
influence and character. 

The foregoing preliminary remarks are essential to a satisfactory 
argument based on the illustrations to be subsequently presented. 
Above all, the point must be kept in view that Cypriote Greek art 
in general exhibits the first stage of the development of Greek art in 
general, of whatever date the individual piece of record. A few 
words are now necessary as to the present accepted theory of the 
origin of the Ionic capital. 

Standard authorities are united, so far, in deriving the Ionic capital 
from Assyrian architecture. So far as actual remains are con- 
cerned, only one Assyrian capital 
has been published, and only two 
or three capitals are known to 
be in existence. The evidence is 
found in Assyrian bas-reliefs, nota- 
bly in an aedicule represented on a 
relief from Khorsabad, figured at 
8, and in the capitals of an sedic- 
ule represented on a tablet found 
at Sippara, in Babylonia, and 
hence known as the Sippara tab- 
let. This form of capital is fig- 
ured at 9. The latter is dated be- 
tween the eleventh and ninth centuries B. c. The Ionic of Khorsa- 
bad is of the eighth century B. c. As there are no definitely dated 
Greek Ionic capitals earlier than the fifth century B. c., and no 
records of Greek Ionic temples earlier than the sixth century B. c., 
the precedence of the Assyrian forms is clear, and the presumption 
in favor of the Assyrian origin of the Greek Ionic is apparent. 

From the standpoint of this presumption, Mr. Clarke published 
in the essay previously mentioned a capital which he recently found 
at Chigri (ancient Neandreia), in Asia Minor, during his explora- 
tions at Assos (Figure 10). This capital was supposed by him to 
be a corroboration of the theory advanced by the German architect 
and aesthetic critic, Gottfried Semper, in his work on "Style." 1 
Semper considers the volutes at the base of the Assyrian palraette, 

Fig. 9. 

Fig 10. 

Fig. II. 

of which one form is shown at Figure 11, to be the original starting- 
point of the Assyrian proto-Ionic. The palmetto form itself has 
been universally considered a derivative from the palm-tree, as rep- 
resented on Assyrian reliefs (Figure 12), and Mr. Clarke supposes 
the pendant bunches of dates, which are always conventionally 
represented as shown in the cut, to be the starting-point of the 
decorative scrolls at the base of the palmette. 

Semper's theory conceives that the upper palmate portion of the 
palmette was gradually eliminated in architectural usage, as unfitted 
for position under pressure, and that the scrolls were consequently 
and correspondingly developed. Mr. Clark naturally considered the 
Neandreian capital to be a vestige of the palmette origin of the 
Ionic, and published in support of this view three details of ivory 
plaques from Nineveh, in the British Museum, one of which is 
figured at 13. These details appeared clearly enough to be connect- 
ing forms between 10 and 11. and might fairly be considered repre- 
sentative of similar lost architectural capitals. As the Greek 

1 " Der Stil in (Jen technischen und tektonischen Kiinaten." . 

FEBRUARY 9, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


authemion (typical form from an Attic vase at Figure 14) has so fai 
been always related to the Assyrian palmette and to the palm-tree 
through that ornament, the attractions of a theory which unites the 
anthemion and the Ionic capital as developments from the same 
starting-point are apparent, and the connections between 10, 13 anc 
14 are too obvious to be disregarded. Moreover, two other 

Fig. I 2 

Fie. 13. 

Fig. 14. 

Ionic capitals, more or less similar to th it from Neandreia, have been 
still more recently discovered at Athe:\s, and have just been pub 
lished by Mr. Trowbridge, in the ' Amer, *an Journal of Archceoloyy' 
(Vol. IV. No. 1). 

It thus appears that the theory of the lotiform origin of the Ionic 
capital which necessarily carries with it the theory of an Egyptian 
derivation, is antagonistic to the accepted theory of an Assyrian ori 
gin, and also to recent corrobations of this theory of an apparently 
conclusive character. It is clear that no theory of Ionic origins can 
now be accepted which does not reckon with the capital from 

Neandreia. But the antagonism 
is only partial, and is more ap- 
parent than real. It would be 
absurd to question the impor- 
tance of the Assyrian proto-Ionic 
as, at least, the possibility that it 
was a reactive element through 
Asia Minor on the development 
of Greek form?. It is only neces- 
sary to show that the Assyrian 
proto-Ionic forms are themselves 
derived through Phccnician medi- 
tation from Egypt, and that the 
Egyptian Ionic passed more di- 
rectly to the Greeks by way of 
Syria and Cyprus. This can be done by analogies between the 
Egyptian Ionic and the lotiform Ionic motives of Cyprus. The 
ivories which are so interesting as connecting links can be shown to 
belong to a series of admitted Egypto-Pheenician manufacture. 

The crucial question is that of the Assyrian palmette. Strange as 
the assertion may seem, this form is not originally Assyrian, and it 
is not a palmette, i e., not a palm-tree. As remarked at the opening 
of this paper, the "rosette" which has so far been always con- 
sidered an A'ssyrian and Babylonian decoration, is an element of the 
problem. This is also Egyptian, and it is also a lotus motive. 

These points are naturally too important for despatch in a single 
paper, and it will, therefore, be understood that the analogies and 
comparisons for the Ionic capital, which appear in a following 
article, are also introductory, and that they are not propounded as 
absolutely conclusive alone and ir themselves before the considera- 
tion of the anthemion is reached. That they will, at least, throw 
the scales of the balance into equilibrium, as regards the rival claims 
of Egypt and Assyria I have not the slightest doubt. As the ques- 
tion is one which involves most of the scrolls, spirals and rosettes of 
modern decoration; beside the Ionic capital itself the tracing 
back of these various motives to a single typical flower an emblem 
of the belief in a future life so dear to the ancient Egyptians is a 
matter of general popular interest. I presume that the archa;ologieal 
considerations involved may be considered interesting in their re- 
sults, if not in themselves. WM. H. GOODYEAR. 
[To be continued.! 

D 1 


CURING the past twelve years, while in 
charge of various engineering unde,r- 
takings, the author has devoted a good 
'deal of attention to the cost of executing 
different classes of work, and it has 
occurred to him that a short paper on this 
subject might not be uninteresting. He 
regrets that he has not taken full advantage 
of his opportunities in this way, and also 
that some of his memorandums have been 
lost in moving about. 

The author proposes to take up the follow- 
ing classes of work: 1. Puddle trenche.-i 
and puddle. 2. Miscellaneous earthwork. 
3. Concrete work. 4. Masonry. 

The factors which appear chiefly to demand consideration in en- 

1 From a paper by Mr. A. Fairlie Bruce, read at a meeting of the Civil and 
Mechanical Engineers' Society. 

Capital from Rosheim. 

deavouring to arrive at an estimate of the probable cost of excavating 
any puddle trench are : 1. The geological strata to be cut through. 
2. The quantity of water likely to be met with. 3. The maximum 
and average depths from which the spoil has to be exca-vated before 
the impervious strata are reached. 4. The methods of excavation to 
be adopted. 

The first two of these, which might, perhaps, be more properly 
taken as one, the second being a consequence of the first, are 
necessarily the most important considerations in determining both 
the cost of execution and the ultimate success of any puddle trench. 
Before the site of an embankment is finally fixed on, its geological 
formation should be very carefully investigated, not only "by means 
of borings, which, taken by themselves, are generally very illusory, 
but by trial pits, the number depending on the length of the trench, 
sunk well into the strata in which it is proposed to found. Great ia 
the difference in the amount of work done per man day, in different 
materials, at about the same depth. For instance, in trap or whin- 
stone rock at a depth of 40 or 50 feet from the surface, a man can 
barely excavate a cubic yard per day, at a cost of about 8s. per 
cubic yard, whereas 2J cubic yards of sandy clay or blaes can be re- 
moved at the same depth, costing only about 2s. 3rf. per cubic yard. 
It is obvious, also, how seriously the expense of excavation of an 
otherwise easy material may be augmented by the presence in it of 
water in large quantities, quite apart from the mere question of 
pumping. This is, perhaps, best exemplified by sand, which, when 
dry, can be taken out more easily than anything else, but when it is 
changed into running sand by water, and if mingled with boulders, 
often gives an infinite amount of bother. In the case in point, for a 
time, only ^th cubic yard could be got out per man day. 

The next point to be considered is the depth at which the excava- 
tion has to be done. For the first 5 feet the soil can be cast out as 
it is dug, but below that depth either a staging must be introduced, 
and the stuff cast onto it, and from it again to the surface, or in the 
wings of the trench it may be wheeled out in barrows. When 
the depth exceeds 12 feet or 15 feet, mechanical aid must be called 
in, and the materials excavated raised to the surface by horse or 
steam-power, by appliances similar to those already described. As 
might be anticipated, the reduction due to this cause is most rapid 
down to a depth of about 15 feet. It then becomes gradually less, 
until, after 30 feet is reached, it is comparatively slight, and is due 
almost exclusively to the time lost in lifting the spoil and to the 
diminishing amount of light which reaches the bottom of the trench 
as the depth increases, especially in winter. Additional depth also 
means additional pumping-power, which must not be left out of 

Puddle. The cost of puddle varies in proportion to the distance 
from which it has to be conveyed to the embankment and the nature 
of the clay, boulder clay requiring much more working to make it into 
good puddle than some of the softer clays, and it also requires to have 
a great many stones picked out, though this is frequently carried too 
far, a few stones, if they are not too large or allowed to touch one 
another, being in some respects rather an advantage than otherwise, 
as they tend to prevent the clay from cracking and fisstiring, in con- 
tracting, and also somewhat increase its weight. If water for 
" souring " the clay is difficult to obtain near the site it adds to the 
cost. It is generally best to " sour " for clay as close to the bank as 
possible to reduce the weight of material transported, and also be- 
cause the water from it assists the subsidence of the banking. Or, 
the Paisley Water-works one of Priestman's diggers was used with 
very good results for lifting the puddle from the heaps and casting it 
into the trench. Puddle in the trench usually costs somewhat more 
than that in the wall, all other things being equal, on account of the 
pumping required and the labor expended in removing timber. 

Miscellaneous Earthworks. Most of the remarks already made 
with reference to the cost of excavating puddle trenches apply to 
that of sinking deep foundations, in which neither caissons nor 
coffer-dams are used. In excavations, when barrow-work is resorted 
to exclusively for the removal of the soil, the work done per man 
engaged depends considerably on the length and gradient of the 
barrow road; if this be level, or nearly so, an additional wheeler 
must be put on for every 30 to 35 yards of distance, or if on a slope 
of say 1 in 10, the length of the stages would require to be reduced 
to about 25 yards. In the case of rock excavation, not only is the 
degree of hardness of the rock to be considered in estimating the cost 
of its removal, but also the way in which it is " bedded " forms an 
mportant item. Especially is this so in taking out narrow channels 
and foundations, and there is much more scope in this class of work for 
lie exercise of economy in the judicious use of explosives, etc., than 
'n ordinary earthwork. 

Concrete work.^n making concrete, the labor expended per 
cubic yard is greatly dependent upon its mass form, and the amount 
of face work, if any, per cubic yard. In foundations, under ordinary 
conditions, about 2J cubic yards can be mixed and put in per man 
day by manual labor, whereas in confined positions, such as in coffer- 
lams, etc., this may fall as low as cubic yard per man day. It is 
ilways of importance to place the mixing-platform as nearly as pos- 
ible on the same level, 'as well as as close as possible to the position 
where the concrete is required, on account of the disgregation of the 
naterials caused by a tip of a considerable height ; and to wheel it 
lown a steep incline is hard on the men and leads to the loss of time, 
n making the screening-well at Acreknawe Reservoir and Water- 
vorks, which was constructed of concrete faced with bricks, only 1^ 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 685. 

cubic yards were done per man day in the lower part of the wall 
where the concrete had to be wheeled down a slope of 1 in 10, where- 
as 2.55 cubic yards were done per man day in the upper part with a 
barrow road at 1 in 50. In designing concrete work, both with a 
view of saving time and to obtain good work, it is advisable to make 
the corners as few as possible, and with large " splays," and the 
curves of as large a radius as the exigencies of the work will admit 
of, as sharp radii involve a good deal of loss of time in framing. 
Making all due allowance, however, for economy in labor, to be 
effected by careful design and management, the cost of concrete- 
work is chiefly dependent, the prop >rtions being the same, on the 
local conditions governing the price of cements, etc. If cement and 
sand are dear, and a good rubble is easily obtained, it is often 
cheaper to use it than concrete, and in many cases quite as efficient, 
as the cost of breaking stones is saved, and somewhat less sand and 
cement is needed than is required for concrete at, say, 6 to 1. 

Masonry. The price of masonry, like that of concrete, is of 
course chiefly controlled by local circumstances, which have all to be 
investigated and weighed before its cost is estimated or its class fixed 
on ; that is to say, whether it is to be brickwork, ashlar, or rubble, 
supposing the particular requirements of the projected work admit of 
such a choice. 

Ashlar. Save in special cases, such as important copes, etc., in 
most classes of engineering work where it is necessary to use ashlar, 
"dabbled " or " scabbled " work will be found sufficiently fine, and 
the time demanded for them is only about half that needed for 
" droving," and one-third of that for " polishing," so that they might 
with advantage be more frequently substituted for these. 

Hubble. As a rule, however, where stone is plentiful, nothing 
better can be used for work below ground, such as retaining-walls, 
etc., than good solidly built rubble, faced with what are called in the 
North "shoddies," i. e., stone squared on the face joints. From 1 
to 1J cubic yards can usually be done per man day at this descrip- 
tion of work in light retaining-walls, etc., of 2 to 3 feet thick without 
a crane, and with a crane in viaduct piers. In heavier masses of 
masonry, such as abutments, heavy retaining-walls, etc., about 2 
cubic yards can be done per man day. In one of the abutments of 
the Clyde Viaduct as much as 5 cubic yards were accomplished per 
man day, but in this case the stone used was quarried immediately 
along-side the building, placed by the quarry steam-crane straight onto 
the work, which enabled very large stones to be used. 

In Northern Italy, where good building stone is usually very 
plentiful and labor cheap, a good mason only receiving 3.5 lire a day, 
masonwork can be done very cheaply, the best class of hydraulic 
masonry, built of mortar, composed of one of Casali cement (an 
Italian copy of Portland cement), one of Casali hydraulic lime, and 
four of sea-sand, only costing 10s. to 12s. per cubic yard in the 
neighborhood of Genoa. If river-sand is used, the price is reduced 
to 8s. a cubic yard ; but this latter, being formed by the action of 
water on limestone rock, contains silica, and consequently a very 
inferior mortar is the result. 

In conclusion, the author may say that no greater mistake can be 
made than that frequently fallen into by small contractors of trying 
to dispense with necessary " plant," carrying on works in a hand-to- 
mouth sort of way, using manual labor where cranes should be em- 
ployed and horse-power where steam is required. Money judiciously 
expended in suitable " plant " is sure to repay the contractor in the 
long run by saving much more than its equivalent in time, labor, and 

HE opinions passed upon the works of Rude have been as vari- 
able as the English climate. Lauded to the artistic skies by 
some as a Burgundian Phidias or Michel-Angelo, he has been 
scoffed at and depreciated by others, as if there were no merit what- 
ever in his sculptures. Perhaps the truth lies, as usual, in a 
middle course. 

Born of humble parents in a back street of Dijon, in 1 784, Rude 
seems to have imbibed democratic notions while working at his 
father's forge; for in 1792, such was the enthusiasm of the latter, for 
the cause of the Republic, that he enrolled the boy in a scholastic 
corps called by the people, the Royal-Bonbon regiment. Thus his 
life was divided between smithing and soldiering, until an accident 
in the form of a red-hot bar falling upon his foot, turned his atten- 
tion to drawing ; and, when about sixteen years old, he began 
seriously to take lessons, working early and late. In 1807 he went 
to Paris and was employed by Denon upon the Vendome column. 
This and the stirring events which were quickly succeeding one 
another, seem to have made him a violent Bonapartist ; and we find him 
and four or five fellow-students turning the beads of the soldiers who 
accompanied Marshal Ney to Dijon, to stop the progress of the ogre 
de Cone, on his return from Elba. Rude and his friends stood on 
the steps of the theatre, and as the troops passed (some 18,000 men) 
the boys cried, " Vive I'empereur .' " The first detachment went by, 
astonished, but unmoved ; but, as the cry was repeated over and over 
again it took effect, and the soldiers joined in with a unanimous 

i " Francois Kutle," i>ar Alexis Bertrand. Librarie de 1'Art, cits d'Antin, 29, 

" Vive I'empereur .' " and next day the officers followed suit. After 
Waterloo, Rude joined David the painter at Brussels, where a great 
deal of his work was accomplished, and where he married Sophie 
Fremiet, an accomplished artist and musician. Besides being a painter 
of merit and pupil of David, Sophie was an enthusiast, for when 
her husband had no money to continue his " Pdcheur Napolitain," 
she suggested that they should sell some necessary garments : " Nous 
vendrous nos chemises " ! All artists are not blessed with such self- 
sacrificing partners, unhappily ; but, then, Rude's wife knew the 
trials of making bricks without straw, and the miseries of being 
stayed from carrying out great ideas 'for want of a little necessary 
filthy lucre. 

Whatever Rude may have been as an artist, his private life was 
exemplary. He loved his home and his work, and in the evenings 
when not drawing or modelling, he read or listened to his wife's 
music. An indefatigable worker, and in merit the equal of any of 
the sculptors of his own time; he never was received at the Institut, 
because he was above scheming for a fauteuit ; but, nevertheless, he 
acceded upon one occasion to the persuasion of his friends, and 
became a candidate. Promised by many that he should have their 
votes, the election proved that .he had had none. But there was no 
love lost between him and the Immortels ; for, while he called them 
the pdtissiers, they dubbed him "I'homme a la barbe" ; and when he 
heard of his unsuccess, he said to his wife, " Tu vois bien, Sophie, 
qu'il faut que je laisse pousser mes moustaches, on dirait que je me 
rase pour entrer a V Institut." Perhaps M. Daudet is not quite wrong 
in his estimate of " Les Immortels." 

Of Rude's work as a sculptor M. Bertrand speaks enthusiastically. 
He considers the " Mercure rattachant ses Talonnieres " superior 
to the " Mercury " of Jean de Bologna. In this I cannot agree, nor 
in M. Bertrand's estimate of Rude's other works, for his classical 
subjects always strike me as resembling Canova's namby-pamby 
gracefulness ; and his religious one?, Thorwaldsen's false senti- 
mentality. What can be weaker and more maudlin, for example, 
than his " Baptism of Christ " in the church of the Madeleine, 
Paris? and, although his "Depart des Volontaires," on the Arc de 
Triomphe, has a certain grandeur in the " movement," it decidedly 
approaches clap-trap. The Salons for the last eighteen years have 
contained " Liberties " innumerable, grander in effect and far less 
shrieking. Again, what can be more hideous than the " Napoleon 
ler s'eveillant a la Posterite," in the Pare de Fixin. A plintl-, 
upon which rests a rock and an eagle in the agony of death ; at the 
summit Napoleon sleeping upon a bier, all but covered with a sheet. 
Can a subject be more utterly unfit for sculpture 1 Perhaps 
Rude's best work is his recumbent statue of Cavaignac in the Mont- 
martre Cemetery, which has something of the feeling of the Renais- 
sance sculptors. But when M. Bertrand places such work upon a par 
with the grand tombs of Louis XII, by Jean Juste ; of Henri II, by 
Germain Pilon, and of Francois I, by Philibert Delorme ; or with 
the works of Jean Goujon, of Michel Colombe, of Ligier Richier, of 
Jean Cousin, of Simon Guillain, of Pierre Bontems, of Francois 
Anguier, or of Franqueville or Prieur, one cannot help wondering if, 
for the moment, he forgot what these great men of. the French 
Renaissance have left behind them. Even amongst the moderns, 
surely the work of Boucher, of Carpeaux, of Chapu, of Paul Dubois, 
Falguiere, Guillaume, Moreau-Vauthier and of many others, quite 
equals or excels that of Fran9ois Rude. Whether Rude would have 
made a better design for the completion of the Arc de Triomphe, 
than that which was temporarily placed upon it some years ago by 
Falguiere, is very doubtful but M. Bertrand, no doubt, thinks 
otheiwise. But if one cannot agree with the author in his estimate 
of Rude as an artist, we may endorse his views upon the man and 
the teacher : " Ne craif/nez pas qu'on vous reproche vos ceuvres de 
debutants et gardez rous d'en rougir jamais vous-memef, pourvu que 
vous fassiez toujours de votre mieux. . . Pourvu qu'elle soil vraie, 
confonnc a la nature, une ceuvre aura toujours ce qu'on est convenu 
d'appeler, sans trap se rendre compte de ecu mots iniymatiques, le style 
et le caractere ; substituer a la nature limitation d'autrui, tes procedes 
d'ecole, c'est effacer les differences des hommes et des ceuvre*. et re- 
pandre sur tout ce que I' on fait ce vernis d'uniformite qui tst I' 'oppose 
du style qui est I'homme meme avec ses qualites et ses defauts persunnttf, 
I'oppose, du caractere qui est precise'ment le resultat de I'individualite 
de Carlisle fierement maintenue dans na vie et affirmie dans son ozurre. 
. . . Plus une oeuvre serrera de pres la nature, plus elle sera decoralire 
et monumentale ; Voyez le Parthenon." These are sentiments which 
every one in our own day will echo, and which are the doctrin s of 
modern realists : " A u fond, I'art ne s'ajoute pas it la nature : U la 
compren/l, I'imite et I'interpr'ete." S. BEALE. 


IT has been suggested to us by art architect of this city that a 
synopsis of the lien laws of the different States and Territories 
in so far as they affect the time for the final payment of build- 
ing contracts would be of great use to such architects as have 
occasion to draw contracts to be executed in other States. 

FEBRUARY 9, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


We have accordingly prepared the following schedule of what, in 
our opinion, after careful examination of the various statutes, is the 
longest time allowed for the filing of liens against real estate by sub- 
contractors, material-men, or other persons furnishing labor or 
material to the principal contractor : 



New Hampshire, 

New Jersey, 

New Mexico, 

New York, 

North Carolina, 




Rhode Island, 

South Carolina, 












6 months. 
90 days. 
4 months. 

30 days. 
3 months. 
30 days. 

Washington Territory, 00 
West Virginia, 00 

Wisconsin, <i months. 

Wyoming, 90 days. 

District of Columbia, 3 months. 

Alabama, 4 months. Nebraska, 4 months. 

Arizona, 60 days. Nevada, 30 days. 

Arkansas, . 90 New Hampshire, 90 

California, 30 " New Jersey, 1 year. 

Colorado, 40 " New Mexico, 00 days. 

Connecticut, 60 " 

Dakota, 6 months. 

Delaware, 90 days. 

Florida, 6 months. 

Georgia, 3 " 

Idaho, 30 days. 

Illinois, 3 months. 

Indiana, 60 days. 

Kansas, 60 

Kentucky, 60 

Maine, ' 30 

Maryland, 60 

Massachusetts, 30 

Michigan, 00 

Minnesota, 90 

Missouri, 4 months. 

Montana, 00 days. 

In Mississippi the time is six months if the amount is over $150. 
In Iowa and Lousiana, and in Mississippi for amounts under $150, 
there is apparently no time fixed for filing liens in favor of the 
owner, though purchasers and mortgagees are protected if the lien is 
not filed within a certain time. 

It is probable that in some of the States where the longer periods 
obtain, it was not the intention of the Legislature to give to laborers 
and material-men such extended time ; but, we have constructed the 
schedule according to what seems to us to be the most unfavorable 
interpretation of the law from the owner's standpoint, with a view 
to fixing such time for the final payment as shall without any ques- 
tion protect the owner against the claims of all parties other than the 
original contractors. The time that original contractors, that is, all 
parties dealing directly with the owner, have for filing liens, is, in 
some States, different from that given to sub-contractors and others ; 
the owner, however, can protect himself against a claim of lien from 
all persons with whom he deals directly by requiring a release of all 
claims on the property before the contract is finally settled. The 
time for the final payment need not be deferred beyond the last day 
on which it is possible for third persons to file liens against the 

The contract should, however, provide that the final payment shall 
not be due for a period exceeding by a few days the time allowed 
sub-contractors for filing liens ; as the e,xact day when a building is 
actually completed, or work on the contract ceases, is often a matter 
of dispute. It is best to defer the final payment until five or ten 
days after the time apparently open for filing liens has expired. 

The following is submitted as a final payment clause for use in 
contracts to be executed in Massachusetts ; and the same will hold 
good for other States with the necessary change as to time indicated 
by the above schedule : 

"$ thirty-five days after the said work shall have been com- 
pleted in accordance with the terms of this contract ; provided, 
further, however, that no liens shall then have been filed against the 
property and remain undischarged, and that said contractor shall 
tender to the owner a satisfactory release under seal of all claims on 
his part against the owner's estate, and shall also (if requested) fur- 
nish satisfactory vouchers, receipts or other evidence that no claim 
against the said estate can be made by any person or persons who 
have furnished labor or materials for the work embraced in this 


PHILADELPHIA, PA., January 25, 188t. 

Dear Sirs, I wish to call attention to an unfortunate paragraph 
in your review of the " League " exhibition in this week's Architect 
(January 19) in which your correspondent attacks Grecian archi- 
tecture in such a hasty and unappreciative manner. 

It is, perhaps, a human failing to plight and misunderstand that 
which one is prejudiced against, but the prejudice in this case is so 
glaring in itself and withal so conspicuous in the midst of a criticism 
characterized by such conscientious aggressiveness and expressed 
with such simple force that it should not, I think, pass unchallenged. 

If your author will take the trouble to look up the subject of 
Grecian temples he may have occasion to reverse his decision as to 
their " harlequin grotesqueness " as well as to Mr. Brown's origin- 
ality in drawing his Caryatid porch without anv frieze. 

Very truly, HE'RBERT P. KELLY. 

[THE writer of the article on the League Exhibition protests against be- 
ing accused of a prejudice against Greek architecture. As to Mr. Brown's 

Caryatid porch, while he can certainly claim that the Erechtheum portico 
has no frieze, the profiling of the mouldings, together with the special 
treatment of the upper face of the architrave, give it an effect quite different 
from his design, although it is not perhaps settled whether even the 
Erechtheum portico had not once a frieze of some sort. The main question 
however, whether the appearance which the Greek architects intended their 
buildings to have was that of "cold purity," "pure intellect," "abstract 
form," and so on, as the pentimentalists of the early part of the centurv 
maintained, or of " harlequin gorgeousness," (not " grotesqueness ") is 
best answered by referring to the works of Penrose, Hittorff and Zanth, and 
many others. Our older readers will well remember the commotion which 
was caused by the first publication of the result of explorations which showed 
that all the important buildings on the Athenian Acropolis, retained traces 
of having been painted. It was announced, by those who professed to have 
the most profound intuition into the workings of the Hellenic mind, that a 
Greek was incapable of profaning the purity of his Parian marble by cover- 
ing it with pigments, and that the traces of color upon it were due to the 
loathsome levity of the Slnvonic conquerors during the dark ages, who 
daubed with gaudy paint the buildings whose " calm intellectuality " thev 
were incapable of comprehending. This theory greatly comforted the senti- 
mentalists, until it was shown that the early Doric temples of Magn.'i 
Grajcia, which no mediaeval barbarians had. ever approached with their 
paint-pots, had not only been painted all over, but had been prepared for 
painting when they were built by the application of a film of stucco to the 
stone, to form a ground for the pigments. In all important respects the 
coloring and the patterns agreed with the traces remaining on 
the Athenian buildings, and subsequent researches have only confirmed, 
what was already amply proved, that the Athenian temples in" the time of 
Pericles had their delicately profiled mouldings speckled and dotted and 
streaked with blue and red ; that the sculpture upon them was fet forth by 
a blue background, and that the walls and columns were painted in broad 
stripes and bands, of the most vivid tints. Whether the Greeks showed 
proper respect for the theories of their future eulogists in behaving so it is 
unnecessary to inquire. We know now beyond a doubt what they did, and 
the sooner we accommodate our ideal of them to the facts, the better off we 
shall be. Unless the building has been repainted recently, the most life- 
like reproduction of a Grecian Doric portico, as it appeared when its build- 
ers left it, is probably to be found in the entrance porch of the Cirque d'Ete", 
in Paris, an architectural object to which the term of "harlequin gorgeous- 
ness" is about as well applied as to any structure we know of. To the 
writer's mind, the abandoumeut of the idea that the Greeks were nothing 
but "cold idealists" greatly improves their position as artists. It is 
doubtful whether their coloring would appear beautiful to an Oriental, or 
even to us. but it would have been a strange insensibility that would have 
made the statue of Athene inside the temple of ivory, inlaid with gold, and 
left -the gods and heroes in the tympanums and the metopes outside to 
shiver in white marble. We are so accustomed to see our buildings bare, 
and are, possibly, so seusitive to color, that we have formed a dislike to the 
idea of exterior polychromy which the ancients or the medisevals could not 
conceive, and which would quickly disappear if some genius should produce 
a really successful example of it. If architects who cousider a staring 
uniform white the proper color for the highest effects of architecture 
would read Chaucer's description of Diana's coral temple, and the iron 
sanctuary of Mars, they would get some suggestions as to the value that 
color might have in architecture which ought to furnish them with food for 



Dear Sirs, Will you kindly let me know through the medium of 
your paper, what are the best works treating of "Southern Roman- 
esque," also on theatre construction, where I can get them, and the 
price. You will greatly oblige, 

Yours respectfully, E. H. DAVIS. 

[(1.) REVOII/S "Architecture Romane du Midi de la France" ; Cor- 
royer's ' ' L' Architecture Romane." (2.) Gousset's " TraiU de la Con- 
struction des Theatres." (3.) Any importing bookseller will obtain them 


BOSTON, MASS., February 4, 1889. 

Dear Sirs, Can any one tell me whether the Fire-on-the-Hearth 
Stoves, once manufactured by the Open Stove Ventilation Company, 
in New York, are still made, and if so, by whom, and what is the 
address ? I have used half-a-dozen or so in my practice, and would 
have used many more, probably, if it were not for the extreme 
difficulty of getting them. The last one I bought I heard of, after 
many inquiries, at Salem, Mass., and, secured it, but this seems to 
have been the sole survivor of the race, and what I shall do when I 
to repair 


next applied to, to recommend a nursery stove, or to get pieces 
epair those I have already bought, I do not know. 

How TO WHITE FOR THE PAPER. There are not a few scholars, 
fitted for even the Chair of Rhetoric, who arc sadly uninformed in the 
matter of writing for a newspaper. Possibly they could write a book, 
but their communications must receive a little often a great deal 
of "doctoring" before they are put into the hands of a periodical 
compositor. Of course the grammar will usually by no means uni- 
formly be satisfactory. What they err in pertains mainly to the 
mechanical make-up of the manuscript. We note a few particulars 
where a long experience has discovered amazing defects. 

(1.) Abbreviations are an abomination. No one who really knows 
"how to write for the paper" ever gives "Pres." for President, or 
" V. Pr e8 /' f r Vice- President, or " Thurs," for Thursday. Certain 
abbreviations are established and printed as such "Mr.," "Hon. " 
"Mass.," "Esq.," for examples. But when it is expected that the 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXIV. No. 685. 

compositor will put in every letter of a word, those who know " how to 
write for the paper," will write out every word. In editorial offices 
where the incumbent feels at liberty to be autocratic, the sight of an 
abbreviation is the occasion of instant doom. More humble, we usually 
fight down a vexation and fix the manuscript. 

(2.) It seems a small thing to complain of the writing on little bits of 
paper. Marriage notices often come on slips less than the size of one's 
hand. These we must stick to a bigger sheet, else the danger of its 
blowing away is imminent. Nothing should be put on a sheet of less 
size than note paper. We are always glad when the size is that of 
letter-sheet. Of course we make no complaint of postal cards. 

(3.) Paragraphing is largely arbitrary. It ought to have regard to 
the physical appearance. Some of the English newspapers will give a 
whole column without a break. Of course the paragraphs should be 
made where the sense requires it ; and also provided the sense is not 
disturbed with a view of the mechanical appearance. But our 
special point is, that one who "knows how to write for the paper" will 
himself indicate and distinctly where the paragraph is to begin. 
We should say that the frequent failure to do this is stupid, but for the 
fact that intelligent people are often thus negligent. 

(4. ) In most newspaper offices a manuscript is often given in parts 
to different compositors. Therefore but one side of the sheet should be 
written upon. 

(6.) In this age paper is cheap. We hate to see a communication 
without a title, and with the first line so near the top that the editor, 
guessing what the proper title is, must get a new sheet on which to 
write it. Be generous in the use of paper. 

(6.) Sometimes a news item, a marriage notice, and a business 
matter will be crowded in on the same sheet. Then they must be re- 
written, or else scissors and paste must be put to use in getting them 
apart. Every separate matter should be written on a separate sheet. 

(7.) Finally for ministers especially care should be taken in 
reference to Scripture citations. Absolutely full half the references to j 
chapter and verse arc erroneous! Further, the quotation is almost 
certain to contain an omission or other mistake ! This statement may 
seem incredible. But we, who know by much observation, speak by 

We might extend this inventory of things which those who " write 
for the papers" need to know, and knowing need to practise. But for 
the present let these seven particulars suffice. Christian Leailer. 

pounds broken to pass through a ^-inch riddle. The other niters con- 
tained 5J cubic feet of spent shale broken to pass through an 8-inch 
sieve. In the first set of trials the sewage was passed through at the rate 
of 1440 gallons a day ; this rate, however, it was found advisable to reduce 
in subsequent experiments to 700, as the sewage was of an exceptionally 
foul character, containing 158.28 grains of solid matter to the gallon. 
The trials extended over twenty-five days, and the results obtained were 
most satisfactory, as samples of the effluent collected in April last are 
still sweet and free from smell. Experiment showed that 15 grains per 
gallon of potassium permanganate were required to produce an equiva- 
lent degree of oxidation. As the sludge produced during the process is 
free from chemicals and contains no road detritus, it has exceptional 
manurial value, analyses showing that SOper cent of the manurial salts 
existent in the raw sewage remains in the sludge. Engineering. 

THE NEW PEI-TANO CATHEDRAL: The new cathedral in 1'ekin, 
which is to take the place of the 1'ei-tang, removed two years ago from 
the neighborhood of the Imperial Palace, after having for many years 
excited the irritation of the Chinese, is now complete externally, and 
was consecrated on December 8. Abbe Faires of the Lazarist Society 
designed the edifice and superintended its construction. The internal 
decorations remain to be completed and will take several months. The 
organ is described as a masterpiece of Cavaille de Col of Paris, and the 
painted windows, which are also fine works, are in their places. 
The glass, which was brought from France, arrived in Pekin in excellent 
order. The building is not so large as the granite cathedral in Canton. 
The total interior length is 248 feet; breadth of transept, 108 feet ; 
breadth of nave, 52 feet ; height under the beams, 50 feet ; height under 
the arched roof, 00 feet. The height was fixed in a convention between 
the Chinese Government and the Lazarist Mission, and one of the con- 
ditions imposed was that there should be no tower. These conditions 
added to the difficulties of the architect, but he is said to have over- 
come them, and the design is pronounced "noble, harmonious, and 
beautiful." It is said that the Chinese Government were to send rep- 
resentatives of high rank to take part in the ceremony, "as by the 
cession of the mission's former site in exchange for the grounds now 
occupied a troublesome and even dangerous question has been laid 
finally at rest to the perfect satisfaction of the Imperial Court, the 
Tsung-li-Yamen, and Chinese public opinion the last an important ele- 
mentinthe matter and, on the other hand, to the satisfaction of the 
Catholic mission also." London Times. 

method of sewage purification, depending mainly on aeration, was de- 
scribed by Mr. W. Kaye Parry, M. I. C. E., in a paper read at a 
recent meeting of the members of the Institution of Civil Engineers of 
Ireland. The process, which is the invention of Mr. W. H. Hartland, 
is as follows: the sewage passes from the sewer into a settling-tank 
situated some feet below the sewer invert. This tank is constructed in 
the form of a siphon, and the liquid leaving it rises again to the level 
of the sewer invert. In this tank a separation of the road detritus and 
other heavy suspended matter takes place, and the effluent, on leaving 
the tank, contains only the fatty matter of the sewage and the lighter 
particles that float on its surface. The liquor is now led through a 
number of vertical filters filled with broken limestone or chalk, and in 
its passage is deprived of its greasy matter, whilst its acidity is at the 
same time neutralized by the lime. After this the liquor enters an 
aeration chamber, where it is broken up into a finely divided spray, 
which, in falling, comes in contact with a strong current of fresh air, 
and carries down with it a large quantity of oxygen. It now passes 
through another settling-tank, of similar design to the former, in which 
the precipitation caused by the oxidation takes place. The liquor, how- 
ever, still contains some of the ammoniacal and nitrogenous elements of 
the sewage, which are recovered by passing it through a second set of 
filters filled with charred earthy refuse shale or other suitable material. 
When a high standard of purity is required it is also filtered through 
peat. In 1887, Mr. Kaye Parry erected an experimental plant for test- 
ing the process at Monkstown, Dublin, the sewage being drawn fiom a 
sewer draining certain portions of Kingstown. The first settling-tank 
was constructed to hold 95 gallons, the neutralizing and filtering tank to 
hold 165 gallons, and the second settling-tank 124 gallons. All these 
tanks were in duplicate, to permit the cleansing of one set whilst the 
other was at work. The power for compressing the air was supplied by 
a 1^ man-power gas-engine, the air pressure adopted being equivalent 
to 4 inches of water. The first filter was filled with 316 pounds of chalk 
broken to pass through a l>-ineh ring, and the second with 328 

MOST of the business in the hands of architects at this time is for house- 
building. Most of the work ia for houses costing from $5,000 to $20,000. 
Architects in Boston and New York and Philadelphia and Chicago and 
other large cities have given it as their opinion that there will be large 
building operations this year, most of them in the suburbs of the larger 
cities. They also said that in all probability there will be an unusual 
amount of work done on the cheaper class of houses for laborers and 
persons of small means. Real estate agents, particularly throughout the 
West, corroborate these statements and say that their sales of real estate 
this winter have been much larger than last and far ahead of any season for 
years past for building purposes especially. A careful consultation of the 
real estate sales in all our larger cities proves this to be correct. Large plots 
of land have been selling all winter in New York City for building purposes. 
Larger transactions have been reported in Philadelphia than for years. The 
same is true of Pittsburgh, ] (ninth and other Western Cities. The improving 
demand for real estate is not of a speculative character. Builders and 
others have observed that real estate in our larger cities is steadily im- 
proving and they have been simply buying sites for building purposes in 
order to protect themselves against a speculative advance which influences 
now at work are gradually bringing about. In Chicago it is stated on very 
high authority that there is an improving demand for desirable sites in both 
the city and suburban places for house-building purposes and for 
factory u*e. There is a considerable increase in the demand for sites 
throughout the larger cities of Indiana and Ohio, and influences there are 
working to develop industrial growth, one of which is cheaper coal and to 
some extent cheaper fuel. Schemes are under consideration which will 
probably result in the supplying of small manufacturers in the Northern 
towns of these States with natural gas at a price one-third less than that of 
coal. Some estimates put the figures at less. 

The Standard Oil Company is securing the control of the entire natural-gas 
region of Ohio, and it will consequently be supposed that natural-gas will 
be sold at the highest price the traffic will bear. The industrial towns and 
cities of these three States are growing more rapidly than in any other part 
of the country. Part of this growth is due to the industrial development 
throughout the South, where the products of these States are finding in- 
creasing sale. The stimulus is also largely due to the filling-up of the 
Northwest, of which Chicago is the base of supplies. Then these three 
States are growing in population and wealth very rapidly, with the Lakes 
on one side, and the Mississippi River bounding them on the west and 
south. It must be noted, however, that farm-lands in these States are not 
improving in value, but in many cases declining. Cereal products can be 
purchased cheaper in the West than they can be grown there, and hence 
real estate is to be had at prices which are favorable to purchasers for 
manufacturing purposes. The cities of the Ohio Valley are generally in- 
creasing in population and wealth. New iron and steel companies are 
being organized, and oil-producing companies are also operating there. 
There are schemes for the laying of several hundred miles of pipe. Rail- 
road companies have their plans completed for the laying of their tracks on 
both sides of the Ohio, and smaller manufacturers by the hundred are 
thriving in their little circles from the general activity within and without 
this region. Throughout the entire West there are growing evidences of 
an increasing activity in building operations, in mining, in railroad-build- 
ing, in ship and boat building. The West is becoming gradually more and 
more financially independent of the East, although a great deal of money 
is still floating in that direction. The Western States are gradually be- 
coming financial centres within themselves. There is a transfer of 
capital gradually going forward because of the increasing security of loans 
and the generally satisfactory rewards secured. Among the prosperous 
industries of the West are to be noted the paper-maker? of Wisconsin, 
where, within two years past, capital has been more than doubled. New 
paper-making enterprises are springing up, stimulated by the abundant 
supply of facilities. Besides this, the demands for paper-making are in- 
creasing rapidly, and the freights to markets are much lower than from the 
Eastern sources of supply. 

The lumber trade of Michigan and Wisconsin is good although the in- 
creasing supply of lumber from Arkansas, Louisiana and Mississippi is 
threatening the supremacy of white pine especially in the far Western 
markets. The demand for Southern lumber products is increasing mucb 
more rapidly than Northern. The rates from Southern points are low. 
The cost of stumpage only a fraction of what it is in Michigan. The 
facilities for transporting lumber are being improved and it is only a question 
to experts in the lumber trade, when those who control the Southern interests 
will control the lumber interests of the entire country. The fancy grades of 
hard wood are growing in demand throughout the West and speculation is 
going on in choice Southern lumber territory. The iron and steel makers 
are still complaining of a backward tendency in the spring demand. Rail- 
road builders are creeping along slowly, prices are steadily declining, two 
dollars per ton has taken place on steel rails. A Pig-iron Association has 
been formed with a capital of $2,000,000 which will deal in warrants. Each 
warrant represents 100 tons which can be used as collateral in commercial 
transactions. This will probably result iu the steadying of the iron market 
throughout the country and in the carrying of larger stocks as is done in 
Great Britain. The combination is composed of some of the leading finan- 
ciers, manufacturers and iron dealers. It has a backing which insures it a 
success and the trade conditions call for just such a movement. The charges 
will be about fifty cents per ton per year for iron, and production will be 
kept under conservative control. 

S. J. PABKHILL & Co., Printers, Boston. 

FEBRUARY 9, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News, 


SSfor 5hing1e$, Betwres.CfafAoarA El 


ivrsi^ <5r<2 VeTV 

mucil) more arh^hc efFecf 


i77Dr t wb^ie They 

i ; B, - 

drjdf Very e<5y To < 




The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 685. 



VOL. XxV. 

Copyright, 1889, by TICKNOR & COMPANY, Boston, Mass. 

NO. 686, 

FEBRUARY 16, 1889. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Boston as second-class matter. 


Convention of the Western New York Association of Archi- 
tects. The Operations of the New Rhode Island Lien Law. 
Excavating Streets in Frosty Weather. Cooperative Build- 
ing at Remseheid, Prussia. Property Owners and Overhead 

Wires. New Paints 73 




The Arion Club-house, Park Ave. and 59th St., New York, N. 
Y. Gothic Spires and Towers, Plates 39 and 40. The Age 
of Francis I, Plate 2. Church of St. Giles, Luray, Va. 
Warehouse for F. L. Ames, Esq., Boston, Mass. "The 
Talleyrand," Bar Harbor, Me. Design fora Plaster Ceil- 
ing by Mr. C. J. Brooke, Philadelphia, Pa 78 








Fixtures. A Correction. The Government Examination for 

Draughtsmen 83 



TIFIIE Western New York Association of Architects held its 
J[ second annual convention last week, with an attendance of 
about twenty-five members. The usual questions, about the 
licensing of architects and the regulation of competitions, were 
brought up, and informally discussed. Mr. Carlin of Buffalo, 
the Secretary of the Association, read to the Convention the 
draft of the bill which is to be presented to the Illinois Legis- 
lature, to restrain persons who have not passed a satisfactory 
examination, before a board appointed by the State, from prac- 
tising architecture within the State ; and a committee consist- 
ing of Mr. Carlin, Mr. Dockstader of Elmira, and Mr. Colton 
of Syracuse, was appointed to consider the advisability of pre- 
senting a similar bill to the New York Legislature. Another 
committee, consisting of Messrs. Curtis of Fredonia, Marling of 
Buffalo, and Walker of Rochester, was appointed to consider 
the subject of uniform contracts ; and the committee on com- 
petitions was continued for the purpose of enabling it to draw 
up a set of propositions in regard to such matters, which it 
proposes to have adopted by the Association as suggestions, 
rather than fixed rules. We suppose it is needless, at this 
day, to point out the advantage to the profession of such discus- 
sions. Although the topic of competitions is tolerably well worn 
in the deliberations of architects, and that of the regulation of 
practice hardly less so, some advance is made every year in 
both of them. About ten years ago, the Boston Society of 
Architects had a " Tract on Competitions " prepared, present- 
ing the principles for which the profession has fought so long. 
As a tract, it was interesting, and convincing, to architects, but 
the idea of attempting to induce the public to conform to it 
was at that time almost ridiculous, and we doubt whether 
many copies were circulated, unless as curiosities, outside of 
professional circles. A few years afterward the English ar- 
chitects, under the lead of a group of resolute and distinguished 
men, joined in a movement to establish public competitions on 
a satisfactory basis, which soon secured the adhesion of nearly 
every respectable architect in Great Britain, and has already 
completely transformed the relation of architects to important 
public work. After the formation of the Western Association 
of Architects in this county, the leaders of that body took 
early occasion to secure an emphatic expression of opinion on 
the subject ; and now the State arid local societies seem to be 
in a fair way to finish the work by the adoption of rules which 
will be binding on their own members, and will soon become 
familiar to the comparatively limited public with which each 
society deals. The Missouri State Association has already 
formally adopted the principles generally approved in the pro- 

fession ; the Boston Society has done the same, and has issued 
a new pamphlet of rules and suggestions, of which each mem- 
ber receives a number of copies, for distribution where they 
may be needed ; and if the Western New York Association, 
followed by the others, will do the same, the battle for justice 
and fair treatment will be nearly won. 

O^OME of the people in Rhode Island are beginning to be 
Lj sorry that they passed a new lien law last year, giving 
material-men a lien, without notice to the owner, and 
sixty days in which to file the claim. A certain school-house 
has just been completed in East Providence, under the direction 
of Messrs. W. R. Walker & Son, as architects, and the full 
contract price, together with a trifling sum for extras, was 
promptly paid to the contractor, a man named Moulton, after 
the completion of the structure. About two weeks after the 
final payment to the contractor, Messrs. J. B. Gurney & Son, 
Fred E. Hovey, and J. C. Dodge & Son filed liens for 
materials furnished to Moulton, to the amount of five hundred 
and twenty-two dollars and some cents. No bonds were re- 
quired of the contractor, and as lie lias just assigned his wages, 
and mortgaged his personal property, it looks very much as if 
the town would have to pay the amount of the liens, with costs. 
Naturally enough, the taxpayers blame the School Committee, 
or rather, the Superintendent of Schools, who was delegated 
by the committee to attend to the matter, for paying the con- 
tractor in full before the time for filing liens had expired, and 
the Superintendent transfers the blame to the architects, who, 
as he says, gave Moulton certificates, on receipt of wliich he 
was bound to make payments. The truth appears to be that 
neither was much to blame, if at all. Moulton, it seems, went to 
the architects, saying that the Superintendent wished them to 
give him a certificate for a certain amount, and they, knowing 
that matters of payment are very often, much too often, in 
fact, arranged between the builder and the owner, or the rep- 
resentative of the owner, without consulting the architect, be- 
lieved what he said, and gave the certificates, looking out that 
they did not exceed the contract price, and undoubtedly sup- 
posing that the Superintendent would take the necessary 
precautions to protect the town against liens. On his part, the 
Superintendent probably supposed, as he says, that the archi- 
tects' certificate amounted to an order to him to pay the sum 
mentioned at once, without inquiry or reserve. Of course, we 
know that this is an error, the architect's certificate being 
simply an expression of his opinion that the money is due, 
which imposes no obligation upon the owner to make the pay- 
ment if he has reasons, which may have been unknown to the 
architect, or forgotten by him, for not doing so, but it is a very 
common error, and the novelty of the law, under which this 
seems to be the first case, probably helped both parties to for- 
get it. The next time that the town builds a school-house, it 
will probably require bonds from the contractor ; and we 
advise architects who may be called upon to practise in Rhode 
Island to draw their contracts in such a way that a sum ample 
to cover all possible liens, for materials or wages, may be 
reserved until the time within which they can be filed shall 
have expired. 

f TJ GERMAN engineer has published some observations on 
r\ the most efficient method of excavating streets in frosty 
weather, which we find copied in two or three of the 
foreign technical journals. Every one knows the difficulty of 
making any impression with ordinary tools on frozen ground, 
and a surface protected with paving-stones is even more in- 
tractable than ordinary material. Unless fires can be lighted 
over the line of the proposed trench, so as to thaw the 
ground beneath them, the usual way is to pick, painfully and 
slowly, into the hard, tough mass until a sufficient depth is 
reached, or the frozen stratum is penetrated. According to 
Herr Schindler, who has carried his theory into successful 
practice, much of the labor incidental to such work may be 
saved by considering that the ground does not freeze all at once 
into a homogeneous mass, but by successive stages, which 
produce a stratified condition, something like that of sandstone 
or limestone. If the work is carried on vertically downward 
from the surface, the material, whether of stratified stone or 
frozen earth, must be removed in small particles, while, by 


The American Architect and Building News. [Vou XXV. Wo. 686. 

taking advantage of the stratification, and working horizontally 
from a shaft or an exposed face, the material may be split off 
in large pieces through the seams between the strata. Where 
earth has been filled-iu, the strata do not always lie horizontally, 
but may follow the surfaces of successive deposits of material. 
Such cases are, however, easily distinguished, and with a little 
care on this point, after a pit has been sunk in the spot where 
the excavation is to begin, the operation may be continued 
rapidly and successfully by means of iron wedges, long and 
ghort/which are driven horizontally as the work advances, and 
lift and break up the frozen earth in large sheets until the neces- 
sary depth is attained. 

OME good people in Remscheid, in Rhenish Prussia, have 
recently carried out a cooperative building scheme on 
rather a new plan. Remscheid is a town of fifteen or 
twenty thousand inhabitants, who occupy themselves principally 
in blacksmith work, making, with the help of forges set up at 
their homes, small wrought-iron articles, which are shipped to 
all parts of the world. The managers of the new enterprise 
began their work with the sensible step of ascertaining the 
exact rents paid for the existing tenements by the persons 
whom they wished to aid in securing houses of their own. For 
this purpose, they distributed circulars through the quarters in- 
habited by working people, asking each householder who might 
receive one to give, over his signature, the number of persons 
in his family ; the number of rooms occupied by them ; the 
rent paid ; the amount of land attached to the house, and so 
on. Six hundred and forty-seven circulars were returned, 
properly filled out. From these, which certainly presented a 
tolerably reliable view of the condition of the working-people 
of the town, it appeared that the most expensive tenements 
were those in the immediate neighborhood of the railway 
station, which brought about twenty dollars a year per room, 
without water-service, or twenty-three dollars with water- 
supply. The attics in the same houses brought about two- 
thirds the rent of the first and second story rooms. Tene- 
ments at some distance from the centre of the town brought, 
for the first and second story rooms, about two-thirds the rent 
of the more conveniently located ones, while the rent of the 
attics was very little less.' In the outlying districts the average 
rents were about one-half those in the middle of the town. In 
regard to the number of rooms occupied by each family, it 
appeared that the people intelligent enough to reply to the 
circulars lived, on an average, two in a room. One hundred 
and twenty-one, out of the six hundred and forty seven 
persons who answered, said that their families slept three in a 
room, on an average, and in twenty-six cases there were four 
or five persons to a room. A comparison of the rents paid with 
the cost of the houses mentioned in the replies, including the 
value of the land on which they stood, showed that they 
brought in an average return of about eleven per cent a year 
above expenses ; and in some cases the income was as much as 
fifteen per cent. As the account, which we find in the 
Deutsche Hauzeitung, justly says, these facts showed plainly 
that there was not only need of cheap and wholesome houses 
for workingmen, but that the rents which they would command 
would pay a good interest on the cost. A company was, 
therefore, formed, with a capital of forty-four thousand dollars, 
land was bought in several different quarters of the town, and 
the construction of houses commenced. The constitution of 
the company was much like that of similar corporations here, 
the liability of each stockholder for the debts of the company 
being limited to the value of his paid or secured interest in its 
property, and the administration being placed in the hands of 
officers elected by the members. At- present, the company 
builds houses either for sale or rent, or buys them, to sell 
again, where this may seem advisable. Of those built by the 
company, some are detached, and some " semi-detached," as 
the English say, or "double," to use our word. A siugje 
house sells for fifteen hundred dollars, to which one hundred 
and fifty is added if a blacksmith's shop is attached to it. 
One-half of a double-house brings twelve hundred and fifty 
dollars. If a member wishes to hire a house, instead of buying 
it, he pays six per cent, net, on the value, as rent. By paying 
seven per cent, he is entitled to have two per cent set aside as 
a sinking-fund, leaving five per cent as the net rent. "When 
the sinking-fund reaches one-third of the value of the house, a 
deed of it is given to the tenant, who becomes thenceforth 
responsible for the insurance, taxes and repairs. The remain- 

ing two-thirds of the value, which is secured by a mortgage OH 
the property, is provided for by requiring the new owner t 
continue paying five per cent on the full value. Three per 
cent of this goes as interest on the mortgage, while the remain- 
ing two per cent constitutes a new sinking-fund for the extinc- 
tion of the principal. For the other provisions adopted by the 
company we must refer persons interested to the original 
article, or rather, series of articles, or to their author, Herr 
Walther Lange, Remscheid, Rhenish Prussia. Besides the pre- 
liminary collection of statistics, on which to base the work, 
which strikes us as a particularly commendable idea, the 
course of the company in buying lots scattered through various 
parts of the town seems on some accounts very judicious. 
Among us, certainly, the idea of living in a vast cite ouvriere, 
composed of nothing but small houses, is neither so attractive 
nor so wholesome for a modest citizen and his family as the 
consciousness that the handsome mansion of his richer neighbor 
is not far off,' and that it is worth an effort on their part to 
keep their cottage dainty and attractive, and to look after the 
appearance and manners of the children, so that they may not 
suffer by comparison with the carefully trained young people 
near by ; while the corporate property, scattered in this way, 
is much less likely to suffer serious depreciation in value than 
if concentrated in a large area, which may be rendered nearly 
worthless by the establishment of some offensive manufacture 
near by. 

HE French tribunals have made up their minds that the 
stringing of wires over a house is an injury to the pro- 
prietor of the house, for which he should be paid ; and we 
hope that some time the courts of certain commonwealths 
nearer home may come to the same conclusion. An electric- 
lighting company, finding that the shortest route for its wires 
to a place which it wished to reach was over the roof of a house, 
proceeded, as such companies generally do, to string them 
across it, without asking the owner's leave. In this country 
the company would probably have put up poles and frames on 
the roof, or would have fastened the wires to a chimney, with- 
out paying any attention to the protests of the proprietor, but 
in France the right, or the habit, of appropriating other 
people's property is not so highly developed as here, and it 
ventured only to place supports on the neighboring buildings, 
so that the wires swung free over the house in question. The 
owner, however, chose to consider the wires an annoyance, and 
sued for an order to have them removed, and for damages for 
the injury they had already done him. The company resisted, 
on the ground that the owner of the house under the wires had 
no rights in the space through which they were stretched, and 
that moreover, they did him no harm. The court decided that 
the ownership of a piece of ground carried with it the owner- 
ship of all the space above it capable of being utilized. As to 
the damage caused by the wires, it held that the possible 
danger from the current to persons in the house, even if it ex- 
isted only in imagination, was an injury, while the sound of thft 
wind through the wires was a real annoyance, and the 
necessity for allowing workmen to walk over the roof, together 
with the chance that the wires might be broken by a storm, 
and trail over the tiles, constituted a risk of damage which 
would not exist if the wires were not there. For these reasons, 
it ordered the immediate removal of the wires, but decided that 
the complainant had not. up to the time of the trial, suffered 
enough injury to give him an appreciable claim for damages. 

TITHE Wiener Bauindustrie-Zeitung gives a recipe for a paint, 
J/ to be applied to woodwork exposed to the weather, which, 
it says, is proof against all ordinary influences, and is toler- 
ably cheap. No oil is used, but, for the first coat, finely- 
ground zinc-white is rubbed up with lime-water, and the objects 
to be painted covered with a good coat of the mixture. When 
this is dry, which will be in two or three hours, a second coat 
is applied, composed of a solution of chloride of zinc in lime- 
water. By the action of the chloride on the oxide of zinc a 
smooth, shining coating is formed, which is extremely durable, 
and the paint may even be used, instead of tar, to protect the 
ends of wooden posts in the ground. Another durable paint, 
which has the advantage of rendering wood covered with it fire- 
proof, is composed of one part each of salt, alum, silicate of 
soda and tungstate of soda, with four parts of lime, mixed, and 
ground in linseed-oil. Three coats of this paint make a woode* 
object incombustible, and it is said to last for thirty years ex- 
posed to the weather. 

FEBRUARY 16, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 



VTfHE problem of ascertaining 
J| the suitability of a stone for 
any form of structural appli- 
cation is one peculiarly com- 
plicated and difficult. Briefly put 
tlie question is simply this : By 
what methods in the laboratory is 
it possible to ascertain within the 
space of a few days or weeks the 
relative strength and durability 
of any stone for as many genera- 
tions or even centuries. 

In order that the difficulties in- 
volved may be fully appreciated, 
let me present the main points 
to be considered. In the order of 
their impjrtance as I believe 
they are : 

1. Resistance to changes in temperature. 

2. Resistance to the chemical action of an acid atmosphere. 

3. Durability of color. 

4. Crushing strength and elasticity. 

5. Resistance to abrasive action of feet and wind-blown sand. 
The order as given above may be subject to modification to suit 

individual cases. In many instances the actual strength of the stone 
is a matter of little importance, and in protected situations the quali- 
ties mentioned under (3) and (5) may be of no essential value. In 
still other cases, as in bridge abutments, strength and elasticity are 
matters of greatest import, while that of change of color can be 
left wholly out of consideration. In the arrangement given above I 
have had especial regard to stone exposed in the exterior walls of a 
building, and in a varied climate like that of the Northern and 
Eastern United States. 

Before proceeding to a discussion of methods by which these 
essential qualities can be estimated, let me call attention briefly to 
the peculiarly trying conditions under which a stone thus exposed is 
placed, and offer a few criticisms on the methods now commonly 

None of the conditions under which a stone is commonly placed 
are more trying than those presented by the ordinary changes of 
temperature in a climate like that of our Northern and Eastern 
States. Stones, as a rule, possess but a low conducting power and 
slight elasticity. They are aggregates of minerals more or less 
closely cohering, each of which possesses degrees of expansion and 
contraction of its own. In the crystalline rocks these dissimilar 
elements are practically in actual contact ; in the sandstones thev are 
removed from one another by a slight space occupied wholly or in 
part by a ferruginous, calcareous or siliceous paste. As temperatures 
rise, each and every constituent expands more or less, crowding with 
resistless force against its neighbor ; as the temperatures decrease a 
corresponding contraction takes place. Since with us the tempera- 
tures are ever changing, and within a space of even twenty-four 
hours may vary as much as forty degrees, so within the mass of 
the stone there is continual movement among its particles. Slight as 
these movements may be they can but be conducive of one result, a 
slow and gradual weakening and disintegration. 

The effects of moderate temperatures upon stone of ordinary 
dryness are, however, slight when compared with the destructive 
energies of freezing temperatures upon stones saturated with 
moisture. At a temperature of 30 degrees Fahrenheit the pressure 
exerted by water passing from a liquid to a solid state amounts to 
not less than 138 tons to the square foot, or as Professor Geikie 
has strikingly put it, is equal to the weight of a column of ice a 
mile high. Is it, then, astonishing that a porous sandstone exposed 
in a house-front to be saturated by a winter's rain and then sub- 
jected to temperatures perhaps several degrees below the freezing 
point shows signs of weakness and exfoliation after a single season's 
exposure ? 

Since then, as every quarryman knows, no stone however strong 
can endure the enormous strain it would be subject to if frozen solid 
when holding any considerable amount of water confined within its 
pores, it is but natural to conclude, as a matter of course, that other 
things being equal those stones are most durable which will absorb 
and retain the least moisture. This rule is not to be accepted, 
however, without a considerable grain of allowance, since a coarsely 
porous stone, though capable of taking up a large amount of moisture 
will also part with it readily, or if frozen while saturated will permit 
a considerable proportion of the expansive force of the solidifying 
water to be expended otherwise than in pushing apart the grains 
composing it. Otherwise expressed, the water will freeze out of a 
coarsely porous stone, while in one that is compact it may create 
sad havoc. This is well illustrated by the common occurrence of water 
freezing in straight cylindrical or widely-expanding vessels, and in 
narrow-necked pitchers and bottles. In the first instance the open 
space above is sufficient to allow all the expansion to take place 
vertically. The narrow-necked vessel, on the other hand, is almost 
invariably broken. 

1 By George P. Merrill, Curator in the National Museum at Washington. 

Still other objections to a porous sandstone than its liability to 
disintegration on freezing may be given. A stone front, while 
undoubtedly imposing, may become saturated by prolonged rains, 
and actually hold tons of water. This in cold weather is slow in 
evaporating, and must render a house damp, requiring a larger 
outlay of fuel to render it comfortable. This matter is, in part, 
remedied by building double walls, the inner of brick. In our 
climate a stone house constructed otherwise would be well nigh un- 
inhabitable. Moreover, a porous sandstone is, of all stones, most 
likely to afford foothold for the growth of algce, lichen and mosses. 
While it is yet to be proved that these growths are in themselves 
actually injurious, they are, at least, suggestive of an unhealthy 
dampness. A stone covered by these organisms will absorb more 
water and give it up more slowly to evaporation than one whose 
surfaces are not thus protected. 

To ascertain, then, the porosity or ratio of absorption of any stone 
is an important test; to ascertain the ratio of absorption and resist- 
ance to freezing while saturated is a most important, and for a single 
test the most conclusive of any one test yet suggested. Nevertheless, 
it is a matter which at present is almost wholly ignored. I will reler 
later to methods which have been employed to some extent in times 

The second essential quality, that of resistance to atmospheric 
chemical agencies, is also one that architects, as a rule, ignore. 
Like the last, it needs, therefore, to be enlarged upon. 

The atmosphere in its normal state consists of a mechanical 
admixture of nitrogen and oxygen in about the proportion of four 
volumes of the former to one of the latter, together with minute 
quantities of carbonic acid, ammonia and vapor of water. In the 
vicinity of large cities, however, it carries in addition to increased 
quantities of carbonic acid appreciable amounts of sulphurous, 
sulphuric, nitric and chlorhydric acids. These, when brought by 
rains in contact with the walls of buildings are capable throughout 
many years of time of producing marked results, especially when 
aided by the extreme diurnal ranges of temperature already alluded 
to. Carbonate of lime, the material of ordinary marble and lime- 
stone is particularly susceptible to the solvent action of these acids, 
even though they may be present in extremely minute quantities. Of 
all stones the uncrystalline limestones are most readily effected ; the 
crystalline, if equally compact a trirte less so, and a dolomite still 
less. It does not necessarily follow, however, that a dolomite 
will be the more durable, since the questions of texture and tenacity 
come in for consideration. In the uncrystalline limestones the 
effects of an acid atmosphere are, perhaps, less noticeable since these 
stones are not, as a rule, used in finely finished work. The crystal- 
line limestones (marbles) often suffer severely, however. Professor 
Geikie found that slabs of marble exposed in the climate of Edin- 
burgh lost their polish within the space of a year or two, and 
became completely illegible within a century. 

Professor Julien found that in the city cemeteries about New York 
the polish on marble tombstones did not often survive over ten 
years. The writer's own observations on the subject are to the 
effect that in the cemeteries of the smaller cities and towns of New 
England marble tombstones will retain their polish for a period of 
from ten to fifteen years, and up to twenty-five or thirty years will 
present no signs of disintegration of a very serious nature. Beyond 
this time the surface becomes rough and granular, and the edges of 
the stone may be found filled with fine rifts in which particles of dirt 
become lodged or lichens take root, giving it a dirty and unkempt 

It is to this ready solubility of calcic carbonate that is also due, 
in large part, the poor weathering qualities of sandstones with cal- 
careous cements. The calcite is slowly removed by solution ; the 
siliceous grains thus become loosened, and failing away under the in- 
fluence of wind and rain expose fresh surfaces to be acted upon. 
Certain of the ferrugineous cements are likewise susceptible to the 
influence of the acidulated rains; though the anhydrous oxide, as it 
exists in the Potsdam stones, is said to be less soluble than the 
hydrated oxide occurring in those of Triassic age. 

The third essential quality which I have mentioned is that of 
durability, or permanence of color. Here, again, the chemical action 
of atmospheres are to be contended with. The possibility that a 
stone may contain certain constituents which on exposure to the 
atmosphere will undergo certain chemical changes productive of a 
simultaneous change in color is apparently not fully realized. No 
better illustration of the prevailing ignorance on this point - unless 
indeed it was due wholly to gross carelessness ' is needed than that 
presented by the exterior basement-wall in the new capitol building 
at Albany, New York. These are built of a light, -and in its fresh 
state, uniformly gray granite. On exposure the numerous included 
particles of pyrite (iron disulphide) underwent oxidation and in many 
instances the "whole face is so disfigured by blotches of iron-rust as to 
be very unsightly. Iron in the form of disulphide, protoxide or 
carbonate is the prime factor in producing color changes in all stone 
used for architectural purposes. As is well known many a light gray 
sandstone turns buff or reddish after short exposure in an outer wall. 
This is brought about through the oxidation of some one of the above- 
named ingredients. If the resultant tints are uniform the effects are 
not always objectionable, and indeed are often beneficial. The 
mellowing of a stone with age is due mainly to changes of this nature. 
If, however, the oxidizing mineral occurs irregularly disseminated in 
streaks, nests or bunches, the color often appears in dirty blotches 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 686. 

and utterly ruins otherwise beautiful work. While on the whole the 
presence of an easily oxidizable mineral may or may not be objection- 
able in the fragmental rocks it is always prejudicial in the crystalline 
marbles and the gEanites. It is the presence of finely disseminated 
pyrite, protoxide or carbonate of iron that renders so unsafe the 
selection of certain lime and sand stone from below the water-level in 
the quarry-bed. As there displayed the stone may be beautifully 
and uniformly dark bluish gray, or drab. The same stone quarried 
and put in the walls of a building becomes, owing to oxidation, 
of dull yellow or brownish hue. 

Crushing strength and elasticity. If we are to judge from the 
ordinary modes of procedure the crushing strength of a stone is con- 
sidered by architects and engineers in general as the one essential 
quality. Scarcely a public building of any importance is erected but 
a long series of crushing tests is inaugurated at a considerable out- 
lay of time and consequent expense. These tests are applied to 
rectangular blocks of all sizes and with ever-varying results, and this 
in the face of the fact that there is to-day scarcely a stone upon the 
market that will not bear at least fifty times the pressure likely to be 
demanded of it under any but the most exceptional circumstances. 
The stone in the bottom courses of the Washington monument, in 
this city, and that bears the entire weight of the superincumbent 
550 feet, is a stone so weak and of such poor weathering qualities as 
to be practically out of the market, yet its pressure-tests will show a 
strength many times greater than will be required of it under the 
most trying conditions of wind and weather. Indeed, I have yet to 
learn of a single instance in which a stone built into a wall has be- 
come crushed through any inherent weakness of the stone itself. 
Blocks have become broken, or scaled on the edges through unequal 
settling of the foundation or improper bedding, but the number of 
instances in which a stone properly laid has actually crushed through 
inability to withstand the strain are, I believe, so few that they may 
almost wholly be left out^ of consideration. In short we may safely 
take it for granted that the majority of stones are fully strong enough 
for all ordinary structural application. What is desired is not a 
knowledge of its actual strength to-day but rather its power to resist 
for a century and more the severe trials above enumerated. The 
tests as now applied will give no clew to this, whatever. 

The elasticity of a stone is, I believe, a matter of much greater im- 
portance. It will be remembered that it was found necessary not 
long ago to substitute iron in place of the stone towers of the 
Niagara Suspension Bridge. The original towers were of an im- 
pure magnesian limestone with seams of gypsum. Under the constant 
strain from the bridge and loaded trains this gradually became filled 
with rifts and cracks, rendering necessary their replacement by other 
material. Pressure tests would have shown the stone to have origin- 
ally possessed all necessary strength. The individual grains of 
which it was composed did not, however, possess sufficient elasticity 
and cohesive force to yield to the strain and regain their original 
positions when the strain was removed. Had a tough, impervious 
and tenacious rock like a diabass been employed, the writer ventures 
to assert, replacement would not have become necessary in our day 
and generation, to say the least. 

Resistance to abrasive action\ That the power of any stone to 
resist the abrasive action of wind-blown sand and dust may in 
certain situations be an item worthy of consideration is not generally 
realized. The amount of actual wear to which a stone in the walls 
of a building is exposed from this source is naturally but slight in 
comparison to that to which stones in walks and sills are subject from 
the friction of passing feet. Nevertheless, it is sufficient in many in- 
stances to become appreciable after the lapse of many years. There 
is now on exhibition in the National Museum at Washington a plate 
of glass formerly a window-pane in the light-house at Nausett Beach, 
Massachusetts. This was so abraded by wind-blown sand during a 
storm of not over forty-eight hours' duration as to be no longer trans- 
parent and to necessitate its removal. The grinding is as complete 
over the entire surface as though done by artificial means. This 
same process is going on, though in a greatly lessened degree, in all 
our city streets where the wind blows dust and sand sharply against 
the faces of buildings. The impact of these small particles is not 
sufficient to perceptibly wear away the fresh stone within a limited 
time, but it may often be sufficient to crumble away the small 
particles already loosened by atmospheric action and expose new 
faces to be acted upon. Professor Egleston states that in many of 
the church-yards in New York City the effects of this abrasive action 
can be seen where the tombstones face in the direction of the prevail- 
ing winds. In such cases the stones are sometimes worn very nearly 
smooth, and are quite illegible from this cause alone. Illustrations of 
the mistake in laying soft and friable sandstones for walks and steps 
are so numerous I hesitate to touch upon the subject at all. At the 
present moment the most pronounced case in mind is that offered 
by the old flight of stone steps (lately removed) leading up to the 
western entrance of the Capitol building at Washington. These 
were of a soft sandstone and while they might have answered well 
for a private building had become worn and hollowed from the daily 
friction of thousands of footsteps to a very marked degree, the front 
edge of the tread being in some cases lowered fully an inch below its 
original level. 


to the commonly employed methods of testing: as a matter of fact 
no tests are now systematically made with a view of ascertaining the ab- 
sorptive properties and resisting powers of any stone to the action of 
frost, although these are, as I have already noted, the most important 

qualities. In testing the absorptive powers, the methods adopted by 
both General Gillmore, at Staten Island, and Professor Winchell, at 
Minneapolis, were substantially as follows : well-dressed cubes from 
one to two inches in diameter were thoroughly dried, and after cool- 
ing weighed, and then immersed in water for periods of several days. 
They were then removed, the surface-water removed as quickly as 
possible with bibulous paper and the specimen again weighed ; the 
increase in weight, of course, representing the weight of the absorbed 
water. In stating the result the increase was always designated in 
the form of a fractional part of the entire weight ; thus if a cube 
weighing 300 grains dry weighed 301 when saturated the ratio was 
expressed as yjj. This method when carefully carried out in all its 
details seems sufficiently accurate. Care needs to be exercised in dry- 
ing to expel all previously absorbed water ; and certain authorities 
have gone to the trouble of immersing the cubes under a bell-glass and 
then exhausting the air, to ensure complete saturation. This is an 
unnecessary refinement of methods since no stone is subject to any- 
thing like such conditions either in its natural bed or in the walls of' a 

Obviously, the best method for ascertaining the ability of a stone 
to resist the action of frost is to actually expose the blocks when 
saturated to freezing temperatures, and then, after several repeti- 
tions of the freezing and thawing process, to note by weighing the 
actual loss by disintegration, or, better yet, the loss in strength. Un- 
fortunately, this cannot at all times and all places be done, and arti- 
ficial methods must be resorted to. Brard's process, as modified by 
M. Hericart and Thurg, consisted in boiling the stone to be experi- 
mented upon for half-an-hour in a saturated solution of sulphate of 
soda (glauber salt), and then allowing it to dry, when the salt taken 
into the pores of the stone crystallized and expanded in a manner 
supposedly similar to that of water when freezing. This process is 
now practically given up, as experiment showed that the salt exer- 
cised a chemical, as well as mechanical action, giving results some- 
what at variance with those of freezing water. Nevertheless, the 
tests made by Mr. C. G. Page, in 1847, with reference to the selec- 
tion of stone for the Smithsonian Building at Washington are suffi- 
ciently instructive to be noticed here. The samples operated upon, 
it should be stated, were cut in the form of inch-cubes. Each cube 
was immersed for half-an-hour in the boiling solution, and then hung 
up to dry; this performance being repeated daily throughout the 
four weeks that the experiment lasted. The results obtained were 
as follows : 

Specific Gravity 

Loss in weight, 

Marble, close-grained, Maryland. 


in grains. 

Marble, coarae, " Aluin Stone." Md. 



Marble, blue, Md. 



Sandstone coarse, Portland, Conn. 


Sandstone tine, Portland. Conn. 



Sandstone red, Seneca Creek, Md. 



Sandstone dove-colored, Seneca Creek, Md. 



Sandstone Little Falls, N. J. 


Sandstone Little Falls, N. J. 



Sandstone coarse, Nova Scotia. 



Sandstone dark, Seneca Aqueduct, Md. 


Sandstone Aquia Creek, Va. 



Granite, Port Deposit, Md. 



Marble, Montgomery Co., Penna. 



Marble, blue, Montgomery Co., Penna. 



Soft brick. 



Hard brick. 



Marble (coarse dolomite), Pleasantville, N. T. 



Results to which I wish to call especial attention are those obtained 
on the red sandstone from Seneca Creek, Md., and that from Aquia 
Creek, Va. The first of these, with a specific gravity of 2.672, or a 
weight per cubic foot of 167 pounds, lost by disintegration but .70 
grains. This was the stone ultimately selected for the Smithsonian, 
and the building as a whole is to-day probably in as good state of 
preservation as any of its age in the United States. The second 
stone, with a specific gravity of 2.23, or a weight per cubic foot of 
but 139.37 pounds, and which lost 18.6 grains, is the one used in the 
construction of the old portions of the United States Patent Office, 
Treasury, White-House, and Capitol Buildings. The stone is so 
poor, and disintegrates so badly, that only repeated applications of 
paint and putty keep them in anywise presentable. The results ob- 
tained with hard and soft brick are even more striking: the one 
weighing at the rate of 138 pounds per cubic foot losing l(f.46 grains, 
while the harder brick, weighing 143 pounds, lost but 1.07. If any- 
thing can be learned from the series, it is that, with substances 
having the same composition those which are the most dense, 
which are the heaviest, bulk for bulk will prove the most durable. 
The results obtained on the coarse an 1 fine blocks of Portland sand- 
stone suggest, at least, that water would freeze out of the coarser 
stone, and, therefore, create less havoc than in that of finer o-rain, 
a probability to which I have already referred. 

The pressure-tests that have been made in times past have, for 
purposes of future reference, been deprived of a large share of what- 
ever value they might otherwise have had by the unsystematic 
manner in which the experiments were carried out. General Gill- 
more has shown, in his admirable series of experiments upon cubes 
of varying sizes, that "at least within certain limits, the compressive 
resistance of cubes per square-inch of surface under pressure in- 
creases in the ratio of the cube roots of the sides of the respective 
cubes expressed in inches." So far as I can learn, however, these 




HEWS, FEB. 16 1559 

FEBRUARY 16, 1889.] The American Architect and Building News. 


results are wholly ignored, each architect or engineer working on an 
independent basis, testing blocks of such size and shape as are sent 
him, or are most readily obtained. Gillraore, as above noted, used 
two-inch cubes. The architect of the Congressional Library Build- 
ing proposed, I believe, to use one-inch cubes. Tests on stone for 
the Philadelphia City-hall were made on blocks varying from six 
to seven inches in diameter ; indeed, the size of the block seems in 
many instances to be limited only by the capabilities of the testing- 
machine, and, in the report of the last case alluded to, we find record 
of three blocks that sustained the maximum of load of the machine 
(800,000 pounds) without perceptible injury. Still another discrep- 
ancy lies in the fact that, in advertising for blocks to be tested, no 
mention is made of the manner in which these blocks are to be pre- 
pared. A small cube trimmed out with hammer and chisel from 
necessity becomes filled with incipient fractures, and such a block 
may crush under considerably less pressure than a really weaker 
stone which has been sawed to proper size and retains its natural 
strength. Still further, the reports of such tests are often wholly in- 
validated through the ignorance of whoever may be in charge of the 
exact nature of the material experimented upon. All finely frag- 
mental siliceous rocks, whether composed wholly of grains of quartz, 
or quartz, feldspar and mica, whether with siliceous, ferruginous, or 
calcareous cements, are classed together as sandstone, with no 
further description than a reference to color. All crystalline sili- 
ceous rocks, including granite, gneiss, mica-schist, and even trappean 
rocks, like the diabases, noritcs, diorites, and kersantites, are con- 
sidered as granites. AH calcareous rocks, whether magnesian or 
otherwise, are, if of good color, marbles ; or, if of poor color, and 
finely compact or amorphous, merely limestones. It is obvious that 
such a classification is not sufficiently precise to be of value. 

I think there can be no doubt but I have shown that, as first 
stated, the problem is a difficult one, and also that the few efforts 
made toward its solution are of little value, except as showing what 
methods are to be avoided in the future. It remains to be seen if 
anything better can be suggested. I will briefly outline a scheme 
such as been gradually shaping itself in my mind for several years 
past. The subject has been very forcibly impressed upon me in con- 
nection with my duties as curator in the National Museum, and more 
particularly when preparing for exhibition the extensive building- 
stone collection made by the Tenth Census, a partial duplicate of 
which was also prepared under my direction for the American 
Museum in New York City. 

Assume, first, that the stone to be examined is designed for use 
in the exterior walls of a building, subjected to all the vicissitudes of 
our Northern climate, and to only such conditions of pressure and 
strain as exist in any of our government buildings. 

All things considered, it seems best that the experiments be con- 
ducted on two-inch cubes. These should be prepared by sawing 
and grinding, never by hammer and chisel. After drying at a tem- 
perature not exceeding that of boiling water, the ratio of absorption 
should be determined by complete immersion for a period of not less 
than forty-eight hours ; the method, as followed by General Gill- 
more, is sufficiently accurate. The cubes should then be repeatedly 
frozen and thawed while in a saturated condition, and the amount 
of disintegration ascertained by careful weighings. If the stone is a 
fragmental one (sandstone), and it is found to suffer appreciable dis- 
integration by freezing, it may be well to ascertain the loss in strength 
as well. This can be done by crushing the cubes after freezing, and 
while still saturated, and also freshly-prepared cubes not otherwise 
tested. The freezing can be brought about artificially by means of 
such apparatus as is used in making artificial ice. 

The question of durability of color and resistance to atmospheric 
action can be settled only by chemical and microscopic tests. The 
condition of the iron, whether in the form of sulphide, carbonate or 
protoxide, is the main question to be considered. A little can, 
perhaps, be learned by submitting samples to the action of artificial 
atmospheres, samples being suspended for several weeks under bell- 
glasses charged with acid fumes. The resistance to the effects of 
carbonic acid can, perhaps, be best determined as Professor Win- 
chell has done, by placing the samples in a basin of water through 
which carbonic-acid gas is kept bubbling. This test is scarcely 
necessary, except upon calcareous rocks or fragmental rocks with 
calcareous or ferruginous cements. The determination of the modu- 
lus of elasticity as made by processes now in vogue is apparently suffi- 
ciently accurate. When, as may sometimes happen, it is desired to 
ascertain the relative powers of resistance to wear, as in pavements, 
or from wind-blown sand, this can readily be done by means of a 
carefully-regulated sand-blast, such as is used in the Tighhnan process 
of stone-carving. This property might almost equally well be 
learned, however, by observing the manner in which the stone 
worked under the chisel. 

A very essential item in this connection is that the tests be con- 
ducted under the direct supervision of one thoroughly acquainted 
with the mineral and chemical composition of rocks, their structure, 
origin, mode of occurrence, and characteristic manner of weathering. 
A purely theoretical knowledge is valueless, and only one who has 
devoted years of time to the work, both in the laboratory and in the 
field, can hope to deal with the matter successfully. One great diffi- 
culty with all such work is that we are prone to expect too much, to 
obtain immediately results which, in the ordinary course of events, 
can be brought about only by months, and perhaps years, of care- 
ful observation, study and experiment. 



HE reopening of the 
Metropolitan Muse- 
um in December was 
an event of decided in- 
terest in the art-world. 
The new wing having 
doubled the space at its 
command, the Museum 
was able to make an im- 
posing show of its valu- 
able belongings, supple- 
mented by some impor- 
tant loans. 

The casts of Assyrian 
and Greek sculpture 
which decorate the fine 
hall into which the main 
entrance conducts the 
visitor are a welcome ac- 
quisition, though as yet 
not sufficient in number 
to form a representative 
collection. The munifi- 
cence of Mr. Henry G. 
Marquand, one of the 
Trustees, has, however, 
provided means for the 
completion of this depart- 
ment, and casts of the 
most important sculpt- 
u r e s in European mu- 
seums have been pur- 
chased, and will be dis- 
played as soon as space 
can be found for them. 
The collections of Phoeni- 
cian, Greek, Roman, 
Venetian, and Florentine 
glass, also given by Mr. 
Marquand, together with 
that presented by the late James Jackson Jarves, and the ancient 
glass from the Cesnola collection, are now placed in one room, and 
form a most important group, said to be equal to any in the world. 
Be this as it may, there is here a wealth of beauty in form and color 
which is inexhaustible. In the same hall is a fine lot of rare and 
beautiful old laces from Europe and the East, given by the late Mrs. 
John Jacob Astor and Mrs. R. L. Stuart, and costing many thousands 
of dollars. They are placed, with the MacCallum collection of la^es, 
in swinging frames on iron standards. The Museum has lately re- 
ceived a valuable collection of Egyptian antiquities, including many 
sarcophagi and mummies, with numerous smaller objects, found by 
Maspe'ro in 1886. These, or a number of them, are of persons of 
high rank and their burial-cases are richly decorated, the colors on 
some being as bright and fresh as if laid on yesterday. The mum- 
mies and their double cases have been most ingeniously and advan- 
tageously arranged, separately and in different positions, so that 
(aided sometimes by mirrors) one can see not only all around and 
underneath, but inside the cases. As these interiors are often also 
highly ornamented, this is a distinct aid to examining them. Near 
these splendid and curious coffins, in some of which fair and noble 
ladies princesses, perhaps have lain embalmed for tens of cen- 
turies, are frames filled with embroideries and textile fabrics found 
in the Fayum, dating from the second to the eleventh centuries of 
our era, many of them elaborately patterned, and with colors still in 
excellent preservation. The Ward collection of Assyrian and Baby- 
lonian antiquities, such as clay-tablets, seals, cylinders, inscribed 
clay barrels, gold and other ornaments and bronzes, has also been 
acquired and is now on exhibition. An alcove of the lower hall is 
devoted to wrought-iron and other metal-work, and there are a 
number of antique musical instruments, a huge, finely-carved clock 
of English work, dated 1640, two large cabinets, one inlaid with 
Oriental porcelain and various pieces of carved wood, including some 
fine specimens of Frullini's work. The great main hall of the older 
portion of the building is to be devoted to the Willard collection of 
architectural casts, and a large inscription to this effect has been 
put up. A number of them have arrived, and are stored in the 
Museum, and it is hoped that they will be placed in position during 
this winter. In the meantime the floor-space of this hall is vacant, 
but on the faces of the north and south galleries have been placed 
casts from the frieze of the Parthenon, and at one end are hung 
some old tapestries, opposite which Makart's enormous picture of 
" Diana's Hunt," a lately acquired gift, lends its rosy flesh-tints and 
sumptuous color to the spacious hall. 

The Huntington gallery of memorials of Washington, Franklin, 
and Lafayette is an interesting place, where are arranged represen- 
tations and all kinds of souvenirs of these distinguished patriots. 
The paintings, busts, statuettes, medallions, pottery, prints, medals, 
autographs, and many other objects here displayed serve to recall 
their deeds and vivify their memories. The Lamborn collection of 
American antiquities is composed of antique and comparatively 


The American Architect and Building News. [Vot. XXV. No. 686. 

modern idols and fetishes worshipped by the aborigines of New 
Mexico, and objects from Mexico, Central America, Peru, and else 
where. Another room is devoted to gems and objects in preciou: 
metals, and contains the Johnston-King collection of ancient gems 
the Curium treasures from the Cesnola collection ; the Lazarus col 
lection of miniatures ; cases of coins, watches, snuff-boxes, and silver 
ware; and the Maxwell Summerville collection of engraved gems 
pastes, cameos and rings. This is an exceedingly valuable anc 
beautiful gathering, and, by the kindness of the owner, will remain 
on loan with the Museum for several years. Around the walls o 
this the "Gold " room are hung some magnificent Persian rugs 
old tapestries, and pieces of Spanish and Venetian leather, French 
embroidered silks and Genoese velvets, loaned by Mr. Marquand 
The Vanderbilt collection of drawings by the old masters, with a 
large number of similar sketches and studies given in 1887 by the 
artist Cephas G. Thompson (since deceased) has been hung in a 
long gallery on the second floor, with several frames of etchings by 
Haden, Whistler, Jacque and others, given by W. L. Andrews. An 
alcove leading from the gallery holds the Hadden collection of civi 
and military decorations and orders, and here, also, have been hung 
the water-colors by William T. Richards. 

The most popular of the many good things shown reems to be, as 
usual, the modern paintings, two galleries being filled with the 
pictures given by Miss Wolfe; two with the other modern works, in 
eluding such well-advertised canvases as Rosa Bonheur's "Horse 
Fair," Meissonier's "1807," Detaille's "Defence of Champigny' 
and Piloty's " Thusnelda," which are the property of the Museum: 
and one with its old masters, including the large and importani 
example of Sir Joshua Reynolds " The Hon. Henry Fane and his 
Guardians" given by Mr. Junius S. Morgan. Then there is a 
gallery full of loaned modern paintings, and another the Mecca oi 
many a pilgrim of art holding a splendid collection of old masters 
the like of which was never seen in this country before, and which 
was given to the Museum, since its reopening, by Mr. Marquand. 
This makes seven galleries of pictures in all, and, in round numbers, 
five hundred paintings. Mr. Marquand has generously despoiled 
his beautiful house of its choicest paintings and sent them here. 
This gentleman, and his name should be dear to all true art-lovers, 
is one of the very few American collectors Mr. Quincy A. Shaw, 
of Boston, is another who cares to gather any pictures but modern 
ones. He acts in the spirit of those words from one of the discourses 
of Sir Joshua Reynolds, which are inscribed on the walls of England's 
National Gallery : " The works of those who have stood the test of 
ages have a claim to that respect and veneration to which no modern 
can pretend." 

It is an ungracious thing to criticise gifts, but if part of the large 
sums spent upon some of the pictures of the day (and of the day 
only) which have been presented to the Metropolitan Museum, had 
been used to buy good, not necessarily "important," examples of 
the work of the great artists of former centuries, it would be 
much better for everybody. The chief glory of the Marquand 
paintings is the portrait of James Stuart, Duke of Richmond and 
Lennox, by Van Dyck, which hangs at one end of the gallery. It is 
a life-size, full-length representation of a pleasant-faced young 
cavalier, with long, curling, yellow hair, who wears a black dress 
with white silk stockings, and stands easily before us, one hand rest- 
ing on the head of a fine greyhound which looks up into its master's 
face. Van Dyck painted half-a-dozen portraits of this nobleman, 
one (a half-length) being now in the Louvre, and introduced the 
dog in two or three of them. The story is that the youthful Duke 
when travelling on the Continent was preserved from assassination 
by this dog, which slept in his chamber and aroused him from his 
sleep. James Stuart was a favorite courtier and faithful adherent of 
Charles I, whose father and his were cousins, and received many 
favors from the King, which he well repaid. He was hereditary 
Lord Chamberlain and High Admiral of Scotland, was made a 
member of Charles's Privy Council when scarcely twenty-one, and 
appointed Lord Steward of the royal household and Warden of the 
Cinque Ports. He loaned Charles large sums of money ^to help his 
failing cause, and his two younger brothers both entered the royalist 
army and were slain. He lived a few years after the death of the 
King, at whose execution he was present (it is told that he offered to 
suffer death in his cousin's place), and was allowed the privilege of 
burying him. After this, he retired into absolute privacy and died, 
it is said, of the gradual effects of grief, in 1655, being then only 
forty-three years of age. This portrait formerly belonged to Lord 
Methuen, in whose collection at Corsham Court, it was seen and 
described by Dr. Waagen over thirty years ago, and has been 
engraved by Earlom. It displays all the dignity, ease and refine- 
ment which are associated with Van Dyck's courtly sitters, and is a 
superb example of his powers as a portrait-painter. Some one has 
truly said that we cannot judge how much of the romantic interest 
and sympathy with which the subsequent generations have regarded 
the cause of the Stuarts is owing to 'the pictures of them and their 
supporters by Van Dyck. The beautiful hound in this portrait is 
painted as carefully as his master, his affection towards whom being 
admirably represented. An excellent portrait of a lady is also by 
Van Dyck, and by Rubens there is an early work, " Pyramus and 
Thisbe," and a good portrait of a man. Of the Flemish school, also, 
we find a small and minutely finished " Virgin and Child," attributed 
to Jan Van Kyck. 
There is a masterly little portrait of the child Don Batthasar, by 

Velasquez, and a larger one of the Dona Maria Anna, a stolid-look- 
ing young woman, with an enormous head-dress ; and one other 
Spanish picture, a "St. Michael and the Devil," warm and bright in 
color, by Zurbaran. Of the English school, there is a charming 
portrait of Lady Carew, tender and sweet, by Sir Joshua Reynolds ; 
a fine " Young Girl with Cat," by Gainsborough ; and a warm golden- 
brown picture by Turner, showing the little port of " Saltash." 
This was painted about 1812, and Mr. Ruskin praises it as an 
example of perfect truth in the painting of water. Then we come 
to two large landscapes by Constable, " The Valley Farm " and 
" The Lock," both subjects which the artist has made familiar by 
other renderings of them ; a good landscape by " Old " Crome, and 
a beautiful small shore view by Bonington. Only one French artist 
is represented Prud'hon, by a sketch for his large painting of the 
" Assumption " in the Louvre. This once belonged to William M. 
Hunt. Masaccio is the single Italian present, to him being ascribed 
a " Female Head," with a man in a curious red hat, looking through 
a window, the whole in the delightfully quaint early Florentine style 
of portraiture. The Dutch school is shown in portraits, not one of 
which is without its good qualities, and some being excellent, by 
Juriaen Ovens ; Hoogstraten (a man and woman on the same 
canvas); Franz Hals (two pictures), Janssen and Terburg ; in 
landscape, by Ruysdael and Teniers ; and in genre by Teniers, with 
two copies from Bassano, Netscher, Zorg, and an exquisite small 
painting of a "Young Women opening a Casement," by that rare 
and little-known master, Van der Meer of Delft. This is one of the 
gems of the gallery, and it would be an incredible monster of a 
collector who could have congratulated Mr. Marquand upon owing it 
without envying him. 

An " Adoration of the Shepherds," the authorship of which 
is given to Rembrandt, hangs near the grave head of a man 
in a black hat, from Lord Lansdowne's collection, by the same 
great artist, two of whose best portraits are also here. These 
are the portraits of Van Beresteyn, burgomaster of Leyden, and 
his wife, which Mr. Henry O. Ilavemeyer lends to the Museum. 
Discovered a few years ago at a sale of the old portraits belonging to 
the Beresteyn family, in Holland, they were afterwards brought over 
by Messrs. Cottier & Company, who sold them to Mr. Ilavemeyer. 
They are magnificent examples of the great Dutch portrait-painter, 
and are in admirable condition, dated 1632, which, with the master's 
signature, is plainly to be seen on each. The figures are of two- 
thirds length, life-size. These plain, shrewd, honest people, this 
man who has doubtless made a substantial competency in his busi- 
ness, and his careful spouse who has helped him to economize it, 
stand before us made alive again by the marvellous brush of Rem- 

Van Dyck's patrician at the other end of the room and Rem- 
brandt's bourgeois at this, are the select ones of this goodly company 
of pictures. It is perhaps worth noting how nearly alike, and how- 
few and sober are the hues which the painters have used on these 
portraits. Black, white and yellow but what rich harmonies of 
color are the result. 

The list of old masters is closed by a " Christ before Pilate " (in 
distemper) and an " Ecce Homo," both attributed to Lucas Van 
Leyden, and an interesting portrait by a master common to all the 
schools, who has produced innumerable pictures of all kinds good, 
bad and indifferent. His name is "Unknown," and this time he is 
Dutch. All these paintings, save the two Berefteyn portraits, have 
been presented by Mr. Marquand. Several of them, besides the 
Van Dyck, are from the Methuen collection. 

The loaned modern pictures, most of which are lent by that well- 
known collector, Mr. George I. Seney, comprise Stewart's "Hunt 
Hall " ; Laurens's " Repudiation of "Bertha, wife of Robert the 
Pious " ; Delacroix's magnificent sketch for his " Expulsion from 
Eden " (belonging to Mr. Havcmeyer) ; Isabey's " Blessing the 
Hounds," an important Leys ; GeVome's "First Kiss of the Sun" 
(on the Pyramids) ; two examples of Cazin ; Boughton's " Tarn 
O'Shanter," and many more. 

From this review it will be seen how many varied attractions New 
York's Museum now possesses, and it is to be hoped that others, 
among her many rich men, may add their contributions to those so 
generously made by some of their fellow-citizens. 

[Contributors are requested to send with their drawings full and 
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of cost. ~\ 

N. Y. 

[Hello-chrome, issued only with the Imperial Edition.] 




[Isgued only with the Imperial Edition.l 

>0. 656 ^MEI^IGHN iHGHITEGT aND BUILDING ]|EWS, ^EB.l 6 15(59 


O HP!-'-" ' 

w l '>^i^ 










S ; 











K^iHS. .' 

--- K ; \"" 

-. ^ 

Ttie Tlroericai) Tlrclntect arjd Building Pews, February 16, 1339. 

Copyright, 1889, by TICKNOR & Co, 

Do. 636 









s > 

m < 

y m 

? D 





to. 656. 


ConBHJHT lit 




, A1A.S3 

Hdiotype Printing Co.Bostor. - 

MI^GHITEGT ^ND BUILDING HEWS , FEB. ] 6 15 59 J|o. 656. 


Helinviir Pniwig CiBisim. 


FEBRUARST 16, 1889.] TJie American Architect ana Building News. 



tissued only with the Imperial Edition.l 


TTfHE walls are to be built of native limestone, face-work on both 
J I ^ inside and outside, and roof supports of undressed timbers so 
far as possible ; and it is the intention to finish the whole 
interior in as simple a manner as possible consistent with churchly 
effect. The cost of this chapel will be about five thousand dollars, 
and it is intended to be erected on the grounds of the Luray Inn, 
principally for use in the summer by guests thereof. 






TTMONG the numerous blazes that are constantly occurring, 
r\ Chicago has, within the last few months, been the victim of 
/ two, which, with a slight change of hour or circumstance, might 
have been catastrophies. The first occurred in the early part of 
December at the Chicago Opera-house. The performance here had 
scarcely been finished fifteen minutes, and the actors were still in the 
building, when an alarm of fire was given, and although this estab- 
lishment is advertised and described on every programme and poster 
as being " the only absolutely fireproof theatre in the city," still in 
less than an hour all the auditorium was a complete wreck either by 
fire or water. This opera-house is not a building by itself, but 
occupies the lower stories of the court of a large office-building. The 
reason for such a location is that the laws of the State of Illinois are 
such that a charter to build an office-building pure and simple, 
cannot be obtained. As a result all sorts of expedients are resorted 
to, in order to obtain charters for those syndicates that desire to build 
such buildings, and probably the large majority of them are incor- 
porated as safety-deposit companies, although the safe-vault, if it 
exists at all, consists of a closet in which is stored a trunk containing 
a watch or two. Owing to this law a syndicate was formed to build 
an opera-house, although the opera-house itself was but a small part 
of the plan since the building is ten-stories high, while the theatre, 
as mentioned above, onlv occupies the space in a few lower stories 
that above becomes the court, from which many offices obtain their 
light. The office-building is undoubtedly fireproof, and possibly it was 
originally intended that the theatre should be so also, but it certainly 
did not prove such when the fire broke out. This fire, which started 
in an upper gallery, was apparently due to some defect in the electric- 
light plant, but the exact how and why does not seem to be really 
known, although numerous positive theories are not wanting. But, 
as is usual in theatre fires, in an incredibly short time the building 
was filled with smoke. Actors fled leaving their wardrobes a prey 
to the flames or the deluge of the fire-department. The inaccessibility 
of the building obliged the firemen to work slowly, but the amount 
of damage caused by the flames was small in comparison with that 
caused by the water, since every nook and corner was soaked. 
Although the money-loss was considerable, the work of repairs was 
at once commenced, and the theatre was again in full blast within 
three weeks. It is noticeable, however, that the legend "absolutely 
fireproof " has now been changed to " fireproof " ; hut it would seem 
to be extremely questionable if even such an announcement should 
be permitted by the authorities, since, in the ordinarily received 
sense, the theatre is evidently not fireproof, and such an advertise- 
ment is only calculated to deceive the people, and in case of another 
accident might lead to more disastrous results than if the actual 
truth were not concealed, and each one was on his guard against a 
panic. Had this fire occurred only a few minutes earlier the 
casualties must have been numerous, and the whole city congratulates 
itself on the fact that such a disaster did not take place Upon ex- 
amination by architects it was found that this so-called and much 
advertised " absolutely fireproof " theatre had an attic which, with 

the exception of a few girders, was entirely of wood, just the same 
as the cheapest theatre in the city. Moreover, the gallery was 
practically a wooden construction, owing to the fact that from the 
original gallery built on iron framework a sight of the stage was 
absolutely impossible from many parts, and in order to remedy this 
a wooden construction was built on top of the old gallery until the 
desired si<*ht-lines were secured ; all of which seems to have resulted 
in something very inflammable. The repairs, so far as known to your 
correspondent, seem to have been of about the same character as the 
old construction ; but still the building is advertised as " fireproof." 

The second escape that we have had from a calamity was a fire in 
one of the highest, largest, and finest apartment-houses on the North 
Side. The building, seven stories high, constructed especially with 
a view to please the eye, with a stone front, elaborate entrance, 
marble wainscoting, natural-wood finish and hard-wood floors in the 
apartments, but otherwise of a rather flimsy construction, caught fire 
in the attic one morning about seven o'clock. Many of the occu- 
pants were still abed : they hastened to arise, however, and several 
of them went forth in garments scarcely adapted to a cool winter's 
morning. The fire had made considerable progress when first dis- 
covered, and this attic, being occupied as store-rooms by the occu- 
pants of the flats below, was filled with much that was light and in- 
flammable, so that it burned right merrily. Although the fire-engines 
were promptly on the ground, the height was so great that even 
" siamesing " a stream from two engines had little effect, and it 
was necessarily some time, comparatively speaking, before the proper 
long ladders, hose, etc., could be arranged to work at such a great 
height. By this time the fire had worked down, so that the upper 
story was smoking vigorously, but, when the streams once got to 
work, the deluge was such that the fire soon succumbed, but the 
drenching with dirty water that the apartments below received as 
the liquid gradually filtered through from one floor to another was 
something appalling. One person was injured by jumping from a 
window, but otherwise there were no casualties. Had the fire 
occurred lower down, so that it could have taken advantage of the 
elevator-shafts and worked both up and down, there would in all 
probability have been one less " elegant apartment-building " in the 
city ; while, had the stairways been cut off, as probably would have 
been the case, the loss of life in such a high building might have 
been very serious. 

The subject of an architectural school, or, at least, some kind of 
an extended course in architectural drawing at the Art Institute, is 
receiving considerable attention in the daily papers, and eventually 
something may come of it, although at present it docs not seem 
probable that any very definite action will be taken for some con- 
siderable length of time. This agitation has been brought about 
principally by the generous action of Mr. Robert Clark, who has given 
the Chicago Architectural Sketch Club the sum of one thousand 
dollars, the interest of which is each year to be devoted to medals 
for the best work, and he has stated that he will give considerably 
more if a school is started. Several other gentlemen have intimated 
a willingness to imitate Mr. Clark's example, so that when the 
matter is brought to a head, funds will probably not be lacking. 

The outlook for building the coming season, if one may now judge 
by what architects say, is that there will be fully as many pieces of 
work as last year, but the number of extremely heavy and large con- 
structions, especially office-buildings, appears to be somewhat limited : 
there will, however, be several important buildings of a semi-public 
character, such as libraries, that will undoubtedly be commenced 
during the next twelve months, while an unusually large number of 
fine residences are already on the boards. 

During the past few months Chicago has been favored, as never 
before, with art displays in all directions and of all kinds and it is 
extremely remarkable to note the extraordinary growth of popular 
interest during the past year alone, in all art questions. We are 
getting so fully satisfied with our own appreciation of art, and this 
artistic spirit is so rapidly growing and developing in every one that 
it seems a perfect matter of course that the Vcrestchagin collection 
should come here direct from New York before being exhibited at 
the other Eastern cities. 

The first important display of the season was a collection of old 
Dutch and Flemish paintings belonging to Mr. Louis Ehrich. This 
exhibit contains some two hundred paintings, and although there are 
few canvases by the great masters, still it contains many extremely 
good things of this period and gives as perfect an idea of the art of 
Holland and Flanders as many of the smaller museums of Europe, 
and as an exhibit of these schools, which had never before been at 
all fully exhibited here, it attracted great attention. Especially on 
the free days the rooms were crowded. 

The Dutch pictures were followed by a small collection of the old 
Italian masters, which in their turn were much admired and now 
they have given place to the most remarkable exhibition ever yet 
shown to the Chicago public at the Art Institute, in the collection of 
the famous Russian, Verestchagin. This was opened to the public on 
February 1, and has ever since been thronged. 

To the disappointment of many the artist, himself, does not come 
to Chicago, still the pictures were hung by his regular assistants who 
have licerally taken possession of the Institute. The noble Greek 
and Roman gentleman (in plaster) have been unceremoniously hustled 
off into back rooms to allow for the proper display of this collection, 
while the few casts that could not be moved have been covered with 
drapery until entirely concealed. The manner of arranging the 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 686. 

exhibit savors possibly a little of the panorama with its little tricks of 
effect, but the result is so very satisfactory as scarcely to make one 
wish that it were otherwise. The huge rugs, duplicated for the 
artist from those now in temples in India, are draped upon all sides 
with bits of Oriental armor, so that the servants in Russian costume, 
and the tea served from a samovar does not possibly seem entirely 
out of place with the surroundings. 

If Verestchagin excelled in no other department he certainly would 
always be marvellous as a painter of architectural subjects and his 
views of the Taj, and some of the mosques of India together with 
his scenes of the Kremlin, at Moscow, are wonderful revelations of 
the beauty of those monuments. At the same time that this collection 
is before the public at the Art Institute, the Chicago Artists' Club is 
giving an exhibition of the work of its members during the past 
year, and the result is certainly a credit to those painters who have 
their studios in Chicago. 

Besides these various displays, there have also been in the course of 
the winter several fine exhibits in the salesroom galleries, any of 
which would have been considered a treat a few years ago. Then, 
not only are the painters busy but the sculptors' studios all seem 
unusually full of work of a high order of merit, and bronze statues 
and bas reliefs are now being cast here for some of the most impor- 
tant sculptural work in the West. 

As mentioned some time since in one of these letters, it was de- 
cided to try the plan of having Sunday opening of the collections of 
the Institute. This has now been in operation for nearly three 
months, and the results have been most satisfactory, and in some 
respects surprisingly so, for the experiment has been tried of ex- 
hibiting without any railing or signs of "hands off," and up to the 
present the authorities have had no cause to regret this step. In 
one point, however, there is possibly a little disappointment : it was 
hoped that the poorer working-classes would especially take advan- 
tage of the day and the fact that no admission-fee "was charged. 
Such, however, does not appear to have been the case, for the crowd 
consists mainly of the rather well-to-do class, who possibly cannot, 
but certainly think they cannot get away from business upon a week- 
day, so that the visitors are generally well-dressed and well-behaved. 
For some time a number of Chicago capitalists have been negotiat- 
ing with parties at Richmond, Va., for the purchase of the ofd and 
historic Libby Prison, and the business has now been closed. The 
building will at once be taken down in sections, each carefully 
numbered and shipped to Chicago, where it is to be re-erected and 
used as a war-museum. Whether it will be a financial success or 
not, architects will be decidedly interested to watch the construction 
as it proceeds, for, of all the curious building operations at Chicago, 
this will assuredly be the most remarkable one during the coming 
six months. 



HAT there are better days in store for the 
profession, and that we stand to-day upon 
the threshold, none but the hardened 
pessimist can doubt. The tendencies shown in architectural dis- 
cussions both public and private, the positions taken by the daily 
papers and by the more intelligent laymen regarding our work and 
our position, all confirm the progress made within th last dozen 
years and are assuredly full of promise for the future. 

The great trouble in our past history has been such as is inevitably 
associated with the growth and development of any new and far- 
reaching factor in our already complex civilization, and the peculiar 
position of the architect making him both artist and engineer, both 
judge and advocate, has helped to retard our progress towards 
assured recognition. The architect of but a short generation ago 
had to justify his very right to exist, and his clients came to him, if 
they came at all, with an uneasy consciousness that they were in- 
dulging in an extravagance ; deep down in their minds lurked 
analogies, drawn perhaps from political campaign literature, anent 
republican simplicity and the effete despotisms of Europe. The 
architect seemed to them in someway associated with riotous living, 
with the Baron Haussman and the Third Empire. This attitude on 
the part of the client was fostered and prolonged, indeed it still lives 
to a degree, by a variety of influences actively working within the 
profession itself. The first American architects, to except the very 
few notable but isolated instances in our earliest history, began their 
careers well within the memory of men now living and practising ; 
before their time, architect and master-builder were practically 
synonymous terms and had identical functions. The only training 
then attainable was to be had only in Paris or in London, and with 
the influences of that training and, perhaps, some European travels 
fresh upon him our architect wai thrown upon a community more 

self-centred, more intent upon the immediate dollar and less open to 
the softening influences of the artistic amenities of life than any so- 
ciety of equal worth ever known. They were obliged to battle for 
recognition almost alone, mistrusted by their nominal associates the 
master-builders, distrusted by the public and stigmatized as mere 
theorists. In spite of all they triumphed, and not the least of their 
achievements was the training of scores of devoted and enthusiastic 
younger men, inspiring them with their own love for their chosen 
profession, and instilling into them by precept and example the deter- 
mination to do the best that was in them to do. 

But both master and pupil felt the influences of environment, and, 
of necessity, emulated the reed rather than the oak in their relations 
with the public. Under the necessity of compromising with their 
ideals (let us hope not with their consciences) in order to meet the 
demands of their clients, who did not understand their position and 
grudgingly admitted their utility, the architects had to throw over the 
traditions learned abroad, or growing up out of the building trades 
had no traditions of professional life, and thus lacking a clearly ex- 
pressed and definite purpose all their attempts at united action were 
at first feeble, halting and inefficient. There was little besides the 
individual effort, and the personal example of isolated enthusiasts to 
recreate a body of traditions that would be adapted to their sur- 
roundings and would carry the force of law both within the pro- 
fession itself and to the wider public. The marvel is that so much 
has been done by so small a group in so few years. 

To-day the battle is practically won, and hereafter we shall 
look back upon the fusion of the American Institute of Architects 
with the Western Association as marking the close of the era of 
the struggle for existence, and the opening of the new era of 
assured recognition. 

That this is not too hopeful a view to take may be shown by many 
instances, some of the most conclusive of which are marked by the 
entirely unconscious acceptance by the public, and by the architects 
of tenets that were not long ago disputed. 

As slender straws showing this unconscious drift, yet convincii'g 
to any one looking back, it may be mentioned that the names of the 
architects appeared in the New York daily papers six times within a 
week, in connection with buildings built or to be built ; that in the 
new and progressive districts about West End Avenue and the 
Riverside Drive, the names of the architects are commonly used by 
the real-estate agents to give added value to the really very cleverly 
designed speculative houses (as distinguishing them from the houses 
built to be occupied by the builder). During a long morning's stroll 
through this same district, only one watchman was found, though 
there may be others, who did not know who designed the houses he 
was in charge of, and he developed unmistakable traces of a blush, 
obviously at his lamentable ignorance. 

To turn to more serious signs, let us note, with a word of grateful 
acknowledgment, the splendid services rendered to the profession by 
the Century Magazine and Mrs. Van Rensselaer, and by several 
other well-known periodicals. One need not doubt their entire 
sincerity, and yet see that their talents are turned in our direction in 
answer to a demand on the part of their readers. 

The Architectural League particularly, and the many other 
kindred associations, sketch-clubs and T-square clubs springing up 
and flourishing in many of the larger cities, bear this same uncon- 
scious testimony to the fact that the position of architecture is 
recognized, and the period of struggle is being lost sight of. 

The complex grows out of the simpler form, and the League thus 
shows its progressive tendency in that it is not simply an association 
of architects or draughtsmen, but has brought together the followers 
of architecture and of the allied arts. The election at the last 
annual meeting of Mr. Russell Sturgis as President and Mr. E. H. 
Blashfield as Vice-President, both being notably representative men, 
most felicitously marks this blending of kindred pursuits. The 
League is rapidly increasing in numbers and influence, and it is 
pleasant to note a growing breadth, earnestness and enthusiasm pro- 
portionate to its increasing scope and influence. There is, also, a 
tendency to give public expression to its opinions upon pertinent 
questions of public interest in a manly and properly assertive way, 
as in the protests against the terms of the competitions for the Grant 
Monument and the city buildings. 

There has been in the past rather too little of this collective 
assertiveness, even where questions intimately affecting rights 
and duties were at stake. This has been due partly to the lack of 
fixed traditions, as outlined above ; partly, perhaps, to the fact that the 
quasi-judicial position of the architect, as between the client and the 
contractor, influences his mental attitude, and leads him to weigh 
carefully both sides of every question, and to prefer, where rights 
conflict, the judicial attitude to that of the advocate. 

To these same causes may be ascribed the fact that many 
architects have been surprised to find, and many have yet to discover, 
what is, nevertheless, true, and that is that the average client has no 
definite desire to trample him underfoot or to subject him to humili- 
ating conditions, but acts either from simple ignorance of the archi- 
tect's complex position, or from having been misled by the question- 
able methods in the practice of other architects, whose pride or 
whose backs were over-weak. In numerous instances, a temperate 
explanation of the duties involved, and a firm insistence upon the 
consideration due, have been accepted by the client in the spirit in 
which it was offered, and relations of mutual confidence and respect 
have ensued and continued. 






cs ^ 









FEBRUARY 16, 1889.] 

The American Architect and Building News. 


Professor Ware made the interesting announcement at the last 
League dinner that the first instalment of casts purchased under the 
Willard Trust had arrived at the Metropolitan Museum, and would 
soon be on exhibition. It seems that we owe what promises to be 
a most complete and invaluable collection of casts of architectural 
works to the efforts of Mr. Pierre Le Brun, who persuaded Mr. 
Willard to thus dispose in his will of a fortune of some eighty 
thousand dollars. A commission was named, consisting of the Le 
Bruns, father and son, and Messrs. Littell and Bloor, to expend this 
amount in the selecting, purchasing, and placing in the Metropolitan 
Museum of plaster reproductions of architectural works and details. 
Mr. Pierre Le Brun has visited all the places in Europe where such 
casts are to be had, and has succeeded in making a most interesting 
selection, which includes many subjects not before accessible and 
other interesting features. 

A model of the Parthenon is being made at a scale that will make 
it about, ten feet long and five feet wide, with all the sculptures re- 
duced from the original marbles. This work is in charge of Mons. 
Chipiez, the well-known French architect and archaeologist, who will 
also superintend the coloring of this model in accordance with the 
traces of color discovered by his researches. The 120 cases of casts 
now at the Museum represent the expenditure of only one-quarter of 
the fund. 

What with the bequests of splendid paintings of past and present 
schools, made by Miss Wolfe, Mr. Marquand and others, this bequest 
of Mr. Willard's, and the considerable extension of the Museum 
building, New York will now begin to take the rank her wealth 
entitles her to, or, at the least, she need no longer blush at her utter 




'!> TO THAT a capital subject for an inci- 
-' JLM. dent in "Martin Chuzzlewit" 

in " Mar, 

would have been "a competition 
for a public building of some small 
country-town," were the book being written now. How Dickens 
would have relished the humor of a dozen or so all-impor- 
tant village authorities the rector, the wardens, and a few of the 
richer men of the parish beaming with self-satisfaction and radiant 
with complacency as they sit round the vestry-table and pass a reso- 
lution of invitation to all the architects of neighboring cities to 
compete for a fifteen-hundred-dollar school-room. Perhaps the 
rector often the only gentlemen in the place is not always to 
blame, overruled, as he is often overawed, by the loud vulgarity of a 
turbulent subscriber. He, poor man, has to submit and share the 
ridicule that such a company would call down upon itself from the 
humorous author. 

Three invitations of this character have been in circulation re- 
cently. When publicly advertised, the invitation is clothed with a 
certain amount of decency, borrowed from the respectability of the 
press; but, when sent through the post, the true character of the 
people the competitor would have to deal with betrays itself. A bit 
of foolscap-paper, roughly torn off, just large enough to contain the 
words of the resolution, badly written by an office-boy, enclosed with 
a note from the secretary of the committee, who signs his surname 
without initials, as if he were " my lord." Such is the amusing com- 
mencement usually. 

An invitation that should have a more respectable stamp about it 
comes from a cathedral-owning town in Ontario. The charm about 
it is the innocence of the committee, " who will be happy to receive 
suggestions or plans for proposed alterations to the cathedral, pro- 
vided they are submitted free of cost." This dear committee expects 
architects to travel three hundred miles, spend a day or so examin- 
ing and measuring, and then to submit plans and suggestions on the 
chance of getting a job, <; free of cost." In another competition for a 
$75,000 building, the architect whose plan is approved will be mag- 
nanimously presented with a check for $250. For this handsome 
remuneration he is to supply working-drawings and specification, 
and the whole will become the property of the committee. This 
may be considered a pretty good specimen, but yet there is one 
more, really very beautiful in its conception : a small hospital is 
required, the cost not to exceed $7,000 ; the requirements are all 
that is necessary and that can be put in for the money, but, say the 
"conditions," "any design showing that this accommodation can be 
supplied for a less sum will have the preference." The grammar, as 
well as the sentiment, is truly noble. 

At a recent meeting of the Toronto Architectural Guild, the exe- 
cutive committee was empowered to deal with such competitions as 
it might think fit on its own responsibility, without reference to 
the Guild, the intention being to instruct these committees " in the 

way in which they should go." The question was raised as to why 
it was that the conditions did not ask for a subscription towards the 
buildings, to be forwarded by competing architects, together with 
their designs. The tariff question before the Toronto Guild had to 
be held over from the last meeting on account of press of other busi- 
ness. It was decided that the committee's report, which was read, 
should be printed and submitted to each member, and a special night 
appointed for the discussion of the matter. A matter of such great 
importance deserves and requires some time for its elucidation. 
Whatever is done must be done unanimously. 

The Canadian Architect and Builder publishes with the January 
number an illustration of the design for the Provincial Parliament- 
House of Ontario, by Messrs. Darling & Curry, and gives in its 
letter-press an account of the reprehensible proceedings of the com- 
mittee on the competition. It appears that the authors of the 
drawing published were awarded the first position, but the expert 
who judged the designs " did not consider them entitled to a 
premium because the limit of cost had been exceeded." A second 
competition was entered into, the result of which was that working- 
drawings, specifications, and details were prepared for this design 
and for the first premiated design. Tenders were obtained, and the 
premiated design came out at $542,000, and this one at $612,- 
000. Both were Canadian firms. However, the Government would 
not proceed with the works because of the cost. Ultimately, they 
obtained a vote of $750,000, and submitted the two designs to Mr. 
R. A. Waite, of Buffalo, who was to decide on their relative merits. 
The result was, both designs were thrown out, and Mr. Waite was 
employed to prepare designs of his own for the building, which are 
now being proceeded with. The first contract let exceeds the appro- 
priation for the entire building ($750,000). 

The competition for the Toronto Board of Trade block of offices 
was decided on January 26 at a meeting of the Property Committee. 
Professor Ware returned three sets of designs with his report, and 
the decision remained with the Committee as to which of the three 
should be accepted. Nineteen sets were sent in, two-fifths of these 
being from architects in the States ; the rest being from local archi- 
tects. Messrs. James & James, of New York, are the successful 
men ; the four invited competitors, two Canadians and two Ameri- 
cans, receiving each $400 for their designs. Messrs. James & James 
are Englishmen, who opened their offices in New York about two 
years ago, and their design is very prettily got up in pen-and-ink, 
though it is a matter of considerable doubt as to whether it can be 
carried out for the stipulated sum $200,000. The Committee can 
hardly be said to have made the best choice, for the authors of this 
design appear to be little acquainted with requirements of a city such 
as Toronto, with regard to the office-rooms, or with the climate in 
reference to the heating-apparatus. Light in the corridors, elevators, 
back offices and main staircase, except as may be provided arti- 
ficially, is apparently considered unnecessary, our bright Canadian 
climate being accredited with powers which it hardly possesses, 
such of going round corners and along long, narrow passages, 
shining through walls three feet thick, and beautifully illumi- 
nating offices and water-closets at the bottom of a well, enclosed 
with solid brick walls to, at least, fifty feet of its height. Neither 
are Canadians supposed to have nasal organs of very good 
quality, as some twenty-five water-closets and an equal number of 
urinals ventilate into the area which lights two offices and the stair- 
case on every floor. Perhaps a description of this building may be 
wearisome to non-competitors, but so much interest has been shown 
not only by architects in the City of Toronto but by architects 
generally in the Dominion, and the people, especially of the Pro- 
vince, that for the benefit of those unable to see the drawings a few 
words may be acceptable. The Secretary tells me that several 
matters of detail will be reconsidered : as, for instance, the excessive 
size of the restaurant in the basement ; the want of space for coal and 
the heating-apparatus; the arrangements of the banking-room which 
afford far too small a place for clerks and give too much for the 
public ; the awkward arrangement of putting the secretary's office 
(on the Board of Trade floor) at a considerable distance from his 
clerk's room, and half-a-dozen such items which, it rather strikes an 
outsider, should have been considered before the design was accepted. 
A member of the Board of Trade remarked to me when I was look- 
ing at the drawings, that for his part he thought it a very unsatis- 
factory arrangement that the vaults for the use of tenants should be 
entirely separate from the offices, and cut off from them by public 
passages into which they open, being carried up in one stack, in, as 
nearly as possible, the centre of the building, necessitating long 
journeys on the part of tenants, with armfuls of papers and books 
along the public corridors, attended by a clerk to open the vault, 
light the necessary gas-lamp and close it up fast again after every 
visit to it, with perhaps a new " combination " every time. The 
building contains between forty and fifty offices only ; a small 
number compared with some of the other designs, and all the rooms 
are about twenty feet deep, except such as may be shortened some 
three feet or so by cupboards and closets. The main hall of the 
Board of Trade suite of rooms is circular on plan, fifty feet in 
diameter, entailing a number of three-cornered spaces which have 
been worked in as closets in every direction. Externally, the design 
is good, in what we may call the present 'American style of bold- 
features; the lower floors having heavy horizontal lintels, and the 
upper semi-circular heads; but the treatment of these upper stories 
runs into Gothic, with gables over each window of the Board of 


The American Architect and Building News. [VOL. XXV. No. 686. 

Trade rotunda. There is a high pitched roof at the corner of the 
site over the rotunda, with an open turret for a finial. 

The three designs returned by the Professor to the Committee 
were by Messrs. Darling & Curry, Messrs. Helliwell & Jordon and 
the accepted one. The two former firms are both of Toronto, and as 
has been said the authors of the accepted design are English. For a 
long time the design by Messrs. Darling & Curry hung in the 
balance with that of Messrs. James & James, it is still doubtful, 
whether, after all, their design may not be carried out. There is 
still the question of cost, which, it is possible when tenders are 
received, may throw out the accepted design. 



J has at last accom- 
plished the difficult task 
which he began last 
season. He has suc- 
ceeded in forcing an en- 
trance into the sepul- 
chral chamber of the 
Pyramid of Amenemliat 
HI. at Hawara, in the 
Fayum. In our last re- 
p o r t of Mr. Petrie's 
work, we related how 
he had tunnelled a pas- 
sage from the north face 
of the pyramid as far as 
the stone casing of the 
central chamber, which 
proved to be enormously 
massive and resisted all 
his efforts. The sum- 
mer was then so far 
advanced and the heat 
had become so over- 
whelming that he found 
himself compelled, very 
reluctantly, to postpone 
the completion of his 
operations till the pre- 
sent winter. Returning 
to Egypt in November 
last, Mr. Petrie at once 
went back to Hawara, 
and began by making 
trial excavations at vari- 
ous points round the 
base of the pyramid, in 
the hope of discovering 
the original entrance. 
Failinsc in these at- 
tempts, he decided to call in the assistance of skilled masons from 
Cairo, and quarry down through the roof of the central chamber, 
which he had already reached last season. The fact that the roof is 
fifteen feet thick and that it has taken Mr. Petrie's masons some 
three weeks to cut a very small vertical shaft through it, gives some 
notion of the massiveness of the structure. Once in, the secret of 
the true entrance-passage was disclosed, and the explorer was free to 
track the path by which he might have made his way into the central 
chamber had he but succeeded in finding the point from which it 
started. That point proves to be outside the pyramid, and ap- 
parently at some distance from it ; so that the tomb of the founder 
may have been entered from the adjoining Labyrinth, the site of 
which was identified last year by Mr. Petrie. This may, in fact, be 
what Herodotus intended to convey when he said, " At the corner of 
the Labyrinth stands a pyramid forty fathoms high, with large 
figures engraved < n it ; which is entered by a subterranean-passage " 
(Book II, chapter 148). 

Entry from a distance, by means of a subterranean-passage, is a 
novelty in construction, and has no precedent in any of the Ghizeh 
pyramids (fourth dynasty), nor yet in those of the sixth dynasty, of 
which so many were recently opened at Sakkarah. This, indeed, is 
the first time that the plan of a royal tomb of the twelfth dynasty 
has been laid open, and it differs very considerably from the plan 
observed by the architects of the ancient Empire. The Great 
Pyramid and all the other pyramids of the Ghizeh group, the 
pyramid of Meydum and the Sakkarah pyramids have the entrance- 
passage in the centre of the north face of the structure, and at some 
height from the level of the desert ; but the pyramid of Amenemliat 
III is entered from the south side, and by an opening, not in the 
middle of the side, but at about one-fourth of the distance from the 
southwest corner. It is here that the subterranean-passage, from 
whatever point conducted, strikes the south face of the structure. 
The ups and downs of the passages in the earlier pyramids are not 
many, and the obstacles placed in the way of possible intruders con- 
sist chiefly of a series of masfive granite portcullises, let down from 
above, after the mummy had been deposited in its last resting-place ; 
but the defences of the pyramid of Amenemhat III are of a different 

kind, and more nearl